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Sox2 Defines Distinct Functional Classes of Stem Cells

Sox2 Defines Distinct Functional Classes of Stem Cells Book
Author : Kevin Allen D'Amour
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Sox2 Defines Distinct Functional Classes of Stem Cells book written by Kevin Allen D'Amour, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Sox2

Sox2 Book
Author : Hisato Kondoh,Robin Lovell-Badge
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-08-24
ISBN : 0128004207
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sox2: Biology and Role in Development and Disease offers a thorough discussion of the important role of Sox2 in cellular and developmental processes, aimed at facilitating greater understanding of how Sox2 functions across different disciplines. The book discusses the basic biology of Sox2 to help establish the critical foundational knowledge necessary for deeper molecular and functional analysis. The book also provides insight into how the Sox2 transcription factor plays a key role in pluripotency induction, maintenance, and development. Helpful as a tool to organize new research projects, the book assists with preparing lessons, seminars, and thesis or research papers, thereby circumventing the need to spend hours searching through journal databases. A single source for the basic biology of Sox2, Sox2: Biology and Its Role in Development and Disease provides information on networks, gene regulation, and regulatory function in a number of cell types and tissues types. Discusses the important role of Sox2 in cellular and developmental processes Facilitates a greater understanding of how Sox2 functions across different disciplines Assists in identifying, circumventing and modifying the dynamics of Sox2 in cell types Provides greater understanding of the structure of Sox2 and its gene networks Identifies aspects of phenotypic spectrum uncovered following greater understanding of Sox2 during development

Investigative Ophthalmology Visual Science

Investigative Ophthalmology   Visual Science Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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The Journal of Cell Biology

The Journal of Cell Biology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

No. 2, pt. 2 of November issue each year from v. 19 (1963)-47 (1970) and v. 55 (1972)- contain the Abstracts of papers presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Cell Biology, 3d (1963)-10th (1970) and 12th (1972)-

Handbook of Stem Cells

Handbook of Stem Cells Book
Author : Anthony Atala,Robert Lanza
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-12-31
ISBN : 0123859433
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

New discoveries in the field of stem cells increasingly dominate the news and scientific literature revealing an avalanche of new knowledge and research tools that are producing therapies for cancer, heart disease, diabetes, and a wide variety of other diseases that afflict humanity. The Handbook of Stem Cells integrates this exciting area of life science, combining in two volumes the requisites for a general understanding of adult and embryonic stem cells. Organized in two volumes entitled Pluripotent Stem Cells and Cell Biology and Adult and Fetal Stem Cells, this work contains contributions from the world’s experts in stem cell research to provide a description of the tools, methods, and experimental protocols needed to study and characterize stem cells and progenitor populations as well as a the latest information of what is known about each specific organ system. Provides comprehensive coverage on this highly topical subject Contains contributions by the foremost authorities and premiere names in the field of stem cell research Companion website - http://booksite.elsevier.com/9780123859426/ - contains over 250 color figures in presentation format

Stem Cells and Cancer

Stem Cells and Cancer Book
Author : Sadhan Majumder
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-06-07
ISBN : 9780387896113
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cancer is a primary cause of human mortality worldwide. Despite decades of basic and clinical research, the outcome for most cancer patients is still dismal. Some stumbling blocks to developing effective therapy include the heterogeneity of cancer tissues, the lack of knowledge about the critical molecular mechanisms in cancer tissues (which are typically aberrant compared with mechanisms in normal tissue), and the lack of good mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. The recent findings that most cancers contain a small fraction of self-renewing, differentiation-blocked stem cell-like cells (cancer stem cells) and that it is these cells—and not the major bulk of the tissue—that are the root cause for cancer initiation and metastasis have also highlighted the need to change our approach to cancer therapy. The objectives of this book, therefore, would be to impart up-to-date information about the role of stem cells in the development of normal and cancerous tissue, the mechanisms that differentiate normal from cancerous functions, and the use of these findings in developing mechanism-based therapies.

Stem and Progenitor Cells in the Central Nervous System

Stem and Progenitor Cells in the Central Nervous System Book
Author : R.S. Nowakowski
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release : 2004-01
ISBN : 3805578709
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This publication focuses on the biology of stem and progenitor cells in the developing and mature central nervous system, their response to trauma and potential uses in therapy. The authors, who are leading experts in the field, address topical questions from both basic and clinical neuroscience perspectives such as: non-invasive imaging of stem cell division; the origins of regional diversity in cell types and cell numbers in the stem cell progeny; factors that regulate generation of neurons and glial cells from stem cells during normal development; the role of genetic and environmental factors in the regulation of stem cell function; the role of stem cells in mediating the effects of brain trauma and its recovery, and the therapeutic uses of stem cells. Offering a unique compilation of articles on the biology and the therapeutic applications of stem cells in the embryonic and mature nervous systems, this volume will be of great value to neuroscientists, developmental biologists, cancer biologists and clinical neurologists.

The Role of SOX2 in Regulation of Pluripotency and Early Cell Fate Decision in Embryos and Embryonic Stem Cells

The Role of SOX2 in Regulation of Pluripotency and Early Cell Fate Decision in Embryos and Embryonic Stem Cells Book
Author : Maria Keramari
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The transcription factor Sox2 (SRY-related HMG box gene 2) plays a pivotal role in maintaining self-renewal and pluripotency in embryonic stem (ES) cells derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of the embryo Previously it was shown that Sox2-/- mouse embryos die soon after implantation, ' how materna! Sox2" transcripts may mask an eariier phenotype. This study has shown that siRNA knock-down of Sox2 at the 2-cell stage of the preimplantation mouse embryo results in embryo arrest at the morula stage, increased cellular apoptosis and loss of ability to generate the first differentiated tissue in the embryo, the trophectoderm (TE).

Regulatory Networks in Stem Cells

Regulatory Networks in Stem Cells Book
Author : Vinagolu K. Rajasekhar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-03-04
ISBN : 9781603272278
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stem cells appear to be fundamental cellular units associated with the origin of multicellular organisms and have evolved to function in safeguarding the cellular homeostasis in organ t- sues. The characteristics of stem cells that distinguish them from other cells have been the fascinating subjects of stem cell research. The important properties of stem cells, such as ma- tenance of quiescence, self-renewal capacity, and differentiation potential, have propelled this exciting ?eld and presently form a common theme of research in developmental biology and medicine. The derivation of pluripotent embryonic stem cells, the prospective identi?cation of multipotent adult stem cells, and, more recently, the induced pluripotent stem cells (popularly called iPS) are important milestones in the arena of stem cell biology. Complex networks of transcription factors, different signaling molecules, and the interaction of genetic and epi- netic events constantly modulate stem cell behavior to evoke programming and reprogramming processes in normal tissue homeostasis during development. In any given cellular scenario, the regulatory networks can pose considerable complexity and yet exert an orderly control of stem cell differentiation during normal development. An aberration in these ?nely tuned processes during development usually results in a spectrum of diseases such as cancers and neurological disorders. Thisunderscorestheimminentneedforamorecompleteunderstandingofmolecular mechanisms underlying the regulatory circuitries required for stem cell maintenance. Overthepast3–5years,adiversegroupofbenchandphysicianscientistshaveprospectively enhanced our knowledge of stem cell biology. These studies are unveiling many unrecognized or previously unknown fundamentals of developmental biology.

Nature

Nature Book
Author : Sir Norman Lockyer
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Nature book written by Sir Norman Lockyer, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Molecular and Cellular Biology

Molecular and Cellular Biology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Molecular and Cellular Biology book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Transcriptional Control of Neural Crest Development

Transcriptional Control of Neural Crest Development Book
Author : Brian L. Nelms,Patricia A. Labosky
Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release : 2010
ISBN : 161504048X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The neural crest is a remarkable embryonic population of cells found only in vertebrates and has the potential to give rise to many different cell types contributing throughout the body. These derivatives range from the mesenchymal bone and cartilage comprising the facial skeleton, to neuronal derivatives of the peripheral sensory and autonomic nervous systems, to melanocytes throughout the body, and to smooth muscle of the great arteries of the heart. For these cells to correctly progress from an unspecifi ed, nonmigratory population to a wide array of dynamic, differentiated cell types-some of which retain stem cell characteristics presumably to replenish these derivatives-requires a complex network of molecular switches to control the gene programs giving these cells their defi ning structural, enzymatic, migratory, and signaling capacities. This review will bring together current knowledge of neural crest-specifi c transcription factors governing these progressions throughout the course of development. A more thorough understanding of the mechanisms of transcriptional control in differentiation will aid in strategies designed to push undifferentiated cells toward a particular lineage, and unraveling these processes will help toward reprogramming cells from a differentiated to a more naive state. Table of Contents: Introduction / AP Genes / bHLH Genes / ETS Genes / Fox Genes / Homeobox Genes / Hox Genes / Lim Genes / Pax Genes / POU Domain Genes / RAR/RXR Genes / Smad Genes / Sox Genes / Zinc Finger Genes / Other Miscellaneous Genes / References / Author Biographies

Prognostic Significance of SOX2 SOX3 SOX11 SOX14 and SOX18 Gene Expression in Adult de Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Prognostic Significance of SOX2  SOX3  SOX11  SOX14 and SOX18 Gene Expression in Adult de Novo Acute Myeloid Leukemia Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Highlights: SOX2, SOX3, SOX11, SOX14 and SOX18 genes are overexpressed in 10–22% AML patients. SOX high status is associated with the presence of FLT3 and NPM1 mutations. SOX high patients have shorter disease-free and overall survival. Abstract: Aberrant expression of different SOX (SRY-related high mobility group (HMG) box) genes has been observed in number of tumors but, little is known about their expression patterns in hematological malignancies, especially in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In this study we investigated SOX2, SOX3, SOX11, SOX14 and SOX18 gene expression in 50 de novo adult AML patients and correlated our findings with known clinical and molecular prognostic markers of the disease. We have found that these genes are overexpressed in 10–22% of patients and preliminary findings suggest that high expression level of these genes may have prognostic significance in AML patients. This is the first study focused on examining the expression level of SOX2, SOX3, SOX11, SOX14 and SOX18 genes in AML patients. Although this is a relatively limited study, initial findings indicate the need for further investigation of these genes, their potential roles in leukemia pathogenesis as well as prognosis in AML patients.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Book
Author : National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America book written by National Academy of Sciences (U.S.), available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Role of SOX2 in Colon Cancer Progression

The Role of SOX2 in Colon Cancer Progression Book
Author : Debasish Boral
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) is one the embryonic stem cell transcription factors that is capable of reprogramming adult differentiated cells into an induced pluripotent cell. SOX2 is amplified in various types of epithelial cancers and its high its expression correlates with poor prognosis and decreased patient survival. Aberrant Wnt signaling drives the colo-rectal carcinogenic process and is a major determinant of the disease outcome. This study demonstrates that SOX2 counteracts Wnt driven tumor cell proliferation and maintains quiescence in a sub-population of Colo-Rectal Cancer (CRC) cells. High SOX2 expression is found in a sub-group of CRC patients with advanced disease. High SOX2 expression coupled with low Wnt activity was found in SW620 metastatic CRC cell line, while the opposite was true for the isogenic SW480 primary tumor cell line. SOX2 silencing increased Wnt activity and enhanced the oncogenic potential of SW620 cells in vitro and in vivo while over-expression had opposite effects in SW480 cells. SOX2 up-regulates the expression of PTPRK and PHLPP2 protein phosphatase genes which in turn attenuates Wnt activity by interfering with Protein Kinase A, B and C mediated beta catenin phosphorylation at Serine 552 and 675 amino acid residues thereby diminishing its nuclear sequestration and transcriptional activation. Thus SOX2 mitigates growth factor mediated Wnt activation in CRC cells and inhibits cellular proliferation so that these cells are forced to change their oncogene addiction. In effect, high SOX2 expression causes clonal evolution of APC mutant CRC cells from a state of high Wnt dependency to a state of low Wnt dependency in the process making such cells resistant to Wnt inhibitor therapy. Enhanced SOX2 transcriptional activity was associated with increased proportion of cancer cells in G0 -G1 phase of cell cycle. Changing SOX2 protein levels in cells had a direct correlation with mRNA levels of RBL2-HUMAN and CDKN2B genes, which serve as regulators of G0 and G1 respectively. SOX2 was shown to physically bind and to the promoter region of these two genes and enhance their transcription. Thus high SOX2 expression, up-regulates the expression of key cell cycle inhibitor genes like RBL2 and CDKN2B and keeps cells in a dormant state. This phenomenon allows colon cancer cells to escape from cytotoxic drug therapy directed at rapidly dividing cells and cause treatment failure and disease relapse.

A Microfabricated Platform for Cell based Assays

A Microfabricated Platform for Cell based Assays Book
Author : Vicki I-Cheun Chin
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download A Microfabricated Platform for Cell based Assays book written by Vicki I-Cheun Chin, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Dynamic Role of SOX2 in Mammalian Inner Ear Development

The Dynamic Role of SOX2 in Mammalian Inner Ear Development Book
Author : Aleta R. Steevens
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Intricate neuroanatomical structures within our inner ears confer humans with the ability to detect sound and balance information with exquisite detail. These abilities are mediated by six sensory organs and the specialized sensory cells that make up these regions: mechanosensory hair cells, supporting cells, and inner ear neurons. Hair cells and supporting cells derive from a common sensory progenitor, and in some cases, all three cell types arise from a common neurosensory progenitor. Generating a better understanding of how sensory cells develop from a progenitor stage will further therapeutic strategies aimed at regenerating damaged sensory areas in hearing and balance disorders, in which cellular deficits are permanent. The transcription factor SOX2 is firmly established to be required for inner ear sensory progenitor formation. Additionally, overexpression studies have suggested that SOX2 may promote the generation of both neuronal and sensory inner ear lineages. However, it is not known when SOX2 is required nor in which cells types. Thus, an outstanding question remains: is SOX2 exclusive to sensory progenitors from the earliest times? In order to determine when and in which cell types SOX2 acts during inner ear development, I used a genetic system in the mouse to fate map early SOX2 expressing progeny and to test the requirements of SOX2 activity during critical inner ear development stages. I discovered several novel and previously unrecognized roles for SOX2 in inner ear development that includes the following: (1) SOX2 is required for inner ear neurogenesis and acts upstream in a cascade of proneural signaling events. (2) SOX2 initially is required for non-sensory development in the cochlea and for vestibular formation. (3) Loss and gain-of-function approaches indicate an early role for SOX2 in promoting inner ear progenitor proliferation. Moreover, I showed that SOX2 does not mark the sensory lineage from the earliest times, but rather sensory specification is a later function of SOX2. Interestingly, short harvest fate mapping experiments captured the dynamics in SOX2 expression and function, as the entire domain of SOX2 inverted within a 48-hour window. Likely this reflects its switch from promoting non-sensory formation and proliferation to sensory development in the cochlea. These studies reveal the dynamic role for SOX2 in inner ear development and outline the parameters in which SOX2 promotes different otic lineages.

The Journal of Neuroscience

The Journal of Neuroscience Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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CRISPR Cas 9 Knockout of SOX2 in Bovine Preimplantation Embryos

CRISPR Cas 9 Knockout of SOX2 in Bovine Preimplantation Embryos Book
Author : Charnice Robinson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 9781085762304
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

CRISPR/Cas-9 system has been utilized in several model organisms to determine gene function via gene silencing and reverse genetics. While ample studies have been conducted in mice to uncover that pluripotency genes such as SRY-box 2 (SOX2) are highly expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and the inner cell mass (ICM), improved understanding of SOX2 function in cattle can potentially result in a valuable model for human preimplantation embryo development. Our study aimed to determine the efficiency of target mutations in 8-cell embryos after direct metaphase II (MII) oocyte or zygote stage injection of CRISPR/Cas-9 (Streptococcus pyogenes Cas-9) targeting SOX2 and to assess embryo development. After designing guide RNAs (gRNA) to target exon 1 within the bovine SOX2 gene, MII oocytes and parthenogenetically derived zygotes were microinjected with Cas-9/single gRNA complexes or Cas-9/combination gRNA complexes and 8-cell parthenotes were sequenced to observe mutation type and efficiency. A 24% mutation rate in MII oocytes and 27% mutation rate in pronuclear (PN) injected embryos was observed following injection in the oocyte or zygote. Furthermore, 20% of embryos displayed monoallelic mutations; whereas, 31% of mutated embryos were biallelic across both groups (MII and PN). Immunostaining was done to identify SOX2 negative blastocysts and we observed 10 embryos that completely lacked SOX2 protein and 7 mosaic (n=45) with cells still contributing to the ICM, suggesting that ICM formation may not require SOX2 and its expression is not an absolute requirement for blastocyst formation in cattle.