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Solar Activity Events And Galactic Cosmic Radiation

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Biological Effects and Physics of Solar and Galactic Cosmic Radiation Part B

Biological Effects and Physics of Solar and Galactic Cosmic Radiation Part B Book
Author : Charles E. Swenberg,Gerda Horneck,E.G. Stassinopoulous
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461529166
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Space missions subject human beings or any other target of a spacecraft to a radiation environment of an intensity and composition not available on earth. Whereas for missions in low earth orbit (LEO), such as those using the Space Shuttle or Space Station scenario, radiation exposure guidelines have been developed and have been adopted by spacefaring agencies, for exploratory class missions that will take the space travellers outside the protective confines of the geomagnetic field sufficient guidelines for radiation protection are still outstanding. For a piloted Mars mission, the whole concept of radiation protection needs to be reconsidered. Since there is an increasing interest of many nations and space agencies in establishing a lunar base and lor exploring Mars by manned missions, it is both, timely and important to develop appropriate risk estimates and radiation protection guidelines which will have an influence on the design and structure of space vehicles and habitation areas of the extraterrestrial settlements. This book is the result of a multidisciplinary effort to assess the state of art in our knowledge on the radiation situation during deep space missions and on the impact of this complex radiation environment on the space traveller. It comprises the lectures by the faculty members as well as short contributions by the students given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute "Biological Effects and Physics of Solar and Galactic Cosmic Radiation" held in Armacao de Pera, Portugal, 12-23 October, 1991.

Solar Cosmic Rays

Solar Cosmic Rays Book
Author : L.I. Miroshnichenko
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 9401596468
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It turned out to be really a rare and happy occasion that we know exact1y when and how a new branch of space physics was born, namely, a physics of solar cosmic rays. It happened on February 28 and March 7, 1942 when the fIrst "cosmic ray bursts" were recorded on the Earth, and the Sun was unambiguously identifIed for the fIrst time as the source of high-velocity 10 particles with energies up to > 10 eV. Just due to such a high energy these relativistic particles have been called "solar cosmic rays" (SCR), in distinction from the "true" cosmic rays of galactic origin. Between 1942 and the beginning ofthe space era in 1957 only extremely high energy solar particle events could be occasionally recorded by cosmic ray ground-Ievel detectors and balloon borne sensors. Since then the detection techniques varied considerably and the study of SCR turned into essential part of solar and solar-terrestrial physics.

Radiation and the International Space Station

Radiation and the International Space Station Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Committee on Solar and Space Physics and Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Research
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2000-03-25
ISBN : 0309068851
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A major objective of the International Space Station is learning how to cope with the inherent risks of human spaceflight--how to live and work in space for extended periods. The construction of the station itself provides the first opportunity for doing so. Prominent among the challenges associated with ISS construction is the large amount of time that astronauts will be spending doing extravehicular activity (EVA), or "space walks." EVAs from the space shuttle have been extraordinarily successful, most notably the on-orbit repair of the Hubble Space Telescope. But the number of hours of EVA for ISS construction exceeds that of the Hubble repair mission by orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the ISS orbit has nearly twice the inclination to Earth's equator as Hubble's orbit, so it spends part of every 90-minute circumnavigation at high latitudes, where Earth's magnetic field is less effective at shielding impinging radiation. This means that astronauts sweeping through these regions will be considerably more vulnerable to dangerous doses of energetic particles from a sudden solar eruption. Radiation and the International Space Station estimates that the likelihood of having a potentially dangerous solar event during an EVA is indeed very high. This report recommends steps that can be taken immediately, and over the next several years, to provide adequate warning so that the astronauts can be directed to take protective cover inside the ISS or shuttle. The near-term actions include programmatic and operational ways to take advantage of the multiagency assets that currently monitor and forecast space weather, and ways to improve the in situ measurements and the predictive power of current models.

Radiation Hazard in Space

Radiation Hazard in Space Book
Author : L.I. Miroshnichenko
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-04-17
ISBN : 9401703019
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The mono graph contains 8 chapters, and their contents cover all principal aspects of the problem: 1. Introduction and brief his tory ofthe radiation problem and background information ofradiation hazard in the near-Earth and interplanetary space. 2. General description of radiation conditions and main sources of charged partic1es in the Earth's environment and interplanetary space, effects of space environment on spacecraft. 3. Basic information about physical conditions in space and main sources of charged particles in the Earth's environment and interplanetary space, in the context of "Space W eather" monitoring and prediction. 4. Trapped radiation belts of the Earth (ERB): theory of their origin, spatial and temporal dynamics, and experimental and statistical models. 5. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR): variations of energetic, temporal and spatial characteristics, long-term modulation, and anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) component, modeling oftheir dynamics. 6. Production of energetic particles (SEPs) at/ne ar the Sun: available databases, acceleration, propagation, and prediction of individual SEP event, statistical models of solar cosmic rays (SCR). 7. Existing empirical techniques of estimating, prediction and modeling of radiation hazard, methodical approaches and constraints, some questions of changes in the Earth's radiation environment due to changes of the solar activity level. 8. Unresolved problems of radiation hazard prediction and spacecraft protection, radiation experiments on board the spacecraft, estimating of radiation conditions during interplanetary missions. Space does not allow us to explain every time the solar-terrestrial and radiation physics nomencIature used in current English-language literature.

Solar Activity Events and Galactic Cosmic Radiation

Solar Activity  Events  and Galactic Cosmic Radiation Book
Author : Kira Brianne Shonkwiler
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-01-15
ISBN : 9780128195918
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Solar Activity, Events, and Galactic Cosmic Radiation: Effects on the Earth's Atmospheres give students and researchers in Atmospheric Science, Solar Physics and Climatology a more concise perspective on the Earth's atmospheres and how they are affected by solar emissions. It reviews a wide range of topics relating to the effects from solar activity on the Earth's climate including impacts on the energy budget, the effect of emission on tides and dynamics, how solar emissions change on different time scales and the ramifications on modelling paleoclimates. By providing greater insight on how solar emissions change as they travel through the atmosphere, Solar Activity, Events, and Galactic Cosmic Radiation: Effects on the Earth's Atmospheres guides the reader on how to present these emissions, along with observations and indices. Thoroughly reviews the impacts of solar activity and radiation on the Earth's Atmosphere and Climate, including effects on the energy budget, tides and dynamics and modelling paleoclimates The topic is broken down by atmospheric level for greater understanding Additionally covers of the Global Electric Circuit and the indirect impacted by solar emissions

Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration

Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Ad Hoc Committee on the Solar System Radiation Environment and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration: A Workshop
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2006-11-10
ISBN : 0309102642
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fulfilling the President’s Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) will require overcoming many challenges. Among these are the hazards of space radiation to crews traveling to the Moon and Mars. To explore these challenges in some depth and to examine ways to marshal research efforts to address them, NASA, NSF, and the NRC sponsored a workshop bringing together members of the space and planetary science, radiation physics, operations, and exploration engineering communities. The goals of the workshop were to increase understanding of the solar and space physics in the environment of Earth, the Moon, and Mars; to identify compelling relevant research goals; and discuss directions this research should take over the coming decade. This workshop report presents a discussion of radiation risks for the VSE, an assessment of specifying and predicting the space radiation environment, an analysis of operational strategies for space weather support, and a summary and conclusions of the workshop.

Current Estimates of Radiation Doses in Space

Current Estimates of Radiation Doses in Space Book
Author : Trutz Foelsche
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1962
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Current Estimates of Radiation Doses in Space book written by Trutz Foelsche, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Solar Proton Manual

Solar Proton Manual Book
Author : United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1963
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Summary: Solar particle outbursts are studied in an attempt to summarize the experimental knowledge in this field for the benefit of the spacecraft design engineer. A phenomenological description of solar particle events is presented and time histories and tabulated data are given for the major events. The anisotropy of high energy solar cosmic rays observed in several events is also treated.

Statistics of Solar Cosmic Rays as Inferred from Correlation with Intense Geomagnetic Storms

Statistics of Solar Cosmic Rays as Inferred from Correlation with Intense Geomagnetic Storms Book
Author : David Adamson,Robert E. Davidson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1962
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Statistics of Solar Cosmic Rays as Inferred from Correlation with Intense Geomagnetic Storms book written by David Adamson,Robert E. Davidson, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Lunar Sourcebook

Lunar Sourcebook Book
Author : Grant Heiken,David Vaniman,Bevan M. French
Publisher : CUP Archive
Release : 1991-04-26
ISBN : 9780521334440
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The only work to date to collect data gathered during the American and Soviet missions in an accessible and complete reference of current scientific and technical information about the Moon.

Testing at the Speed of Light

Testing at the Speed of Light Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Materials and Manufacturing Board,Committee on Space Radiation Effects Testing Infrastructure for the U.S. Space Program
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2018-06-08
ISBN : 030947082X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Spacecraft depend on electronic components that must perform reliably over missions measured in years and decades. Space radiation is a primary source of degradation, reliability issues, and potentially failure for these electronic components. Although simulation and modeling are valuable for understanding the radiation risk to microelectronics, there is no substitute for testing, and an increased use of commercial-off-the- shelf parts in spacecraft may actually increase requirements for testing, as opposed to simulation and modeling. Testing at the Speed of Light evaluates the nation's current capabilities and future needs for testing the effects of space radiation on microelectronics to ensure mission success and makes recommendations on how to provide effective stewardship of the necessary radiation test infrastructure for the foreseeable future.

Weather in Space

Weather in Space Book
Author : United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1963
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Weather in Space book written by United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Cosmic Rays in the Earth s Atmosphere and Underground

Cosmic Rays in the Earth   s Atmosphere and Underground Book
Author : Lev Dorman
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-19
ISBN : 1402021135
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The present monograph as well as the next one (Dorman, M2005) is a result of more than 50 years working in cosmic ray (CR) research. After graduation in December 1950 Moscow Lomonosov State University (Nuclear and Elementary Particle Physics Division, the Team of Theoretical Physics), my supervisor Professor D. I. Blokhintsev planned for me, as a winner of a Red Diploma, to continue my education as an aspirant (a graduate student) to prepare for Ph. D. in his very secret Object in the framework of what was in those time called the Atomic Problem. To my regret the KGB withheld permission, and I, together with other Jewish students who had graduated Nuclear Divisions of Moscow and Leningrad Universities and Institutes, were faced with a real prospect of being without any work. It was our good fortune that at that time there was being brought into being the new Cosmic Ray Project (what at that time was also very secret, but not as secret as the Atomic Problem), and after some time we were directed to work on this Project. It was organized and headed by Prof. S. N. Vernov (President of All-Union Section of Cosmic Rays) and Prof. N. V. Pushkov (Director of IZMIRAN); Prof. E. L. Feinberg headed the theoretical part of the Project.

Cosmic Rays and Earth

Cosmic Rays and Earth Book
Author : J.W. Bieber,E. Eroshenko,P. Evenson,E.O. Flückiger,R. Kallenbach
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-04-17
ISBN : 9401711879
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The year 1998 marked the 50th anniversary of the invention of the neutron monitor, a key research tool in the field of space physics and solar-terrestrial relations. In honor of this occasion a workshop entitled 'Cosmic Rays and Earth' was organized to review the detection of cosmic rays at the surface and in the lower atmosphere of Earth, including the effect that this radiation has on the terrestrial environment. A special focus was the role of neutron monitors in the investigation of this radiation, on the science enabled by the unique dataset of the worldwide network of neutron monitors, and on continuing opportunities to use these data to solve outstanding problems. This book is the principal product of that workshop, integrating the contribu tions of all participants. Following a general summary of the workshop prepared by the editors, the volume leads off with a keynote article by Professor John Simpson describing his invention of the neutron monitor in 1948 and the early scientific discoveries made with this instrument.

Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports

Scientific and Technical Aerospace Reports Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Lists citations with abstracts for aerospace related reports obtained from world wide sources and announces documents that have recently been entered into the NASA Scientific and Technical Information Database.

NASA Technical Note

NASA Technical Note Book
Author : United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1959
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download NASA Technical Note book written by United States. National Aeronautics and Space Administration, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars

The Impact of Solar Particle Events on Radiation Risk for Human Explorers of Mars Book
Author : Camron Saul Gorguinpour
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This project has examined one specific issue facing human explorers at Mars - radiation dose from solar particle events (SPEs). While the issue is specific, the work involved in carrying out this study has been truly multidisciplinary. From space physics to modeling the Martian atmosphere to assessing radiation risk to humans, a lot of ground is covered. At each point along the way, efforts were made to clarify the science and assumptions used to derive quantitative estimates and draw meaningful conclusions. The data and analyses provided in this project represent the most comprehensive study of SPE's at a planetary body other than Earth. The analysis includes dose estimates from galactic cosmic radiation. The specific aims of this project are to: 1. Establish a methodology for estimating the fluence of energetic particles at Mars from SPEs; 2. Establish a predictive model to estimate the frequency of SPE occurrence and cumulative SPE fluence received at Mars, as a function of the Solar Cycle; 3. Develop a model to estimate the fluence of energetic particles from SPEs on the Martian surface; 4. Estimate and assess the radiation dose on the Martian surface from SPEs, as compared to galactic cosmic radiation (GCR); and 5. Assess the viability of various types of shielding and mission profiles to mitigate the radiation risk to human explorers on the Martian surface. Some of the conclusions drawn from this study include: * The MCP detector onboard MGS ER (and presumably other spacecraft) can serve as an effective detector for high-energy ionizing radiation. * Though more work is necessary, it is possible to estimate future solar activity at Earth and Mars based on current solar observations. * Spectral information from SPE's at Mars is required to thoroughly assess the radiation environment on the Martian surface. * An unshielded astronaut on the Martian surface may face long-term and acute radiation risk from SPE's, depending on the likelihood of their occurrence. * Various mitigation strategies can be employed to minimize the radiation risk to human explorers on Mars, though shielding is limited for astronauts outside of a fixed habitat.

Radiation Exposure in Supersonic Transports

Radiation Exposure in Supersonic Transports Book
Author : Trutz Foelsche
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1962
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Radiation Exposure in Supersonic Transports book written by Trutz Foelsche, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

MIRACAL

MIRACAL Book
Author : John E. Nealy
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1992
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download MIRACAL book written by John E. Nealy, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Safety Design for Space Systems

Safety Design for Space Systems Book
Author : Gary E. Musgrave Ph.D,Axel Larsen,Tommaso Sgobba
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release : 2009-03-27
ISBN : 9780080559223
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Progress in space safety lies in the acceptance of safety design and engineering as an integral part of the design and implementation process for new space systems. Safety must be seen as the principle design driver of utmost importance from the outset of the design process, which is only achieved through a culture change that moves all stakeholders toward front-end loaded safety concepts. This approach entails a common understanding and mastering of basic principles of safety design for space systems at all levels of the program organisation. Fully supported by the International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS), written by the leading figures in the industry, with frontline experience from projects ranging from the Apollo missions, Skylab, the Space Shuttle and the International Space Station, this book provides a comprehensive reference for aerospace engineers in industry. It addresses each of the key elements that impact on space systems safety, including: the space environment (natural and induced); human physiology in space; human rating factors; emergency capabilities; launch propellants and oxidizer systems; life support systems; battery and fuel cell safety; nuclear power generators (NPG) safety; habitat activities; fire protection; safety-critical software development; collision avoidance systems design; operations and on-orbit maintenance. * The only comprehensive space systems safety reference, its must-have status within space agencies and suppliers, technical and aerospace libraries is practically guaranteed * Written by the leading figures in the industry from NASA, ESA, JAXA, (et cetera), with frontline experience from projects ranging from the Apollo missions, Skylab, the Space Shuttle, small and large satellite systems, and the International Space Station. * Superb quality information for engineers, programme managers, suppliers and aerospace technologists; fully supported by the IAASS (International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety)