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Solar Cell Device Physics

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Solar Cell Device Physics

Solar Cell Device Physics Book
Author : Stephen Fonash
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 0323154638
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Solar Cell Device Physics offers a balanced, in-depth qualitative and quantitative treatment of the physical principles and operating characteristics of solar cell devices. Topics covered include photovoltaic energy conversion and solar cell materials and structures, along with homojunction solar cells. Semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunction cells and surface-barrier solar cells are also discussed. This book consists of six chapters and begins by introducing the reader to the basic physical principles and materials properties that are the foundations of photovoltaic energy conversion, with emphasis on various photovoltaic devices capable of efficiently converting solar energy into usable electrical energy. The electronic and optical properties of crystalline, polycrystalline, and amorphous materials with both organic and inorganic materials are considered, together with the manner in which these properties change from one material class to another and the implications of such changes for photovoltaics. Generation, recombination, and bulk transport are also discussed. The two mechanisms of photocarrier collection in solar cells, drift and diffusion, are then compared. The remaining chapters focus on specific solar cell device classes defined in terms of the interface structure employed: homojunctions, semiconductor-semiconductor heterojunctions, and surface-barrier devices. This monograph is appropriate for use as a textbook for graduate students in engineering and the sciences and for seniors in electrical engineering and applied physics, as well as a reference book for those actively involved in solar cell research and development.

The Physics of Solar Cells

The Physics of Solar Cells Book
Author : Jenny Nelson
Publisher : World Scientific Publishing Company
Release : 2003-05-09
ISBN : 1848168233
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the physics of the photovoltaic cell. It is suitable for undergraduates, graduate students, and researchers new to the field. It covers: basic physics of semiconductors in photovoltaic devices; physical models of solar cell operation; characteristics and design of common types of solar cell; and approaches to increasing solar cell efficiency. The text explains the terms and concepts of solar cell device physics and shows the reader how to formulate and solve relevant physical problems. Exercises and worked solutions are included.

Organic Solar Cells

Organic Solar Cells Book
Author : Pankaj Kumar
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-10-03
ISBN : 1315353628
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book contains detailed information on the types, structure, fabrication, and characterization of organic solar cells (OSCs). It discusses processes to improve efficiencies and the prevention of degradation in OSCs. It compares the cost-effectiveness of OSCs to those based on crystalline silicon and discusses ways to make OSCs more economical. This book provides a practical guide for the fabrication, processing, and characterization of OSCs and paves the way for further development in OSC technology.

Solar Cells

Solar Cells Book
Author : S. K. Sharma,Khuram Ali
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-01-07
ISBN : 3030363546
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book addresses the rapidly developing class of solar cell materials and designed to provide much needed information on the fundamental principles of these materials, together with how these are employed in photovoltaic applications. A special emphasize have been given for the space applications through study of radiation tolerant solar cells. This book present a comprehensive research outlining progress on the synthesis, fabrication and application of solar cells from fundamental to device technology and is helpful for graduate students, researchers, and technologists engaged in research and development of materials.

The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion

The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion Book
Author : Juan Bisquert
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-06-09
ISBN : 0429000146
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Research on advanced energy conversion devices such as solar cells has intensified in the last two decades. A broad landscape of candidate materials and devices were discovered and systematically studied for effective solar energy conversion and utilization. New concepts have emerged forming a rather powerful picture embracing the mechanisms and limitation to efficiencies of different types of devices. The Physics of Solar Energy Conversion introduces the main physico-chemical principles that govern the operation of energy devices for energy conversion and storage, with a detailed view of the principles of solar energy conversion using advanced materials. Key Features include: Highlights recent rapid advances with the discovery of perovskite solar cells and their development. Analyzes the properties of organic solar cells, lithium ion batteries, light emitting diodes and the semiconductor materials for hydrogen production by water splitting. Embraces concepts from nanostructured and highly disordered materials to lead halide perovskite solar cells Takes a broad perspective and comprehensively addresses the fundamentals so that the reader can apply these and assess future developments and technologies in the field. Introduces basic techniques and methods for understanding the materials and interfaces that compose operative energy devices such as solar cells and solar fuel converters.

Physics of Solar Cells

Physics of Solar Cells Book
Author : Peter Würfel,Uli Würfel
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2016-06-13
ISBN : 352741309X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The new edition of this highly regarded textbook provides a detailed overview of the most important characterization techniques for solar cells and a discussion of their advantages and disadvantages. It describes in detail all aspects of solar cell function, the physics behind every single step, as well as all the issues to be considered when improving solar cells and their efficiency. The text is now complete with examples of how the appropriate characterization techniques enable the distinction between several potential limitation factors, describing how quantities that have been introduced theoretically in earlier chapters become experimentally accessible. With exercises after each chapter to reinforce the newly acquired knowledge and requiring no more than standard physics knowledge, this book enables students and professionals to understand the factors driving conversion efficiency and to apply this to their own solar cell development.

High Efficiency Solar Cells

High Efficiency Solar Cells Book
Author : Xiaodong Wang,Zhiming M. Wang
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-01
ISBN : 3319019880
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As part of the effort to increase the contribution of solar cells (photovoltaics) to our energy mix, this book addresses three main areas: making existing technology cheaper, promoting advanced technologies based on new architectural designs, and developing new materials to serve as light absorbers. Leading scientists throughout the world create a fundamental platform for knowledge sharing that combines the physics, materials, and device architectures of high-efficiency solar cells. While providing a comprehensive introduction to the field, the book highlights directions for further research, and is intended to stimulate readers’ interest in the development of novel materials and technologies for solar energy applications.

The Physics of Solar Cells

The Physics of Solar Cells Book
Author : Juan Bisquert
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-11-15
ISBN : 1351395572
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book provides an explanation of the operation of photovoltaic devices from a broad perspective that embraces a variety of materials concepts, from nanostructured and highly disordered organic materials, to highly efficient devices such as the lead halide perovskite solar cells. The book establishes from the beginning a simple but very rich model of a solar cell, in order to develop and understand step by step the photovoltaic operation according to fundamental physical properties and constraints. It emphasizes the aspects pertaining to the functioning of a solar cell and the determination of limiting efficiencies of energy conversion. The final chapters of the book establish a more refined and realistic treatment of the many factors that determine the actual performance of experimental devices: transport gradients, interfacial recombination, optical losses and so forth. The book finishes with a short review of additional important aspects of solar energy conversion, such as the photonic aspects of spectral modification, and the direct conversion of solar photons to chemical fuel via electrochemical reactions.

Organic Solar Cells

Organic Solar Cells Book
Author : Wolfgang Tress
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-11-22
ISBN : 3319100971
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers in a textbook-like fashion the basics or organic solar cells, addressing the limits of photovoltaic energy conversion and giving a well-illustrated introduction to molecular electronics with focus on the working principle and characterization of organic solar cells. Further chapters based on the author’s dissertation focus on the electrical processes in organic solar cells by presenting a detailed drift-diffusion approach to describe exciton separation and charge-carrier transport and extraction. The results, although elaborated on small-molecule solar cells and with focus on the zinc phthalocyanine: C60 material system, are of general nature. They propose and demonstrate experimental approaches for getting a deeper understanding of the dominating processes in amorphous thin-film based solar cells in general. The main focus is on the interpretation of the current-voltage characteristics (J-V curve). This very standard measurement technique for a solar cell reflects the electrical processes in the device. Comparing experimental to simulation data, the author discusses the reasons for S-Shaped J-V curves, the role of charge carrier mobilities and energy barriers at interfaces, the dominating recombination mechanisms, the charge carrier generation profile, and other efficiency-limiting processes in organic solar cells. The book concludes with an illustrative guideline on how to identify reasons for changes in the J-V curve. This book is a suitable introduction for students in engineering, physics, material science, and chemistry starting in the field of organic or hybrid thin-film photovoltaics. It is just as valuable for professionals and experimentalists who analyze solar cell devices.

Principles of Solar Cells LEDs and Diodes

Principles of Solar Cells  LEDs and Diodes Book
Author : Adrian Kitai
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-09-13
ISBN : 1444318349
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book will cover the two most important applications of semiconductor diodes – solar cells and LEDs - together with quantitative coverage of the physics of the PN junction at the senior undergraduate level. It will include: Review of semiconductor physics Introduction to PN diodes The solar cell Physics of efficient conversion of sunlight into electrical energy Semiconductor solar cell materials and device physics Advanced solar cell materials and devices The light emitting diode Physics of efficient conversion of electrical energy into light Semiconductor light emitting diode materials and device physics Advanced light emitting diode materials and devices

Chalcogenide Photovoltaics

Chalcogenide Photovoltaics Book
Author : Roland Scheer,Hans-Werner Schock
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-03-31
ISBN : 9783527633722
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This first comprehensive description of the most important material properties and device aspects closes the gap between general books on solar cells and journal articles on chalcogenide-based photovoltaics. Written by two very renowned authors with years of practical experience in the field, the book covers II-VI and I-III-VI2 materials as well as energy conversion at heterojunctions. It also discusses the latest semiconductor heterojunction models and presents modern analysis concepts. Thin film technology is explained with an emphasis on current and future techniques for mass production, and the book closes with a compendium of failure analysis in photovoltaic thin film modules. With its overview of the semiconductor physics and technology needed, this practical book is ideal for students, researchers, and manufacturers, as well as for the growing number of engineers and researchers working in companies and institutes on chalcogenide photovoltaics.

Advances in Thin Film Solar Cells

Advances in Thin Film Solar Cells Book
Author : I. M. Dharmadasa
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-09-05
ISBN : 0429668392
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Solar energy conversion plays a very important role in the rapid introduction of renewable energy, which is essential to meet future energy demands without further polluting the environment, but current solar panels based on silicon are expensive due to the cost of raw materials and high energy consumption during production. The way forward is to move towards thin-film solar cells using alternative materials and low-cost manufacturing methods. The photovoltaic community is actively researching thin-film solar cells based on amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride (CdTe), copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS), and dye-sensitised and organic materials. However, progress has been slow due to a lack of proper understanding of the physics behind these devices. This book concentrates on the latest developments and attempts to improve our understanding of solid-state device physics. The material presented is mainly experimental and based on CdTe thin-film solar cells. The author extends these new findings to CIGS thin-film solar cells and presents a new device design based on graded bandgap multi-layer solar cells. This design has been experimentally tested using the well-researched GaAs/AlGaAs system, and initial devices have shown impressive device parameters. These devices are capable of absorbing all radiation (UV, visible and infra-red) within the solar spectrum and combine "impact ionisation" and "impurity photovoltaic" effects. The improved device understanding presented in this book should impact and guide future photovoltaic device development and low-cost thin-film solar panel manufacture. This new edition features an additional chapter besides exercises and their solutions, which will be useful for academics teaching in this field.

Solution Processable Components for Organic Electronic Devices

Solution Processable Components for Organic Electronic Devices Book
Author : Beata Luszczynska,Krzysztof Matyjaszewski,Jacek Ulanski
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2019-09-16
ISBN : 352734442X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides first-hand insights into advanced fabrication techniques for solution processable organic electronics materials and devices The field of printable organic electronics has emerged as a technology which plays a major role in materials science research and development. Printable organic electronics soon compete with, and for specific applications can even outpace, conventional semiconductor devices in terms of performance, cost, and versatility. Printing techniques allow for large-scale fabrication of organic electronic components and functional devices for use as wearable electronics, health-care sensors, Internet of Things, monitoring of environment pollution and many others, yet-to-be-conceived applications. The first part of Solution-Processable Components for Organic Electronic Devices covers the synthesis of: soluble conjugated polymers; solution-processable nanoparticles of inorganic semiconductors; high-k nanoparticles by means of controlled radical polymerization; advanced blending techniques yielding novel materials with extraordinary properties. The book also discusses photogeneration of charge carriers in nanostructured bulk heterojunctions and charge carrier transport in multicomponent materials such as composites and nanocomposites as well as photovoltaic devices modelling. The second part of the book is devoted to organic electronic devices, such as field effect transistors, light emitting diodes, photovoltaics, photodiodes and electronic memory devices which can be produced by solution-based methods, including printing and roll-to-roll manufacturing. The book provides in-depth knowledge for experienced researchers and for those entering the field. It comprises 12 chapters focused on: ? novel organic electronics components synthesis and solution-based processing techniques ? advanced analysis of mechanisms governing charge carrier generation and transport in organic semiconductors and devices ? fabrication techniques and characterization methods of organic electronic devices Providing coverage of the state of the art of organic electronics, Solution-Processable Components for Organic Electronic Devices is an excellent book for materials scientists, applied physicists, engineering scientists, and those working in the electronics industry.

Perovskite Photovoltaics and Optoelectronics

Perovskite Photovoltaics and Optoelectronics Book
Author : Tsutomu Miyasaka
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2022-03-21
ISBN : 3527347488
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Perovskite Photovoltaics and Optoelectronics Discover a one-of-a-kind treatment of perovskite photovoltaics In less than a decade, the photovoltaics of organic-inorganic halide perovskite materials has surpassed the efficiency of semiconductor compounds like CdTe and CIGS in solar cells. In Perovskite Photovoltaics and Optoelectronics: From Fundamentals to Advanced Applications, distinguished engineer Dr. Tsutomu Miyasaka delivers a comprehensive exploration of foundational and advanced topics regarding halide perovskites. It summarizes the latest information and discussion in the field, from fundamental theory and materials to critical device applications. With contributions by top scientists working in the perovskite community, the accomplished editor has compiled a resource of central importance for researchers working on perovskite related materials and devices. This edited volume includes coverage of new materials and their commercial and market potential in areas like perovskite solar cells, perovskite light-emitting diodes (LEDs), and perovskite-based photodetectors. It also includes: A thorough introduction to halide perovskite materials, their synthesis, and dimension control Comprehensive explorations of the photovoltaics of halide perovskites and their historical background Practical discussions of solid-state photophysics and carrier transfer mechanisms in halide perovskite semiconductors In-depth examinations of multi-cation anion-based high efficiency perovskite solar cells Perfect for materials scientists, crystallization physicists, surface chemists, and solid-state physicists, Perovskite Photovoltaics and Optoelectronics: From Fundamentals to Advanced Applications is also an indispensable resource for solid state chemists and device/electronics engineers.

Physics and Technology of Amorphous Crystalline Heterostructure Silicon Solar Cells

Physics and Technology of Amorphous Crystalline Heterostructure Silicon Solar Cells Book
Author : Wilfried G. J. H. M. van Sark,Lars Korte,Francesco Roca
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-11-16
ISBN : 3642222757
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Today’s solar cell multi-GW market is dominated by crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer technology, however new cell concepts are entering the market. One very promising solar cell design to answer these needs is the silicon hetero-junction solar cell, of which the emitter and back surface field are basically produced by a low temperature growth of ultra-thin layers of amorphous silicon. In this design, amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) constitutes both „emitter“ and „base-contact/back surface field“ on both sides of a thin crystalline silicon wafer-base (c-Si) where the electrons and holes are photogenerated; at the same time, a-Si:H passivates the c-Si surface. Recently, cell efficiencies above 23% have been demonstrated for such solar cells. In this book, the editors present an overview of the state-of-the-art in physics and technology of amorphous-crystalline heterostructure silicon solar cells. The heterojunction concept is introduced, processes and resulting properties of the materials used in the cell and their heterointerfaces are discussed and characterization techniques and simulation tools are presented.

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Based Thin Film Solar Cells

Copper Zinc Tin Sulfide Based Thin Film Solar Cells Book
Author : Kentaro Ito
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-02-23
ISBN : 111843787X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Beginning with an overview and historical background of Copper Zinc Tin Sulphide (CZTS) technology, subsequent chapters cover properties of CZTS thin films, different preparation methods of CZTS thin films, a comparative study of CZTS and CIGS solar cell, computational approach, and future applications of CZTS thin film solar modules to both ground-mount and rooftop installation. The semiconducting compound (CZTS) is made up earth-abundant, low-cost and non-toxic elements, which make it an ideal candidate to replace Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) and CdTe solar cells which face material scarcity and toxicity issues. The device performance of CZTS-based thin film solar cells has been steadily improving over the past 20 years, and they have now reached near commercial efficiency levels (10%). These achievements prove that CZTS-based solar cells have the potential to be used for large-scale deployment of photovoltaics. With contributions from leading researchers from academia and industry, many of these authors have contributed to the improvement of its efficiency, and have rich experience in preparing a variety of semiconducting thin films for solar cells.

Unconventional Thin Film Photovoltaics

Unconventional Thin Film Photovoltaics Book
Author : Enrico Da Como,Filippo De Angelis,Henry Snaith,Alison Walker
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2016-08-04
ISBN : 1782624066
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covering both organic materials, where recent advances in the understanding of device physics is driving progress, and the newly emerging field of mixed halide perovskites, which are challenging the efficiencies of conventional thin film PV cells, this book provides a balanced overview of the experimental and theoretical aspects of these two classes of solar cell. The book explores both the experimental and theoretical aspects of these solar cell classes. Emphasis is placed on understanding the fundamental physics of the devices. The book also discusses modelling over many length scales, from nano to macro. The first book to cover perovskites, this is an important reference for industrialists and researchers working in energy technologies and materials.

Solar Cells and Optics for Photovoltaic Concentration

Solar Cells and Optics for Photovoltaic Concentration  Book
Author : A. Luque,Gerardo L. Araújo
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1989
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book, written in collaboration with experts at the Instituto de Energia Solar, presents methods & devices for concentrating solar light energy for the generation of electricity. Solar Cells & Optics for Photovoltaic Concentration is based on the work carried out at the Instituto de Energia Solar, where research has produced important advances in the design & construction of more efficient solar cells.

Physics of Solar Energy

Physics of Solar Energy Book
Author : C. Julian Chen
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-08-15
ISBN : 9781118044599
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

PHYSICS OF Solar Energy Science/Physics/Energy The definitive guide to the science of solar energy You hold in your hands the first, and only, truly comprehensive guide to the most abundant and most promising source of alternative energy—solar power. In recent years, all major countries in the world have been calling for an energy revolution. The renewable energy industry will drive a vigorous expansion of the global economy and create more “green” jobs. The use of fossil fuels to power our way of living is moving toward an inevitable end, with sources of coal, petroleum, and natural gas being fiercely depleted. Solar energy offers a ubiquitous, inexhaustible, clean, and highly efficient way of meeting the energy needs of the twenty-first century. This book is designed to give the reader a solid footing in the general and basic physics of solar energy, which will be the basis of research and development in new solar engineering technologies in the years to come. As solar technologies like solar cells, solar thermal power generators, solar water heaters, solar photochemistry applications, and solar space heating-cooling systems become more and more prominent, it has become essential that the next generation of energy experts—both in academia and industry—have a one-stop resource for learning the basics behind the science, applications, and technologies afforded by solar energy. This book fills that need by laying the groundwork for the projected rapid expansion of future solar projects.

Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics

Clean Electricity from Photovoltaics Book
Author : Mary D Archer,Robert Hill
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2001-06-04
ISBN : 1783262052
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Photovoltaic cells provide clean, reversible electrical power from the sun. Made from semiconductors, they are durable, silent in operation and free of polluting emissions. In this book, experts from all sectors of the PV community — materials scientists, physicists, production engineers, economists and environmentalists — give their critical appraisals of where the technology is now and what its prospects are. Contents:The Past and Present (M D Archer)Device Physics of Silicon Solar Cells (J O Schumacher & W Wettling)Principles of Cell Design (J Poortmans et al.)Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells (M A Green)Amorphous Silicon Solar Cells (C R Wronski & D E Carlson)Cadmium Telluride Solar Cells (D Bonnet)Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells (U Rau & H W Schock)Super-High Efficiency III-V Tandem and Multijunction Cells (M Yamaguchi)Organic Photovoltaic Devices (J J M Halls & R H Friend)Quantum Well Solar Cells (J Nelson)Thermophotovoltaic Generation of Electricity (T J Coutts)Concentrator Cells and Systems (A Luque)Cells and Systems for Space Applications (C M Hardingham)Storage of Electrical Energy (R M Dell)Photovoltaic Modules, Systems and Applications (N M Pearsall & R Hill)The Photovoltaic Business: Manufacturers and Markets (B McNelis)The Economics of Photovoltaic Technologies (D Anderson)The Outlook for PV in the 21st Century (E H Lysen & B Yordi) Readership: Physicists, chemists and engineers. Keywords:Electricity;Photovoltaics;Cadmium;Solar CellsReviews:“… is an excellent resource for its intended readership of students, scientists and technologists working in the area … it is well indexed, and includes a handy list of useful web and library references. At the very least, the book deserves a place in the library of every research institution and company working on renewable energy.”Nature “With a broad range of coverage, many references in each chapter, and an appendix listing useful quantities, factors and symbols, this book would be an excellent reference source for any one working in the field of photovoltaics.”IEEE Electrical Insulation Magazine “It is timely, up-to-date and a very comprehensive work. The chapters are written by leading experts in their field who are able to communicate the technology and their enthusiasm … Photovoltaic R&D is a multi-disciplinary activity, and most chapters should be accessible to advanced undergraduate students, postgraduates and researchers with a wide range of backgrounds. It can be recommended to those starting a PhD in the area and to existing researchers in other fields who wish to find out what all the excitement is about.”Contemporary Physics