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Somatosensory Feedback For Neuroprosthetics

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Somatosensory Feedback for Neuroprosthetics

Somatosensory Feedback for Neuroprosthetics Book
Author : Burak Guclu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-07-19
ISBN : 0128230002
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Although somatosensory system works in tandem with the motor system in biology, the majority of the prosthetics research and commercial efforts had focused on accommodating movement deficits. With the development of neuroprostheses in the last 15 years, it has become evident that somatosensory input (mainly as touch and proprioception) is essential for motor control, manipulating objects, and embodiment, in addition to its primary role for sensory perception. Somatosensory Feedback for Neuroprosthetics covers all relevant aspects to facilitate learning and doing research and development in the field. To understand the properties of the body to create viable solutions, this book starts with chapters reviewing the basic anatomy, physiology, and psychophysics of the somatosensory system, sensorimotor control, and instrumentation. Some sections are dedicated to invasive (peripheral and central, mainly cortical) and noninvasive (vibrotactile, electrotactile, etc.) approaches. Final chapters cover future technologies such as novel sensors and electrodes, safety, and clinical testing, and help to make up future prospects for this field with an emphasis on development and end use. With contributions from renowned experts, the contents include their recent findings and technical details necessary to understand those findings. Provides a concise review of the somatosensory system and latest advances in the use of somatosensory feedback for neuroprosthetics Analyzes many approaches to somatosensory feedback Provides the most detailed work on somatosensory neuroprostheses, their development, and applications in real life work.

Multisensory Integration of Lower Limb Somatosensory Neuroprostheses from Psychophysics to Functionality

Multisensory Integration of Lower Limb Somatosensory Neuroprostheses  from Psychophysics to Functionality Book
Author : Breanne P. Christie
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over one million individuals in the United States have a lower-limb amputation. Though locomotion is a sensorimotor process, no commercially available prostheses offer somatosensory feedback, and amputees continue to face locomotor challenges. Recent studies have demonstrated that electrically stimulating the residual nerves of amputees can elicit somatosensory percepts referred to the missing limb. Though peripheral nerve stimulation (PNS) takes advantage of the existing neural pathways that carry sensory information from the amputated limb to the brain, neural stimulation does not activate these afferent fibers in the same manner as physically-applied tactile stimuli. We hypothesized that these differences in neural activation may cause PNS-evoked sensation to be perceived differently than natural touch with respect to temporal synchrony and multisensory integration. In Aim 1, we found that the processing time and temporal sensitivity were not different between PNS-evoked and natural somatosensation. The similarity in visuotactile synchrony provided further evidence that PNS-evoked sensations are processed in broadly the same way as natural touch. In Aim 2, we established that much like natural somatosensation, vision and postural manipulations could reinforce PNS-evoked somatosensation. This multisensory integration had not been previously demonstrated and it is important for sensory neuroprostheses, which will be used in diverse environments with various sensory resources.The findings from Aims 1-2 demonstrated that PNS-evoked and natural somatosensation have similar properties, but did not guarantee that the body would utilize the sensory information accordingly. In Aim 3, we showed that amputees utilized PNS-evoked plantar sensation while performing a challenging locomotor task, revealing a significant and immediate benefit of somatosensory feedback to amputees. The use of a sensory-enabled prosthesis did not change the amputees' locomotor strategies, which indicated that longer-term therapeutic benefits might require a longer familiarization period with the device. PNS allowed us to decouple sensory stimuli in a way that is not ordinarily possible, enabling probing of the underlying characteristics of multisensory integration. This dissertation lays the groundwork for future studies with additional target populations. Both trans-femoral and bilateral amputees are missing more sensory resources than unilateral trans-tibial amputees, and could benefit substantially from restoring balance resources, such as somatosensation.

Neural Engineering

Neural Engineering Book
Author : Lijie Grace Zhang,David L. Kaplan
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-06-29
ISBN : 3319314335
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers the principles of advanced 3D fabrication techniques, stem cells and biomaterials for neural engineering. Renowned contributors cover topics such as neural tissue regeneration, peripheral and central nervous system repair, brain-machine interfaces and in vitro nervous system modeling. Within these areas, focus remains on exciting and emerging technologies such as highly developed neuroprostheses and the communication channels between the brain and prostheses, enabling technologies that are beneficial for development of therapeutic interventions, advanced fabrication techniques such as 3D bioprinting, photolithography, microfluidics, and subtractive fabrication, and the engineering of implantable neural grafts.There is a strong focus on stem cells and 3D bioprinting technologies throughout the book, including working with embryonic, fetal, neonatal, and adult stem cells and a variety of sophisticated 3D bioprinting methods for neural engineering applications. There is also a strong focus on biomaterials, including various conductive biomaterials and biomimetic nanomaterials such as carbon-based nanomaterials and engineered 3D nanofibrous scaffolds for neural tissue regeneration. Finally, two chapters on in vitro nervous system models are also included, which cover this topic in the context of studying physiology and pathology of the human nervous system, and for use in drug discovery research. This is an essential book for biomedical engineers, neuroscientists, neurophysiologists, and industry professionals.

Emerging Theory and Practice in Neuroprosthetics

Emerging Theory and Practice in Neuroprosthetics Book
Author : Naik, Ganesh R.
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2014-05-31
ISBN : 1466660953
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neuroprosthetics is a fast-growing area that brings together the fields of biomedical engineering and neuroscience as a means to interface the neural system directly to prostheses. Advancing research and applications in this field can assist in successfully restoring motor, sensory, and cognitive functions. Emerging Theory and Practice in Neuroprosthetics brings together the most up-to-date research surrounding neuroprosthetics advances and applications. Presenting several new results, concepts, and further developments in the area of neuroprosthetics, this book is an essential publication for researchers, upper-level students, engineers, and medical practitioners.

Single unit Responses in Somatosensory Cortex to Precision Grip of Textured Surfaces

Single unit Responses in Somatosensory Cortex to Precision Grip of Textured Surfaces Book
Author : Stephanie Naufel
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the past decade, research on the motor control side of neuroprosthetics has steadily gained momentum. However, modern research in prosthetic development supplements a focus on motor control with a concentration on sensory feedback. Simulating sensation is a central issue because without sensory capabilities, the sophistication of the most advanced motor control system fails to reach its full potential. This research is an effort toward the development of sensory feedback specifically for neuroprosthetic hands. The present aim of this work is to understand the processing and representation of cutaneous sensation by evaluating performance and neural activity in somatosensory cortex (SI) during a grasp task. A non-human primate (Macaca mulatta) was trained to reach out and grasp textured instrumented objects with a precision grip. Two different textures for the objects were used, 100% cotton cloth and 60-grade sandpaper, and the target object was presented at two different orientations. Of the 167 cells that were isolated for this experiment, only 42 were recorded while the subject executed a few blocks of successful trials for both textures. These latter cells were used in this study's statistical analysis. Of these, 37 units (88%) exhibited statistically significant task related activity. Twenty-two units (52%) exhibited statistically significant tuning to texture, and 16 units (38%) exhibited statistically significant tuning to posture. Ten of the cells (24%) exhibited statistically significant tuning to both texture and posture. These data suggest that single units in somatosensory cortex can encode multiple phenomena such as texture and posture. However, if this information is to be used to provide sensory feedback for a prosthesis, scientists must learn to further parse cortical activity to discover how to induce specific modalities of sensation. Future experiments should therefore be developed that probe more variables and that more systematically and comprehensively scan somatosensory cortex. This will allow researchers to seek out the existence or non-existence of cortical pockets reserved for certain modalities of sensation, which will be valuable in learning how to later provide appropriate sensory feedback for a prosthesis through cortical stimulation.

Enhancing Performance for Action and Perception

Enhancing Performance for Action and Perception Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-07-16
ISBN : 0080885357
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume of Progess in Brain Research follows on from the 32nd International Symposium of the Groupe de recherche sur le système nerveux central (GRSNC), May 2010, and aims to provide an overview of the various neural mechanisms that contribute to learning new motor and sensory skills, and to adapting to changed circumstances, including the use of devices and implants to substitute for lost sensory or motor abilities (brain machine interfaces). The focus is on recent developments covering five major themes: Mechanisms to improve motor performance Neuro-rehabilitation of motor function Mechanisms to enhance sensory perception Cross modal interationc for enhancing sensorimotor performance Assistive technologies to enhance sensorimotor performance This volume focuses on the translation of scientific knowledge into applications and strategies that can help restore lost function following injury or disease including assistive neuroprosthetic technologies to enhance sensorimotor performance and neurorehabilitation. Leading authors review the state-of-the-art in their field of investigation and provide their views and perspectives for future research Chapters are extensively referenced to provide readers with a comprehensive list of resources on the topics covered All chapters include comprehensive background information and are written in a clear form that is also accessible to the non-specialist

Neuroprosthetics

Neuroprosthetics Book
Author : Kenneth W. Horch,Gurpreet S. Dhillon
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2004
ISBN : 9789812380227
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A study of neuroprosthetics. It is broadly divided into three sections which address: neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, biomaterials and biocompatibility, stimulation and recording techniques; clinical applications of neuroprosthetics; and future developments.

Implantable Neuroprostheses for Restoring Function

Implantable Neuroprostheses for Restoring Function Book
Author : Kevin Kilgore
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-02-24
ISBN : 1782421092
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Research and developments in neuroprostheses are providing scientists with the potential to greatly improve the lives of individuals who have lost some function. Neuroprostheses can help restore or substitute motor and sensory functions which may have been damaged as a result of injury or disease. However, these minute implantable sensors also provide scientists with challenges. This important new book provides readers with a comprehensive review of neuroprostheses. Chapters in part one are concerned with the fundamentals of these devices. Part two looks at neuroprostheses for restoring sensory function whilst part three addresses neuroprostheses for restoring motor function. The final set of chapters discusses significant considerations concerning these sensors. Systematic and comprehensive coverage of neuroprostheses Covers the fundamentals of neuroprostheses, their application in restoring sensory and motor function and an analysis of the future trends Keen focus on industry needs in the field of biomaterials

Bioinspired Devices

Bioinspired Devices Book
Author : Eugene C. Goldfield
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 2018-01-08
ISBN : 0674981936
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Eugene Goldfield lays out principles of engineering found in the natural world, with a focus on how components of coordinated structures organize themselves into autonomous functional systems. This self-organizing capacity is one of many qualities which can be harnessed to design technologies that can interact seamlessly with human bodies.

Advances in Motor Neuroprostheses

Advances in Motor Neuroprostheses Book
Author : Ramana Vinjamuri
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-04-10
ISBN : 3030387402
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive review of recent developments in the field of motor neuroprosthetics and brain-machine interfaces. Chapters in this book are provided by leading experts in the field and include topics such as the design and control of multidimensional prosthetics and exoskeletons, deep brain stimulation, functional electrical stimulation, deep learning for brain machine interfaces, biofeedback, and cognitive intent for adaptation of motor prostheses. This book is a great resource for undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, engineers from related disciplines, entrepreneurs, and anyone interested in the latest progress in the field of motor neuroprostheses.

Human Psychophysics of Direct Cortical Stimulation of Somatosensory Cortex

Human Psychophysics of Direct Cortical Stimulation of Somatosensory Cortex Book
Author : Jeneva A. Cronin
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Feedback is a vital part of any control system, and somatosensory feedback is essential for efficient and precise movement. Thus, future rehabilitative brain-computer interfaces (BCIs), such as neuroprostheses, require the integration of somatosensory feedback for improved control. Such bidirectional BCIs (BBCIs) will both record from and stimulate the nervous system to restore function. Direct cortical stimulation (DCS) of the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) through electrocorticography (ECoG) electrodes is one possible method of providing sensory feedback to users. The future success of ECoG sensory stimulation will depend on our ability to elicit a wide range of useful tactile perceptions through stimulation. However, the field’s understanding of the relationship between DCS parameters, a subject’s ability to perceive DCS, and the percepts a subject experiences is limited. I have endeavored to address these limitations using DCS via macro-ECoG electrodes in human subjects who can describe their perception and experience of DCS. We first examined the psychophysics of DCS of S1, using bipolar, biphasic DCS waveforms characterized by their current amplitude, pulse phase width, pulse frequency, and stimulation train duration. We found that although perceptual thresholds vary between subjects, certain relationships between the stimulation parameters and their perceptual thresholds hold, including a previously reported finding in non-human primates and rats that perceptual charge thresholds decrease with decreasing pulse width and increasing pulse frequency. Next we assessed subjects’ response times to S1 DCS compared to their response times to haptic stimuli and found that subjects respond significantly slower to S1 DCS than to haptic touch. Finally we considered how S1 DCS could perform in a future BBCI by evaluating how S1 DCS would affect subjects’ sense of ownership over an artificial limb and exploring how subjects could use S1 DCS as feedback in a motor-based task. We found that S1 DCS could indeed evoke a sense of ownership and be used as task feedback, but may not have been a trivial feedback signal to learn. These findings have implications in the development of somatosensory feedback for BBCIs. Given that we observed similar trends in subject perception as is noted in studies using other electrical stimulation modalities, it is possible that we can apply what we have learned through these macro-ECoG DCS studies to other stimulation modalities.

A Conversation With the Brain Can We Speak Its Language

A Conversation With the Brain  Can We Speak Its Language  Book
Author : Alejandro Barriga-Rivera,Tianruo Guo,Yuki Hayashida,Gregg Suaning
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-10-12
ISBN : 2889660672
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download A Conversation With the Brain Can We Speak Its Language book written by Alejandro Barriga-Rivera,Tianruo Guo,Yuki Hayashida,Gregg Suaning, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biosignal Processing and Computational Methods to Enhance Sensory Motor Neuroprosthetics

Biosignal Processing and Computational Methods to Enhance Sensory Motor Neuroprosthetics Book
Author : Mitsuhiro Hayashibe,David Guiraud,Jose L. Pons,Dario Farina
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-01-22
ISBN : 2889197182
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Though there have been many developments in sensory/motor prosthetics, they have not yet reached the level of standard and worldwide use like pacemakers and cochlear implants. One challenging issue in motor prosthetics is the large variety of patient situations, which depending on the type of neurological disorder. To improve neuroprosthetic performance beyond the current limited use of such systems, robust bio-signal processing and model-based control involving actual sensory motor state (with biosignal feedback) would bring about new modalities and applications, and could be a breakthrough toward adaptive neuroprosthetics. Recent advances of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) now enable patients to transmit their intention of movement. However, the functionality and controllability of motor prosthetics itself can be further improved to take advantage of BCI interfaces. In this Research Topic we welcome contribution of original research articles, computational and experimental studies, review articles, and methodological advances related to biosignal processing that may enhance the functionality of sensory motor neuroprosthetics. The scope of this topic includes, but is not limited to, studies aimed at enhancing: 1) computational biosignal processing in EMG (Electromyography), EEG (Electroencephalography), and other modalities of biofeedback information; 2) the computational method in modeling and control of sensory motor neuroprosthetics; 3) the systematic functionality aiming to provide solutions for specific pathological movement disorders; 4) human interfaces such as BCI - but in the case of BCI study, manuscripts should be experimental studies which are applied to sensory/motor neuroprosthetics in patients with motor disabilities.

Neuromodulation An Issue of Neurosurgery Clinics of North America An Issue of Neurosurgery Clinics of North America

Neuromodulation  An Issue of Neurosurgery Clinics of North America  An Issue of Neurosurgery Clinics of North America Book
Author : Wendell B Lake,Ashwini Sharan,Chengyuan Wu
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2019-04-28
ISBN : 032367853X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This issue of Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America focuses on Biliary Tract and Primary Liver Tumors and is edited by Dr. T. Clark Gamblin. Articles will include: Biliary Tract and Primary Liver Tumors; Biliary Tract and Primary Liver Tumors: Who, What and Why?; Imaging Updates for Biliary Tract or Primary Liver Tumors; Endoscopic and Percutaneous Approaches to Treat of Biliary Tract and Primary Liver Tumors: Controversies and Advances; Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: Strategies and Options; Surgical Considerations of Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma; Gall Bladder Cancer: Managing the Incidental Diagnosis; Approaches and Outcomes to Distal Cholangiocarcinoma; Evolving Surgical Options of Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Staging of Biliary and Primary Liver Tumors: Current Reccomendations and Workup; Systemic and Targeted Therapy for Biliary Tract Tumors and Primary Liver Tumors; Regional Chemotherapy for Biliary Tract and Primary Liver Cancer; Role of Radioembolization for Biliary Tract and Primary Liver Cancer; Inoperable Biliary Tract and Primary Liver Tumors: Palliative Treatment Options; Expanding the Surgical Pool for Hepatic Resection to Treat Biliary and Primary Liver Tumors; and more!

Augmentation of Brain Function Facts Fiction and Controversy

Augmentation of Brain Function  Facts  Fiction and Controversy Book
Author : Mikhail Lebedev,Ioan Opris,Manuel F. Casanova
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2018-09-14
ISBN : 2889456145
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volume I, entitled “Augmentation of Brain Functions: Brain-Machine Interfaces”, is a collection of articles on neuroprosthetic technologies that utilize brain-machine interfaces (BMIs). BMIs strive to augment the brain by linking neural activity, recorded invasively or noninvasively, to external devices, such as arm prostheses, exoskeletons that enable bipedal walking, means of communication and technologies that augment attention. In addition to many practical applications, BMIs provide useful research tools for basic science. Several articles cover challenges and controversies in this rapidly developing field, such as ways to improve information transfer rate. BMIs can be applied to the awake state of the brain and to the sleep state, as well. BMIs can augment action planning and decision making. Importantly, BMI operations evoke brain plasticity, which can have long-lasting effects. Advanced neural decoding algorithms that utilize optimal feedback controllers are key to the BMI performance. BMI approach can be combined with the other augmentation methods; such systems are called hybrid BMIs. Overall, it appears that BMI will lead to many powerful and practical brain-augmenting technologies in the future.

Brain Computer Interfaces Handbook

Brain   Computer Interfaces Handbook Book
Author : Chang S. Nam,Anton Nijholt,Fabien Lotte
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-01-09
ISBN : 1351231944
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Brain–Computer Interfaces Handbook: Technological and Theoretical Advances provides a tutorial and an overview of the rich and multi-faceted world of Brain–Computer Interfaces (BCIs). The authors supply readers with a contemporary presentation of fundamentals, theories, and diverse applications of BCI, creating a valuable resource for anyone involved with the improvement of people’s lives by replacing, restoring, improving, supplementing or enhancing natural output from the central nervous system. It is a useful guide for readers interested in understanding how neural bases for cognitive and sensory functions, such as seeing, hearing, and remembering, relate to real-world technologies. More precisely, this handbook details clinical, therapeutic and human-computer interfaces applications of BCI and various aspects of human cognition and behavior such as perception, affect, and action. It overviews the different methods and techniques used in acquiring and pre-processing brain signals, extracting features, and classifying users’ mental states and intentions. Various theories, models, and empirical findings regarding the ways in which the human brain interfaces with external systems and environments using BCI are also explored. The handbook concludes by engaging ethical considerations, open questions, and challenges that continue to face brain–computer interface research. Features an in-depth look at the different methods and techniques used in acquiring and pre-processing brain signals, extracting features, and classifying the user's intention Covers various theories, models, and empirical findings regarding ways in which the human brain can interface with the systems or external environments Presents applications of BCI technology to understand various aspects of human cognition and behavior such as perception, affect, action, and more Includes clinical trials and individual case studies of the experimental therapeutic applications of BCI Provides human factors and human-computer interface concerns in the design, development, and evaluation of BCIs Overall, this handbook provides a synopsis of key technological and theoretical advances that are directly applicable to brain–computer interfacing technologies and can be readily understood and applied by individuals with no formal training in BCI research and development.

Closed Loop Systems for Next Generation Neuroprostheses

Closed Loop Systems for Next Generation Neuroprostheses Book
Author : Timothée Levi,Paolo Bonifazi, Paolo Massobrio,Michela Chiappalone
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2018-04-26
ISBN : 2889454665
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Millions of people worldwide are affected by neurological disorders which disrupt the connections within the brain and between brain and body causing impairments of primary functions and paralysis. Such a number is likely to increase in the next years and current assistive technology is yet limited. A possible response to such disabilities, offered by the neuroscience community, is given by Brain-Machine Interfaces (BMIs) and neuroprostheses. The latter field of research is highly multidisciplinary, since it involves very different and disperse scientific communities, making it fundamental to create connections and to join research efforts. Indeed, the design and development of neuroprosthetic devices span/involve different research topics such as: interfacing of neural systems at different levels of architectural complexity (from in vitro neuronal ensembles to human brain), bio-artificial interfaces for stimulation (e.g. micro-stimulation, DBS: Deep Brain Stimulation) and recording (e.g. EMG: Electromyography, EEG: Electroencephalography, LFP: Local Field Potential), innovative signal processing tools for coding and decoding of neural activity, biomimetic artificial Spiking Neural Networks (SNN) and neural network modeling. In order to develop functional communication with the nervous system and to create a new generation of neuroprostheses, the study of closed-loop systems is mandatory. It has been widely recognized that closed-loop neuroprosthetic systems achieve more favorable outcomes for users then equivalent open-loop devices. Improvements in task performance, usability, and embodiment have all been reported in systems utilizing some form of feedback. The bi-directional communication between living neurons and artificial devices is the main final goal of those studies. However, closed-loop systems are still uncommon in the literature, mostly due to requirement of multidisciplinary effort. Therefore, through eBook on closed-loop systems for next-generation neuroprostheses, we encourage an active discussion among neurobiologists, electrophysiologists, bioengineers, computational neuroscientists and neuromorphic engineers. This eBook aims to facilitate this process by ordering the 25 contributions of this research in which we highlighted in three different parts: (A) Optimization of different blocks composing the closed-loop system, (B) Systems for neuromodulation based on DBS, EMG and SNN and (C) Closed-loop BMIs for rehabilitation.

The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development

The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development Book
Author : Ravi Balasubramanian,Veronica J. Santos
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-01-03
ISBN : 3319030175
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

“The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

Phantom Sensation and Pain Underlying Mechanisms and Innovative Treatments

Phantom Sensation and Pain  Underlying Mechanisms and Innovative Treatments Book
Author : Jack Tsao,Robert Scott Waters,Eric Lewin Altschuler
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-01-10
ISBN : 2889633020
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Major limb amputation affects a large number of people worldwide, with estimates in the United States as high as 2 million. One of the most common conditions following limb amputation is phantom limb sensation. The majority of patients who have undergone traumatic limb loss also experience phantom limb pain (PLP). There is no consensus on potential differences in the frequency or severity of phantom pain between men and women. This project is seeking out studies that look at the experience of PLP: what people feel, frequency and duration of PLP episodes, if there is a difference in experience between men and women, as well as if there is a relationship between PLP experiences and cause of amputation. Although PLP has been recognized since the mid-16th century, the etiology is still unknown. There are several proposed mechanisms, including learned paralysis, cortical reorganization, and proprioceptive memory. It has been proposed that the mechanism of learned paralysis, whereby PLP arises because the brain does not receive visual feedback that a motor movement has occurred, thus creating the sensation that the limb is paralyzed. Cortical reorganization theory states that areas near those corresponding to the amputated limb slowly expand into those corresponding to the amputated limb. This theory has been supported by the correlation of more severe PLP with increased neural plasticity. Proprioceptive memory refers to a theory that the brain remembers sensations associated with specific perceived positions of the phantom limb. While many treatments for PLP have yielded little success, mirror therapy (MT) appears to be a promising method for relieving PLP. Several small-scale studies have been conducted to evaluate the efficacy of MY, with most patients seeing some reduction in PLP. One group performed the first randomized, sham-controlled study demonstrating that MT was more effective in reducing PLP in lower-limb amputees compared to covered mirror therapy or mental visualization of movements. The efficacy of nearly complete pain relief continued for at least 2 years after therapy. The physiological reason for mirror therapy’s effectiveness remains unknown, but the effectiveness would correspond with the theory of cortical reorganization in that MT would reset the original reorganization present in the brain before amputation and would also support the theory of proprioceptive memories in that it could remove recall of those memories. This project will discuss further investigation into the factors relating to success in MT, as well as the efficacy of MT in relation to proposed mechanisms that cause PLP. Discussion of other forms of novel treatment will also be included. This Research Topic attempts to further explain the etiology of phantom limb pain, better understand the experience of phantom limb pain, and explore treatment options for phantom limb pain. This project will include a review of the current understanding of phantom limb pain, its causes, and treatment.

Somatosensory Feedback to Improve Brain machine Interfaces

Somatosensory Feedback to Improve Brain machine Interfaces Book
Author : Gene Yevgeny Fridman
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Somatosensory Feedback to Improve Brain machine Interfaces book written by Gene Yevgeny Fridman, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.