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Spatiotemporal Analysis Of Air Pollution And Its Application In Public Health

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Spatiotemporal Analysis of Air Pollution and Its Application in Public Health

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Air Pollution and Its Application in Public Health Book
Author : Lixin Li,Xiaolu Zhou,Weitian Tong
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2019-11-13
ISBN : 012816526X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Air Pollution and Its Application in Public Health reviews, in detail, the tools needed to understand the spatial temporal distribution and trends of air pollution in the atmosphere, including how this information can be tied into the diverse amount of public health data available using accurate GIS techniques. By utilizing GIS to monitor, analyze and visualize air pollution problems, it has proven to not only be the most powerful, accurate and flexible way to understand the atmosphere, but also a great way to understand the impact air pollution has in diverse populations. This book is essential reading for novices and experts in atmospheric science, geography and any allied fields investigating air pollution. Introduces readers to the benefits and uses of geo-spatiotemporal analyses of big data to reveal new and greater understanding of the intersection of air pollution and health Ties in machine learning to improve speed and efficacy of data models Includes developing visualizations, historical data, and real-time air pollution in large geographic areas

Forecasting in Mathematics

Forecasting in Mathematics Book
Author : Abdo Abou Jaoude
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2021-01-27
ISBN : 1838808256
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mathematical probability and statistics are an attractive, thriving, and respectable part of mathematics. Some mathematicians and philosophers of science say they are the gateway to mathematics’ deepest mysteries. Moreover, mathematical statistics denotes an accumulation of mathematical discussions connected with efforts to most efficiently collect and use numerical data subject to random or deterministic variations. Currently, the concept of probability and mathematical statistics has become one of the fundamental notions of modern science and the philosophy of nature. This book is an illustration of the use of mathematics to solve specific problems in engineering, statistics, and science in general.

Models and Technologies for Smart Sustainable and Safe Transportation Systems

Models and Technologies for Smart  Sustainable and Safe Transportation Systems Book
Author : Stefano de Luca,Roberta Di Pace,Chiara Fiori
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2021-07-28
ISBN : 1838808027
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Innovative and smart mobility systems are expected to make transportation systems more sustainable, inclusive, and safe. Because of changing mobility paradigms, transport planning and design require different methodological approaches. Over twelve chapters, this book examines and analyzes Mobility as a Service (MaaS), travel behavior, traffic control, intelligent transportation system design, electric, connected, and automated vehicles, and much more.

Deep Learning Applications in Medical Imaging

Deep Learning Applications in Medical Imaging Book
Author : Saxena, Sanjay,Paul, Sudip
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2020-10-16
ISBN : 1799850722
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Before the modern age of medicine, the chance of surviving a terminal disease such as cancer was minimal at best. After embracing the age of computer-aided medical analysis technologies, however, detecting and preventing individuals from contracting a variety of life-threatening diseases has led to a greater survival percentage and increased the development of algorithmic technologies in healthcare. Deep Learning Applications in Medical Imaging is a pivotal reference source that provides vital research on the application of generating pictorial depictions of the interior of a body for medical intervention and clinical analysis. While highlighting topics such as artificial neural networks, disease prediction, and healthcare analysis, this publication explores image acquisition and pattern recognition as well as the methods of treatment and care. This book is ideally designed for diagnosticians, medical imaging specialists, healthcare professionals, physicians, medical researchers, academicians, and students.

Integration of Satellite Remote Sensing and Ground based Measurement for Modelling the Spatiotemporal Distribution of Fine Particulate Matter at a Regional Scale

Integration of Satellite Remote Sensing and Ground based Measurement for Modelling the Spatiotemporal Distribution of Fine Particulate Matter at a Regional Scale Book
Author : Jie Tian
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Accurate information on the spatial-temporal distributions of air pollution at a regional scale is crucial for effective air quality control, as well as to impact studies on local climate and public health. The current practice of mapping air quality relies heavily on data from monitoring stations, which are often quite sparse and irregularly spaced. The research presented in this dissertation seeks to advance the methodologies involved in spatiotemporal analysis of air quality that integrates remotely-sensed data and in situ measurement. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) is analyzed to estimate fine particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations as the target air pollutant. The spatial-temporal distribution of columnar aerosol loading is investigated through mapping MODIS AOD in southern Ontario, Canada throughout 2004. Clear distribution patterns and strong seasonality are found for the study area. There is a detectable relationship between an AOD level and underlying land use structure and topography on the ground. MODIS AOD was correlated with the ground-level PM2.5 concentration (GL-[PM2.5]) at various wavelengths. The AOD-PM2.5 correlation is found to be sensitive to spatial-temporal scale changes. Further, a semi-empirical model has been developed for a more accurate prediction of GL-[PM2.5]. The model employs MODIS AOD data, assimilated meteorological fields, and ground-based meteorological measurements and is able to explain 65% of the variability in GL-[PM2.5]. To achieve a more accurate and informative spatiotemporal modelling of GL-[PM2.5], a method is proposed that integrates the model-predictions and in situ measurements in the framework of Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) analysis. A case study of southern Ontario demonstrates the procedures of the method and support for its advantages by comparison with conventional geostatistical approaches. The BME estimation, coupled with BME posterior variance, can be used to depict GL-[PM2.5] distribution in a stochastic context. The methodologies covered in this work are expected to be applicable to the modelling or analysis of other types of air pollutant concentrations.

Human Mobility Spatiotemporal Context and Environmental Health Recent Advances in Approaches and Methods

Human Mobility  Spatiotemporal Context  and Environmental Health  Recent Advances in Approaches and Methods Book
Author : Mei-Po Kwan
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2019-07-12
ISBN : 3039211838
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental health researchers have long used concepts like the neighborhood effect to assessing people’s exposure to environmental influences and the associated health impact. However, these are static notions that ignore people’s daily mobility at various spatial and temporal scales (e.g., daily travel, migratory movements, and movements over the life course) and the influence of neighborhood contexts outside their residential neighborhoods. Recent studies have started to incorporate human mobility, non-residential neighborhoods, and the temporality of exposures through collecting and using data from GPS, accelerometers, mobile phones, various types of sensors, and social media. Innovative approaches and methods have been developed. This Special Issue aims to showcase studies that use new approaches, methods, and data to examine the role of human mobility and non-residential contexts on human health behaviors and outcomes. It includes 21 articles that cover a wide range of topics, including individual exposure to air pollution, exposure and access to green spaces, spatial access to healthcare services, environmental influences on physical activity, food environmental and diet behavior, exposure to noise and its impact on mental health, and broader methodological issues such as the uncertain geographic context problem (UGCoP) and the neighborhood effect averaging problem (NEAP). This collection will be a valuable reference for scholars and students interested in recent advances in the concepts and methods in environmental health and health geography.

Geospatial Analysis of Environmental Health

Geospatial Analysis of Environmental Health Book
Author : Juliana A. Maantay,Sara McLafferty
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-03-18
ISBN : 9400703295
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book focuses on a range of geospatial applications for environmental health research, including environmental justice issues, environmental health disparities, air and water contamination, and infectious diseases. Environmental health research is at an exciting point in its use of geotechnologies, and many researchers are working on innovative approaches. This book is a timely scholarly contribution in updating the key concepts and applications of using GIS and other geospatial methods for environmental health research. Each chapter contains original research which utilizes a geotechnical tool (Geographic Information Systems (GIS), remote sensing, GPS, etc.) to address an environmental health problem. The book is divided into three sections organized around the following themes: issues in GIS and environmental health research; using GIS to assess environmental health impacts; and geospatial methods for environmental health. Representing diverse case studies and geospatial methods, the book is likely to be of interest to researchers, practitioners and students across the geographic and environmental health sciences. The authors are leading researchers and practitioners in the field of GIS and environmental health.

Spatial Analysis in Health Geography

Spatial Analysis in Health Geography Book
Author : Pavlos Kanaroglou,Eric Delmelle
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2016-03-09
ISBN : 1317051580
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Presenting current research on spatial epidemiology, this book covers topics such as exposure, chronic disease, infectious disease, accessibility to health care settings and new methods in Geographical Information Science and Systems. For epidemiologists, and for the management and administration of health care settings, it is critical to understand the spatial dynamics of disease. For instance, it is crucial that hospital administrators develop an understanding of the flow of patients over time, especially during an outbreak of a particular disease, so they can plan for appropriate levels of staffing and to carry out adaptive prevention measures. Furthermore, understanding where and why a disease occurs at a certain geographic location is vital for decision makers to formulate policy to increase the accessibility to health services (either by prevention, or adding new facilities). Spatial epidemiology relies increasingly on new methodologies, such as clustering algorithms, visualization and space-time modelling, the domain of Geographic Information Science. Implementation of those techniques appears at an increasing pace in commercial Geographic Information Systems, alongside more traditional techniques that are already part of such systems. This book provides the latest methods in GI Science and their use in health related problems.

Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments

Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments Book
Author : Annette Prüss-Üstün,Jennyfer Wolf,Carlos Corvalán,World Health Organization,Robert Bos,Dr. Maria Neira
Publisher : World Health Organization
Release : 2016
ISBN : 9241565195
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The main message emerging from this new comprehensive global assessment is that premature death and disease can be prevented through healthier environments--and to a significant degree. Analysing the latest data on the environment-disease nexus and the devastating impact of environmental hazards and risks on global health, backed up by expert opinion, this report covers more than 130 diseases and injuries. The analysis shows that 23% of global deaths (and 26% of deaths among children under five) are due to modifiable environmental factors--and therefore can be prevented. Stroke, ischaemic heart disease, diarrhoea and cancers head the list. People in low-income countries bear the greatest disease burden, with the exception of noncommunicable diseases. The report's unequivocal evidence should add impetus to coordinating global efforts to promote healthy environments--often through well-established, cost-effective interventions. This analysis will inform those who want to better understand the transformational spirit of the Sustainable Development Goals agreed by Heads of State in September 2015. The results of the analysis underscore the pressing importance of stronger intersectoral action to create healthier environments that will contribute to sustainably improving the lives of millions around the world."--Page 4 of cover.

Environmental Health Perspectives

Environmental Health Perspectives Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Environmental Health Perspectives book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Criteria Air Pollutants and Volatile Organic Compounds from a Moving Vehicle

Spatiotemporal Analysis of Criteria Air Pollutants and Volatile Organic Compounds from a Moving Vehicle Book
Author : Jon Davidson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This thesis describes the on-road analysis of criteria air pollutants (CAPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from a moving vehicle. CAPs and VOCs have numerous direct and indirect effects on the environment and public health and are generated from a variety of point and diffuse sources. The concentration of these pollutants can vary on the scale of metres and seconds due to variable emission rates of sources, meteorology, and the topography of an area. CAPs are conventionally measured on a spatial scale of tens of kilometres and one hour or longer time resolution, which limits the understanding of their impact and leaving many communities lacking information regarding their air quality. VOCs are not measured as frequently as CAPs, owing to the difficulty, challenges, and cost associated with sampling. The Mobile Mass Spectrometry Lab (MMSL) was developed to collect high geospatial (15 - 1,500 m) and temporal (1 - 10 s) resolution measurements of CAPs (O3, NOx, PM2.5), CO2, CH4, and VOCs. CAPs and greenhouse gases were monitored using standard analyzers, while VOCs were measured using a proton-transfer reaction time-of-flight mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). PTR-MS is a real-time, direct, in situ technique that can monitor VOCs in the ambient atmosphere without sample collection. The PTR-MS monitored up to mass-to-charge 330 with a sample integration time of 1 or 10 seconds and had detection limits into the low- to mid-ppt. PTR-MS is a soft ionization technique that is selective to all compounds with a proton affinity less than water, which excludes the atmospheric matrix and includes most VOCs. The measurements provided by the PTR-MS provided a rich dataset for which to develop workflow and processing methods alongside sampling strategies for the collection of high geospatial and temporal VOC data. The first on-road deployment of the MMSL was performed across the Regional District of Nanaimo and the Alberni-Clayoquot Regional District in British Columbia, Canada, from July iv 2018 - April 2019 to monitor the geospatial and temporal variation in the concentration of CAPs and VOCs. VOCs detected in the areas include hydrocarbons like toluene, C2-benzenes, and terpenes, organic acids like acetic acid, oxygenated compounds like acetone and acetaldehyde, and reduced sulfur compounds like methanethiol and dimethyl sulfide. While observed concentrations of VOCs were mostly below detection limits, concentration excursions upwards of 2,200 ppb for C2-benzenes (reported as ethylbenzene) for instance, were observed across the various communities and industries that comprise central Vancouver Island. VOCs like monoterpenes, were observed near the wood industries up to 229 ppb. Combustion related VOCs, like toluene and C2-benzenes, were often observed on major transportation corridors and was found to vary significantly between seasons, with winter measurements often exceeding those made in the summer. Reduced sulfur compounds, common components of nuisance odours, were measured around a few industries like waste management and wood industries. The second on-road deployment of the MMSL focused on the analysis of VOCs in the community around a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) to identify the source of odours in the area. VOCs were also monitored in the odour control process of the WWTP to identify the VOCs being emitted, how much were emitted, and where potential deficiencies were in the process in a unique study. Median emission rates at the facility for methanethiol, dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide were determined to be 100, 19, and 21 kg yr-1, respectively. VOC monitoring in the community encompassed the WWTP and the other major industries in the area, including agricultural land, a composting facility, and a marina. The highest measurements of odorous reduced sulfur compounds were observed around the WWTP, upwards of 36 ppb for methanethiol. Unsupervised multivariate analysis was performed to identify groups of VOCs present and their potential sources. Three groups were identified, one of which was related to reduced sulfur compounds. This group was observed around the WWTP, indicating that the WWTP was the likely source of malodours in the community.

Air Pollution

Air Pollution Book
Author : Mukesh Khare
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2012-03-23
ISBN : 9535104241
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Air pollution has always been a trans-boundary environmental problem and a matter of global concern for past many years. High concentrations of air pollutants due to numerous anthropogenic activities influence the air quality. There are many books on this subject, but the one in front of you will probably help in filling the gaps existing in the area of air quality monitoring, modelling, exposure, health and control, and can be of great help to graduate students professionals and researchers. The book is divided in two volumes dealing with various monitoring techniques of air pollutants, their predictions and control. It also contains case studies describing the exposure and health implications of air pollutants on living biota in different countries across the globe.

Advanced Air Pollution

Advanced Air Pollution Book
Author : Farhad Nejadkoorki
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2011-08-17
ISBN : 9533075112
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Leading air quality professionals describe different aspects of air pollution. The book presents information on four broad areas of interest in the air pollution field; the air pollution monitoring; air quality modeling; the GIS techniques to manage air quality; the new approaches to manage air quality. This book fulfills the need on the latest concepts of air pollution science and provides comprehensive information on all relevant components relating to air pollution issues in urban areas and industries. The book is suitable for a variety of scientists who wish to follow application of the theory in practice in air pollution. Known for its broad case studies, the book emphasizes an insightful of the connection between sources and control of air pollution, rather than being a simple manual on the subject.

Clinical Handbook of Air Pollution Related Diseases

Clinical Handbook of Air Pollution Related Diseases Book
Author : Fabio Capello,Antonio Vittorino Gaddi
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-02-21
ISBN : 3319627317
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book examines in detail the clinical implications of those diseases that either are primarily triggered by air pollution or represent direct consequences of air pollutants. The aim is to provide medical practitioners with practical solutions to issues in diagnosis and treatment while simultaneously furnishing other interested parties with crucial information on the field. The book introduces the concept that air pollution-related diseases constitute a new class of pathologies. A wide range of conditions mainly attributable to air pollution are discussed, covering different body systems and pollution impacts in subsets of the population. In addition to presenting state of the art overviews of clinical aspects, the book carefully examines the implications of current knowledge for social and public health strategies aimed at disease prevention and prophylaxis. The Clinical Handbook of Air Pollution-Related Diseases will greatly assist doctors and healthcare workers when dealing with the consequences of air pollution in their everyday practice and will provide researchers, industry, and policymakers with valuable facts and insights.

Modern Spatiotemporal Geostatistics

Modern Spatiotemporal Geostatistics Book
Author : George Christakos
Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0195138953
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Preface. 1. Spatiotemporal Mapping in Natural Sciences. 2. Spatiotemporal Geometry. 3. Physical Knowledge. 4. The Epistemic Paradigm. 5. Mathematical Formulation of the BME Method. 6. Analytical Expressions of the Posterior Operator. 7. The Choice of a Spatiotemporal Estimate. 8. Uncertainty Assessment. 9. Modifications of Formal BME Analysis. 10. Single-Point Analytical Formulations. 11. Multipoint Analytical Formulations. 12. Popular Methods in the Light of Modern Spatiotemporal Geostatistics. 13. A Call Not to Arms but to Research. Bibliography. Index.

The Impact of Air Pollution on Health Economy Environment and Agricultural Sources

The Impact of Air Pollution on Health  Economy  Environment and Agricultural Sources Book
Author : Mohamed Khallaf
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2011-09-26
ISBN : 9533075287
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book aims to strengthen the knowledge base dealing with Air Pollution. The book consists of 21 chapters dealing with Air Pollution and its effects in the fields of Health, Environment, Economy and Agricultural Sources. It is divided into four sections. The first one deals with effect of air pollution on health and human body organs. The second section includes the Impact of air pollution on plants and agricultural sources and methods of resistance. The third section includes environmental changes, geographic and climatic conditions due to air pollution. The fourth section includes case studies concerning of the impact of air pollution in the economy and development goals, such as, indoor air pollution in México, indoor air pollution and millennium development goals in Bangladesh, epidemiologic and economic impact of natural gas on indoor air pollution in Colombia and economic growth and air pollution in Iran during development programs. In this book the authors explain the definition of air pollution, the most important pollutants and their different sources and effects on humans and various fields of life. The authors offer different solutions to the problems resulting from air pollution.

Quantitative Modeling in Toxicology

Quantitative Modeling in Toxicology Book
Author : Kannan Krishnan,Melvin E. Andersen
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2010-04-01
ISBN : 0470686707
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Governments around the world are passing laws requiring industry to assess the toxicity of the chemicals and products they produce, but to do so while reducing, refining, or even replacing testing on animals. To meet these requirements, experimental toxicologists and risk assessors are adopting quantitative approaches and computer simulations to study the biological fate and effects of chemicals and drugs. In Quantitative Modeling in Toxicology leading experts outline the current state of knowledge on the modeling of dose, tissue interactions and tissue responses. Each chapter describes the mathematical foundation, parameter estimation, challenges and perspectives for development, along with the presentation of a modeling template. Additionally, tools and approaches for conducting uncertainty, sensitivity and variability analyses in these models are described. Topics covered include: the quantitative models of pharmacokinetics of individual chemicals and mixtures models for toxicant-target tissue interaction. models for cellular, organ, and organism responses. approaches, tools and challenges for model application and evaluation A website containing computer codes accompanies the book to help the reader reconstruct the models described and discussed in the various chapters. Quantitative Modeling in Toxicology serves as an essential reference source and tool box for risk assessors and researchers and students in toxicology, public health, pharmacology, and human toxicology interested in developing quantitative models for a better understanding of dose-response relationships.

Artificial Intelligence and Environmental Sustainability

Artificial Intelligence and Environmental Sustainability Book
Author : Hui Lin Ong
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022-08-14
ISBN : 9811914346
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Artificial Intelligence and Environmental Sustainability book written by Hui Lin Ong, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Tropospheric Ozone

Tropospheric Ozone Book
Author : S.B. Agrawal,Madhoolika Agrawal,Anita Singh
Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Release : 2021-09-20
ISBN : 1527574970
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents updated and relevant information on the tropospheric ozone problem and its effects on the plants and human health. The contributions here present in-depth knowledge about history, pattern, sources, environmental factors and other necessary aspects of the tropospheric ozone problem. The book provides a balanced view of current developments on the effects of the tropospheric ozone on plant and human health, crop production and ecosystem services. In addition to the effects of the tropospheric ozone on growth and physiological and biochemical traits, it also considers the molecular basis of plant responses to ozone. The book encompasses a holistic view on various interconnected issues of ozone pollution, and will appeal to scientists from all over the world.

Traffic Related Air Pollution

Traffic Related Air Pollution Book
Author : Haneen Khreis,Mark Nieuwenhuijsen,Joe Zietsman,Tara Ramani
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-08-20
ISBN : 0128181230
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Traffic-Related Air Pollution synthesizes and maps TRAP and its impact on human health at the individual and population level. The book analyzes mitigating standards and regulations with a focus on cities. It provides the methods and tools for assessing and quantifying the associated road traffic emissions, air pollution, exposure and population-based health impacts, while also illuminating the mechanisms underlying health impacts through clinical and toxicological research. Real-world implications are set alongside policy options, emerging technologies and best practices. Finally, the book recommends ways to influence discourse and policy to better account for the health impacts of TRAP and its societal costs. Overviews existing and emerging tools to assess TRAP’s public health impacts Examines TRAP’s health effects at the population level Explores the latest technologies and policies--alongside their potential effectiveness and adverse consequences--for mitigating TRAP Guides on how methods and tools can leverage teaching, practice and policymaking to ameliorate TRAP and its effects