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Sources Mechanisms And Toxicity Of Nanomaterials In Plants

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Sources Mechanisms and Toxicity of Nanomaterials in Plants

Sources  Mechanisms and Toxicity of Nanomaterials in Plants Book
Author : Jose Peralta-Videa,Vijay Pratap Singh,Durgesh Kumar Tripathi
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-08-15
ISBN : 9780128228890
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plants encounter a wide range of environmental challenges during their life cycle, among which nanoparticle toxicity is a common form of abiotic stress. Nanoparticles can adversely affect various stages of the plant life cycle, such as seed germination, root and shoot growth, chloroplasts ultrastructure and photosynthesis, nutrients assimilation, carbohydrates metabolism, and plant hormonal status, which collectively result in reduced plant yields. Sources, Mechanisms and Toxicity of Nanomaterials in Plants discusses the plant physiology and chemistry involved when plants encounter nanoparticles. Key topics include effects of nanoparticles on photosynthetic responses, regulation of nanoparticle toxicity by nitric oxide, and regulation of nanoparticle toxicity by exogenous application of primary and secondary metabolites. This is the first volume in the new Nanomaterials-Plant Interactions series and is an essential read to all researchers and scientists interested in plant physiology and chemistry, agronomy, nanotechnology and environmental science. Analyses how nanoparticle toxicity impacts the plant life cycle Includes the latest information on the range of coping mechanisms plants use to combat nanotoxicity Reviews protectants, such as endogenous signaling molecules, and their role in protecting the plant from nanotoxicity

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanomaterials

Green Synthesis of Silver Nanomaterials Book
Author : Kamel Ahmed Abd-Elsalam
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-11-15
ISBN : 9780128245088
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

One of the crucial difficulties in the development of nanomaterials is scaling up laboratory procedures to a commercial scale. Large-scale biosynthesis of nanoparticles has usually been a substantial obstacle. This book illustrates how to biologically scale up silver nanoparticle synthesis. This book covers green synthesis of silver nanomaterials, via plants, agricultural waste, fungi, and microorganisms. The book is divided into five main parts: Part 1 deals with the synthesis and characterization of chemical and green synthesis and various types of silver nanomaterials Part 2 is focused on the production of silver nanoparticles from agri-waste and plant-media and their characterization Part 3 reviews the ability of different fungal species, such as filamentous fungi, to produce silver nanoparticles Part 4 includes detailed information related to the microbial synthesis of silver NMs Part 5 is focused on biosynthesis mechanism, toxicity, fate, and the commercial production of silver nanomaterials. As examples, greener pathways and mechanisms, toxicity of silver nanoparticles in aquatic life, silver nanoparticles in natural eco-systems, and strategies for the scaling up of green-synthesized nanomaterials are discussed The synthesis of nanocellulose from agri-waste is a sustanabile alternative for waste treatment methods, for developing new biosensors, and for nanobiocides and antimicrobial agents. With the extended work in enhancing nanomaterials synthesis performance, and discovering their biomedical, environmental, and agricultural applications, it is hoped that the execution of these methods on a large scale and their industrial applications in different fields will take place in the near future. The use of agri-waste, plant sources, and microbes not only minimize the cost of nanomaterials production, but it also decreases the need for applying dangerous chemicals, encourages 'green synthesis', and is a strong step towards promoting environmental sustainability. This book is an important reference source for agricultural scientists who are looking to gain an increased understanding of how nanotechnology can enhance plant protection strategies. Assesses the impact of a large variety of silver-based nanostructures in the biomedical, environmental and agri-food sectors Discusses the major synthesis methods used for processing plant-based silver nanoparticles effectively Outlines the potential and major challenges for adopting green synthesis methods on a mass scale

Engineered Nanomaterials and Phytonanotechnology Challenges for Plant Sustainability

Engineered Nanomaterials and Phytonanotechnology  Challenges for Plant Sustainability Book
Author : Ashok Kumar Das
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019-11-27
ISBN : 0128213205
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Engineered Nanomaterials and Phytonanotechnology: Challenges for Plant Sustainability, Volume 87 in the Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry series, highlights new advances in the field, with this new volume presenting interesting chapters on the Current status of environmental monitoring, Physical principles of infrared, Chemical principles of infrared, Instrumentation and hardware, Data analysis, Sampling, Applications in water, Application in soil and sediments, Applications in ecology of animals and plants, Applications in air monitoring, Applications in contamination, Applications in marine environments, Advantages and pitfalls, and more. Provides the authority and expertise of leading contributors from an international board of authors Presents the latest release in the Comprehensive Analytical Chemistry series Updated release includes the latest information on the field of engineered nanomaterials in plants

Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 50

Sustainable Agriculture Reviews 50 Book
Author : Vipin Kumar Singh,Rishikesh Singh,Eric Lichtfouse
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021
ISBN : 3030632490
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book reviews contaminants of emerging nature affecting the agroecosystem and includes important information regarding the their sources, types, transportation, environmental threats and strategies to decontaminate the affected agroecosystems. The contents of this volume will help the policy makers and environmental engineers in combating the continuously rising threats to cultivated ecosystems.

Plant Responses to Nanomaterials

Plant Responses to Nanomaterials Book
Author : Vijay Pratap Singh,Samiksha Singh,Durgesh Kumar Tripathi,Sheo Mohan Prasad,Devendra Kumar Chauhan
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-05-03
ISBN : 3030367401
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The population of the world continues to increase at an alarming rate. The trouble linked with overpopulation ranges from food and water scarcity to inadequacy of space for organisms. Overpopulation is also linked with several other demographic hazards, for instance, population blooming will not only result in exhaustion of natural repositories, but it will also induce intense pressure on the world economy. Today nanotechnology is often discussed as a key discipline of research but it has positive and negative aspects. Also, due to industrialization and ever-increasing population, nano-pollution has been an emerging topic among scientists for investigation and debate. Nanotechnology measures any substance on a macromolecular scale, molecular scale, and even atomic scale. More importantly, nanotechnology deals with the manipulation and control of any matter at the dimension of a single nanometer. Nanotechnology and nanoparticles (NPs) play important roles in sustainable development and environmental challenges as well. NPs possess both harmful and beneficial effects on the environment and its harboring components, such as microbes, plants, and humans. There are many beneficial impacts exerted by nanoparticles, however, including their role in the management of waste water and soil treatment, cosmetics, food packaging, agriculture, biomedicines, pharmaceuticals, renewable energies, and environmental remedies. Conversely, NPs also show some toxic effects on microbes, plants, as well as human beings. It has been reported that use of nanotechnological products leads to the more accumulation of NPs in soil and aquatic ecosystems, which may be detrimental for living organisms. Further, toxic effects of NPs on microbes, invertebrates, and aquatic organisms including algae, has been measured. Scientists have also reported on the negative impact of NPs on plants by discussing the delivery of NPs in plants. Additionally, scientists have also showed that NPs interact with plant cells, which results in alterations in growth, biological function, gene expression, and development. Thus, there has been much investigated and reported on NPs and plant interactions in the last decade. This book discusses the most recent work on NPs and plant interaction, which should be useful for scientists working in nanotechnology across a wide variety of disciplines.

Nanotechnology and Plant Sciences

Nanotechnology and Plant Sciences Book
Author : Manzer H. Siddiqui,Mohamed H. Al-Whaibi,Firoz Mohammad
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-01-27
ISBN : 3319145029
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a holistic view of the complex and dynamic responses of plants to nanoparticles, the signal transduction mechanisms involved, and the regulation of gene expression. Further, it addresses the phytosynthesis of nanoparticles, the role of nanoparticles in the antioxidant systems of plants and agriculture, the beneficial and harmful effects of nanoparticles on plants, and the application of nanoparticles and nanotubes to mass spectrometry, aiming ultimately at an analysis of the metabolomics of plants. The growing numbers of inventions in the field of nanotechnology are producing novel applications in the fields of biotechnology and agriculture. Nanoparticles have received much attention because of the unique physico-chemical properties of these compounds. In the life sciences, nanoparticles are used as “smart” delivery systems, prompting the Nobel Prize winner P. Ehrlich to refer to these compounds as “magic bullets.” Nanoparticles also play an important role in agriculture as compound fertilizers and nano-pesticides, acting as chemical delivery agents that target molecules to specific cellular organelles in plants. The influence of nanoparticles on plant growth and development, however, remains to be investigated. Lastly, this book reveals the research gaps that must be bridged in the years to come in order to achieve larger goals concerning the applications of nanotechnology in the plants sciences. In the 21st century, nanotechnology has become a rapidly emerging branch of science. In the world of physical sciences, nanotechnological tools have been exploited for a broad range of applications. In recent years, nanoparticles have also proven useful in several branches of the life sciences. In particular, nanotechnology has been employed in drug delivery and related applications in medicine.

Heterogeneous Photocatalysis

Heterogeneous Photocatalysis Book
Author : Jennifer Strunk
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2021-08-30
ISBN : 3527344640
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Discover the latest research in photocatalysis combined with foundational topics in basic physical and chemical photocatalytic processes In Heterogeneous Photocatalysis: From Fundamentals to Applications in Energy Conversion and Depollution, distinguished researcher and editor Jennifer Strunk delivers a rigorous discussion of the two main topics in her field—energy conversion and depollution reactions. The book covers topics like water splitting, CO2 reduction, NOx abatement and harmful organics degradation. In addition to the latest research on these topics, the reference provides readers with fundamental information about elementary physical and chemical processes in photocatalysis that are extremely practical in this interdisciplinary field. It offers an excellent overview of modern heterogeneous photocatalysis and combines concepts from different viewpoints to allow researchers with backgrounds as varied as electrochemistry, material science, and semiconductor physics to begin developing solutions with photocatalysis. In addition to subjects like metal-free photocatalysts and photocarrier loss pathways in metal oxide absorber materials for photocatalysis explored with time-resolved spectroscopy, readers will also benefit from the inclusion of: Thorough introductions to kinetic and thermodynamic considerations for photocatalyst design and the logic, concepts, and methods of the design of reliable studies on photocatalysis Detailed explorations of in-situ spectroscopy for mechanistic studies in semiconductor photocatalysis and the principles and limitations of photoelectrochemical fuel generation Discussions of photocatalysis, including the heterogeneous catalysis perspective and insights into photocatalysis from computational chemistry Treatments of selected aspects of photoreactor engineering and defects in photocatalysis Perfect for photochemists, physical and catalytic chemists, electrochemists, and materials scientists, Heterogeneous Photocatalysis will also earn a place in the libraries of surface physicists and environmental chemists seeking up-to-date information about energy conversion and depollution reactions.

Nanomaterials in Plants Algae and Microorganisms

Nanomaterials in Plants  Algae  and Microorganisms Book
Author : Durgesh Kumar Tripathi,Parvaiz Ahmad,Shivesh Sharma,Devendra Kumar Chauhan,Nawal Kishore Dubey
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-11-20
ISBN : 0128116463
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanomaterials in Plants, Algae and Microorganisms: Concepts and Controversies: Volume One discusses the vast amount of nanomaterials that have been released into the environment in a relatively short amount of time. There is a need to understand what the implications to the health of our biota and ecosystems are as the earth is increasingly inundated with these materials. Not all of the effects are negative, but their impacts are increasing exponentially due to their size, quantity and other factors. Covers the issues of nanoparticles on more simple organisms and their ecosystems Presents issues that are specific to terrestrial ecosystems Contains contributions from global experts who help increase understanding at the physiological, biochemical, molecular, and even genomic and proteomic levels Provides a critical assessment of the progress taking place on this topic and sheds light on future research needs

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology Book
Author : David M. Whitacre
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-11-10
ISBN : 3319106384
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology attempts to provide concise, critical reviews of timely advances, philosophy and significant areas of accomplished or needed endeavor in the total field of xenobiotics, in any segment of the environment, as well as toxicological implications.

Nanomaterials and Plant Potential

Nanomaterials and Plant Potential Book
Author : Azamal Husen,Muhammad Iqbal
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-03-01
ISBN : 3030055698
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book discusses the latest developments in plant-mediated fabrication of metal and metal-oxide nanoparticles, and their characterization by using a variety of modern techniques. It explores in detail the application of nanoparticles in drug delivery, cancer treatment, catalysis, and as antimicrobial agent, antioxidant and the promoter of plant production and protection. Application of these nanoparticles in plant systems has started only recently and information is still scanty about their possible effects on plant growth and development. Accumulation and translocation of nanoparticles in plants, and the consequent growth response and stress modulation are not well understood. Plants exposed to these particles exhibit both positive and negative effects, depending on the concentration, size, and shape of the nanoparticles. The impact on plant growth and yield is often positive at lower concentrations and negative at higher ones. Exposure to some nanoparticles may improve the free-radical scavenging potential and antioxidant enzymatic activities in plants and alter the micro-RNAs expression that regulate the different morphological, physiological and metabolic processes in plant system, leading to improved plant growth and yields. The nanoparticles also carry out genetic reforms by efficient transfer of DNA or complete plastid genome into the respective plant genome due to their miniscule size and improved site-specific penetration. Moreover, controlled application of nanomaterials in the form of nanofertilizer offers a more synchronized nutrient fluidity with the uptake by the plant exposed, ensuring an increased nutrient availability. This book addresses these issues and many more. It covers fabrication of different/specific nanomaterials and their wide-range application in agriculture sector, encompassing the controlled release of nutrients, nutrient-use efficiency, genetic exchange, production of secondary metabolites, defense mechanisms, and the growth and productivity of plants exposed to different manufactured nanomaterials. The role of nanofertilizers and nano-biosensors for improving plant production and protection and the possible toxicities caused by certain nanomaterials, the aspects that are little explored by now, have also been generously elucidated.

Toxic Effects of Nanomaterials

Toxic Effects of Nanomaterials Book
Author : Haseeb Ahmad Khan,Ibrahim Abdulwahid Arif
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release : 2012
ISBN : 1608052834
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Toxic Effects of Nanomaterials provides an authoritative work of international experts in the field of nanotoxicology spanning 8 chapters. A key feature of the e-book is a broad coverage of phytotoxicity of nanoparticles, which is largely neglected in man"

Environmental Toxicity of Nanomaterials

Environmental Toxicity of Nanomaterials Book
Author : Vineet Kumar,Nandita Dasgupta,Shivendu Ranjan
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-04-17
ISBN : 135125295X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental Toxicity of Nanomaterials focuses on causes and prevention of environmental toxicity induced by various nanomaterials. In sixteen chapters it describes the basic principles, trends, challenges, and future directions of nanoecotoxicity. The future acceptance of nanomaterials in various industries depends on the impacts of nanomaterials on the environment and ecosystem. This book analyzes the safe utilization of nanotechnology so the tremendous prospect of nanotechnology can be achieved without harming either living beings or the environment. Environmental Toxicity of Nanomaterials introduces nanoecotoxicity, describes various factors affecting the toxicity of nanomaterials, discusses various factors that can impart nanoecotoxicity, reviews various studies in the area of nanoecotoxicity evaluation, and describes the safety and risk assessment of nanomaterials. In addition, the book discusses strategies for mitigating nanoecotoxicity. Lastly, the authors provide guidelines and protocols for nanotoxicity evaluation and discuss regulations for safety assessment of nanomaterials. In addition to environmental toxicologists, this book is aimed at policy makers, industry personnel, and doctoral and postdoctoral scholars.

Chitosan Based Nanomaterials in Plant Growth and Protection

Chitosan Based Nanomaterials in Plant Growth and Protection Book
Author : Vinod Saharan,Ajay Pal
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-07-13
ISBN : 8132236017
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This brief describes various methods of chitosan nano-materials synthesis, with detailed discussion of various factors effecting its synthesis process, stability and physicochemical properties. Chitosan is naturally occurring biopolymer derived from chitin. Due to the unique biological properties of chitosan nano-materials such as antimicrobial, plant growth inducer, plant defense modulator, chitosan has gained attention in fields of plant sciences. Book further extended the details of different types of chitosan nano-materials specially for plant applications along with its future prospects in plant protection and growth. Bioactivities of chitosan nano-materials and its mechanism have also been covered. This book aims to widening the understanding of the synthesis, characterization and use of chitosan based nano-materials in plant system.

Nanobiotechnology Applications in Plant Protection

Nanobiotechnology Applications in Plant Protection Book
Author : Kamel A. Abd-Elsalam,Ram Prasad
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-10-04
ISBN : 303013296X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanobiotechnology Applications in Plant Protection: Volume 2 continues the important and timely discussion of nanotechnology applications in plant protection and pathology, filling a gap in the literature for nano applications in crop protection. Nanobiopesticides and nanobioformulations are examined in detail and presented as powerful alternatives for eco-friendly management of plant pathogens and nematodes. Leading scholars discuss the applications of nanobiomaterials as antimicrobials, plant growth enhancers and plant nutrition management, as well as nanodiagnostic tools in phytopathology and magnetic and supramagnetic nanostructure applications for plant protection. This second volume includes exciting new content on the roles of biologically synthesized nanoparticles in seed germination and zinc-based nanostructures in protecting against toxigenic fungi. Also included is new research in phytotoxicity, nano-scale fertilizers and nanomaterial applications in nematology and discussions on Botyris grey mold and nanobiocontrol. This book also explores the potential effects on the environment, ecosystems and consumers and addresses the implications of intellectual property for nanobiopesticides. Further discussed are nanotoxicity effects on the plant ecosystem and nano-applications for the detection, degradation and removal of pesticides.

Nanobiotechnology

Nanobiotechnology Book
Author : Jameel M. Al-Khayri
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-10-16
ISBN : 3030736067
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Nanobiotechnology book written by Jameel M. Al-Khayri, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Engineered Nanoparticles

Engineered Nanoparticles Book
Author : Ashok K Singh
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-11-24
ISBN : 012801492X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Engineered Nanoparticles: Structure, Properties and Mechanisms of Toxicity is an indispensable introduction to engineered nanomaterials (ENM) and their potential adverse effects on human health and the environment. Although research in the area of pharmacology and toxicology of ENM is rapidly advancing, a possible correlation between their physicochemical properties and biomedical properties or toxicity is not yet fully understood. This understanding is essential to develop strategies for the safe applications and handling of ENM. The book comprehensively defines the current understanding of ENM toxicity, first describing these materials and their physicochemical properties, and then discussing the toxicological theory and methodology before finally demonstrating the potential impact of ENM on the environment and human health. It represents an essential reference for students and investigators in toxicology, pharmacology, chemistry, material sciences, medicine, and those in related disciplines who require an introduction to ENM and their potential toxicological effects. Provides state-of-the-art physicochemical descriptions and methodologies for the characterization of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) Describes the potential toxicological effects of ENM and the nanotoxicological mechanisms of action Presents how to apply theory to practice in a public health and risk assessment setting

Analytical Applications of Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles

Analytical Applications of Functionalized Magnetic Nanoparticles Book
Author : Chaudhery Mustansar Hussain
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2021-08-04
ISBN : 1839162104
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book summarizes recent progress due to novel functionalized magnetic nanoparticles in the analytical chemistry arena and addresses the challenges for their use in that area.

Phytotoxicity of Nanoparticles

Phytotoxicity of Nanoparticles Book
Author : Mohammad Faisal,Quaiser Saquib,Abdulrahman A. Alatar,Abdulaziz A. Al-Khedhairy
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-06-28
ISBN : 3319767089
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides relevant findings on nanoparticles’ toxicity, their uptake, translocation and mechanisms of interaction with plants at cellular and sub-cellular level. The small size and large specific surface area of nanoparticles endow them with high chemical reactivity and intrinsic toxicity. Such unique physicochemical properties draw global attention of scientists to study potential risks and adverse effects of nanoparticles in the environment. Their toxicity has pronounced effects and consequences for plants and ultimately the whole ecosystem. Plants growing in nanomaterials-polluted sites may exhibit altered metabolism, growth reduction, and lower biomass production. Nanoparticles can adhere to plant roots and exert physicochemical toxicity and subsequently cell death in plants. On the other hand, plants have developed various defense mechanisms against this induced toxicity. This books discusses recent findings as well as several unresolved issues and challenges regarding the interaction and biological effects of nanoparticles. Only detailed studies of these processes and mechanisms will allow researchers to understand the complex plant-nanomaterial interactions.

Contaminants in Agriculture

Contaminants in Agriculture Book
Author : M. Naeem,Abid Ali Ansari,Sarvajeet Singh Gill
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-04-25
ISBN : 303041552X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This comprehensive volume covers recent studies into agricultural problems caused by soil and water contamination. Considering the importance of agricultural crops to human health, the editors have focused on chapters detailing the negative impact of heavy metals, excessive chemical fertilizer use, nutrients, pesticides, herbicides, insecticides, agricultural wastes and toxic pollutants, among others, on agricultural soil and crops. In addition, the chapters offer solutions to these negative impacts through various scientific approaches, including using biotechnology, nanotechnology, nutrient management strategies, biofertilizers, as well as potent PGRs and elicitors. This book serves as a key source of information on scientific and engineered approaches and challenges for the bioremediation of agricultural contamination worldwide. This book should be helpful for research students, teachers, agriculturalists, agronomists, botanists, and plant growers, as well as in the fields of agriculture, agronomy, plant science, plant biology, and biotechnology, among others. It serves as an excellent reference on the current research and future directions of contaminants in agriculture from laboratory research to field application.

Plant Microbes Engineered Nano particles PM ENPs Nexus in Agro Ecosystems

Plant Microbes Engineered Nano particles  PM ENPs  Nexus in Agro Ecosystems Book
Author : Pardeep Singh,Rishikesh Singh,Pramit Verma,Rahul Bhadouria,Ajay Kumar,Mahima Kaushik
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-03-22
ISBN : 3030669564
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a collection of cross-disciplinary research, with contributions addressing all key features of the plant/microbe/ENP nexus in agro-ecosystems. The uptake, transport and transformation of nanoparticles in plants have attracted more and more attention in the past several years. Especially, the impact of Engineered Nanoparticles (ENPs) on bioprocesses; low-, medium- and high-level dose responses in the microbial community of soil; and long-, medium- and short-term exposure responses, particularly microbial nitrogen transformations, are just a few of the aspects involved. Since ENPs are used in many industries, including cosmetics, agriculture, medicine, food technology and waste management, their transport through biogeochemical cycles is an important focus of many studies today. Specifically, ENP–microbe interaction has been analysed with regard to disease treatment for plants; it plays a vital role in disease inhibition by releasing metal ions that act through many pathways – e.g. reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, DNA transformation and disruption of the cell cycle – to stop cell growth in the pathogen. Due to these properties, ENPs are also used as slow release or delayed release pesticides and fungicides, and as carrier systems for growth-promoting hormones. Despite their multiple uses in various industries, the negative effects of ENPs are still a major concern for the scientific community and consumers alike. For example, their transport to various food chains has been reported to have adverse effects. This raises a degree of doubt concerning a rapidly growing scientific field with major applications in many industries. From a sustainable development perspective and particularly to ensure food security in light of the uncertainty accompanying climate change, it is imperative to address this divergence by focusing on the plant/microbe/ENP nexus.