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Solar Activity Events And Galactic Cosmic Radiation

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Solar Activity Events and Galactic Cosmic Radiation

Solar Activity  Events  and Galactic Cosmic Radiation Book
Author : Kira Brianne Shonkwiler
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-01-15
ISBN : 9780128195918
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Solar Activity, Events, and Galactic Cosmic Radiation: Effects on the Earth's Atmospheres give students and researchers in Atmospheric Science, Solar Physics and Climatology a more concise perspective on the Earth's atmospheres and how they are affected by solar emissions. It reviews a wide range of topics relating to the effects from solar activity on the Earth's climate including impacts on the energy budget, the effect of emission on tides and dynamics, how solar emissions change on different time scales and the ramifications on modelling paleoclimates. By providing greater insight on how solar emissions change as they travel through the atmosphere, Solar Activity, Events, and Galactic Cosmic Radiation: Effects on the Earth's Atmospheres guides the reader on how to present these emissions, along with observations and indices. Thoroughly reviews the impacts of solar activity and radiation on the Earth's Atmosphere and Climate, including effects on the energy budget, tides and dynamics and modelling paleoclimates The topic is broken down by atmospheric level for greater understanding Additionally covers of the Global Electric Circuit and the indirect impacted by solar emissions

Biological Effects and Physics of Solar and Galactic Cosmic Radiation

Biological Effects and Physics of Solar and Galactic Cosmic Radiation Book
Author : Charles E. Swenberg,Gerda Horneck,E.G. Stassinopoulous
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461529166
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Space missions subject human beings or any other target of a spacecraft to a radiation environment of an intensity and composition not available on earth. Whereas for missions in low earth orbit (LEO), such as those using the Space Shuttle or Space Station scenario, radiation exposure guidelines have been developed and have been adopted by spacefaring agencies, for exploratory class missions that will take the space travellers outside the protective confines of the geomagnetic field sufficient guidelines for radiation protection are still outstanding. For a piloted Mars mission, the whole concept of radiation protection needs to be reconsidered. Since there is an increasing interest of many nations and space agencies in establishing a lunar base and lor exploring Mars by manned missions, it is both, timely and important to develop appropriate risk estimates and radiation protection guidelines which will have an influence on the design and structure of space vehicles and habitation areas of the extraterrestrial settlements. This book is the result of a multidisciplinary effort to assess the state of art in our knowledge on the radiation situation during deep space missions and on the impact of this complex radiation environment on the space traveller. It comprises the lectures by the faculty members as well as short contributions by the students given at the NATO Advanced Study Institute "Biological Effects and Physics of Solar and Galactic Cosmic Radiation" held in Armacao de Pera, Portugal, 12-23 October, 1991.

Radiation Hazard in Space

Radiation Hazard in Space Book
Author : L.I. Miroshnichenko
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-04-17
ISBN : 9401703019
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The mono graph contains 8 chapters, and their contents cover all principal aspects of the problem: 1. Introduction and brief his tory ofthe radiation problem and background information ofradiation hazard in the near-Earth and interplanetary space. 2. General description of radiation conditions and main sources of charged partic1es in the Earth's environment and interplanetary space, effects of space environment on spacecraft. 3. Basic information about physical conditions in space and main sources of charged particles in the Earth's environment and interplanetary space, in the context of "Space W eather" monitoring and prediction. 4. Trapped radiation belts of the Earth (ERB): theory of their origin, spatial and temporal dynamics, and experimental and statistical models. 5. Galactic cosmic rays (GCR): variations of energetic, temporal and spatial characteristics, long-term modulation, and anomalous cosmic ray (ACR) component, modeling oftheir dynamics. 6. Production of energetic particles (SEPs) at/ne ar the Sun: available databases, acceleration, propagation, and prediction of individual SEP event, statistical models of solar cosmic rays (SCR). 7. Existing empirical techniques of estimating, prediction and modeling of radiation hazard, methodical approaches and constraints, some questions of changes in the Earth's radiation environment due to changes of the solar activity level. 8. Unresolved problems of radiation hazard prediction and spacecraft protection, radiation experiments on board the spacecraft, estimating of radiation conditions during interplanetary missions. Space does not allow us to explain every time the solar-terrestrial and radiation physics nomencIature used in current English-language literature.

Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration

Space Radiation Hazards and the Vision for Space Exploration Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Ad Hoc Committee on the Solar System Radiation Environment and NASA's Vision for Space Exploration: A Workshop
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2006-10-10
ISBN : 9780309180665
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fulfilling the President’s Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) will require overcoming many challenges. Among these are the hazards of space radiation to crews traveling to the Moon and Mars. To explore these challenges in some depth and to examine ways to marshal research efforts to address them, NASA, NSF, and the NRC sponsored a workshop bringing together members of the space and planetary science, radiation physics, operations, and exploration engineering communities. The goals of the workshop were to increase understanding of the solar and space physics in the environment of Earth, the Moon, and Mars; to identify compelling relevant research goals; and discuss directions this research should take over the coming decade. This workshop report presents a discussion of radiation risks for the VSE, an assessment of specifying and predicting the space radiation environment, an analysis of operational strategies for space weather support, and a summary and conclusions of the workshop.

Solar Cosmic Rays

Solar Cosmic Rays Book
Author : L.I. Miroshnichenko
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 9401596468
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It turned out to be really a rare and happy occasion that we know exact1y when and how a new branch of space physics was born, namely, a physics of solar cosmic rays. It happened on February 28 and March 7, 1942 when the fIrst "cosmic ray bursts" were recorded on the Earth, and the Sun was unambiguously identifIed for the fIrst time as the source of high-velocity 10 particles with energies up to > 10 eV. Just due to such a high energy these relativistic particles have been called "solar cosmic rays" (SCR), in distinction from the "true" cosmic rays of galactic origin. Between 1942 and the beginning ofthe space era in 1957 only extremely high energy solar particle events could be occasionally recorded by cosmic ray ground-Ievel detectors and balloon borne sensors. Since then the detection techniques varied considerably and the study of SCR turned into essential part of solar and solar-terrestrial physics.

NASA Technical Paper

NASA Technical Paper Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download NASA Technical Paper book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Pierre Auger Observatory Scaler Mode for the Study of Solar Activity Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays

The Pierre Auger Observatory Scaler Mode for the Study of Solar Activity Modulation of Galactic Cosmic Rays Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since data-taking began in January 2004, the Pierre Auger Observatory has been recording the count rates of low energy secondary cosmic ray particles for the self-calibration of the ground detectors of its surface detector array. After correcting for atmospheric effects, modulations of galactic cosmic rays due to solar activity and transient events are observed. Temporal variations related with the activity of the heliosphere can be determined with high accuracy due to the high total count rates. In this study, the available data are presented together with an analysis focused on the observation of Forbush decreases, where a strong correlation with neutron monitor data is found.

The Heliosphere through the Solar Activity Cycle

The Heliosphere through the Solar Activity Cycle Book
Author : A. Balogh,Louis J. Lanzerotti,Steve T. Suess
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-08
ISBN : 9783540743026
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Understanding how the Sun changes though its 11-year sunspot cycle and how these changes affect the vast space around the Sun – the heliosphere – has been one of the principal objectives of space research since the advent of the space age. This book presents the evolution of the heliosphere through an entire solar activity cycle. The last solar cycle (cycle 23) has been the best observed from both the Earth and from a fleet of spacecraft. Of these, the joint ESA-NASA Ulysses probe has provided continuous observations of the state of the heliosphere since 1990 from a unique vantage point, that of a nearly polar orbit around the Sun. Ulysses’ results affect our understanding of the heliosphere from the interior of the Sun to the interstellar medium - beyond the outer boundary of the heliosphere. Written by scientists closely associated with the Ulysses mission, the book describes and explains the many different aspects of changes in the heliosphere in response to solar activity. In particular, the authors describe the rise in solar activity from the last minimum in solar activity in 1996 to its maximum in 2000 and the subsequent decline in activity.

Radiation Exposure in Supersonic Transports

Radiation Exposure in Supersonic Transports Book
Author : Trutz Foelsche
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1962
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Radiation Exposure in Supersonic Transports book written by Trutz Foelsche, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Statistics of Solar Cosmic Rays as Inferred from Correlation with Intense Geomagnetic Storms

Statistics of Solar Cosmic Rays as Inferred from Correlation with Intense Geomagnetic Storms Book
Author : David Adamson,Robert E. Davidson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1962
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Statistics of Solar Cosmic Rays as Inferred from Correlation with Intense Geomagnetic Storms book written by David Adamson,Robert E. Davidson, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Cosmic Rays and Earth

Cosmic Rays and Earth Book
Author : J.W. Bieber,E. Eroshenko,P. Evenson,E.O. Flückiger,R. Kallenbach
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-04-17
ISBN : 9401711879
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The year 1998 marked the 50th anniversary of the invention of the neutron monitor, a key research tool in the field of space physics and solar-terrestrial relations. In honor of this occasion a workshop entitled 'Cosmic Rays and Earth' was organized to review the detection of cosmic rays at the surface and in the lower atmosphere of Earth, including the effect that this radiation has on the terrestrial environment. A special focus was the role of neutron monitors in the investigation of this radiation, on the science enabled by the unique dataset of the worldwide network of neutron monitors, and on continuing opportunities to use these data to solve outstanding problems. This book is the principal product of that workshop, integrating the contribu tions of all participants. Following a general summary of the workshop prepared by the editors, the volume leads off with a keynote article by Professor John Simpson describing his invention of the neutron monitor in 1948 and the early scientific discoveries made with this instrument.

Current Estimates of Radiation Doses in Space

Current Estimates of Radiation Doses in Space Book
Author : Trutz Foelsche
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1962
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Current Estimates of Radiation Doses in Space book written by Trutz Foelsche, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Solar Proton Manual

Solar Proton Manual Book
Author : Frank Bethune McDonald
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1963
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Solar Proton Manual book written by Frank Bethune McDonald, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Preliminary Estimates of Radiation Exposures for Manned Interplanetary Missions from Anomalously Large Solar Flare Events

Preliminary Estimates of Radiation Exposures for Manned Interplanetary Missions from Anomalously Large Solar Flare Events Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Preliminary Estimates of Radiation Exposures for Manned Interplanetary Missions from Anomalously Large Solar Flare Events book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

MIRACAL

MIRACAL Book
Author : John E. Nealy
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1992
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download MIRACAL book written by John E. Nealy, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Solar Energetic Particles

Solar Energetic Particles Book
Author : Donald V. Reames
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2021-03-06
ISBN : 9783030664015
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This open access book serves as a concise primer introducing the non-specialist reader to the physics of solar energetic particles (SEP). It systematically reviews the evidence for the two main mechanisms which lead to the so-called impulsive and gradual SEP events. This second edition contains two completely new chapters discussing element abundances and shock waves, reflecting new theoretical, modeling, and observational results. Existing chapters have been substantially expanded or updated with additions placed in a broader context. More specifically, the author discusses the timing of the onsets of SEPs, their longitude distributions, their high-energy spectral shapes, their correlations with other solar phenomena, as well as the all-important elemental and isotopic abundances. The book relates impulsive SEP events to magnetic reconnection in solar flares and jets. The concept of shock acceleration by scattering on self-amplified Alfvén waves is introduced, as is the evidence of reacceleration of impulsive-SEP material in the seed population accessed by the shocks in gradual events. The text then develops processes of transport of ions out to an observer. Finally, a technique to determine the source plasma temperature in both impulsive and gradual events is demonstrated.The author also mentions the role of SEP events as a radiation hazard in space and briefly discusses the nature of the main particle telescope designs that have contributed to most of the SEP measurements.

Explorer Twelve Observations of Solar Cosmic Rays and Energetic Storm Particles After the Solar Flare of September 28 1961

Explorer Twelve Observations of Solar Cosmic Rays and Energetic Storm Particles After the Solar Flare of September 28  1961 Book
Author : Duncan Alan Bryant,T. L. Cline,U. D. Desai,Frank Bethune McDonald
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1962
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A full description of the cosmic ray experiment on Explorer 12 is given and cosmic ray measurements made during the solar event of September 28, 1961, are reported and discussed. Galactic cosmic ray measurements are also reported. A few hours before the class 3 flare of September 28, two short counting rate increases were observed and are interpreted as electron bursts. The anisotropy of the medium- and low-energy solar protons early in the event and their intensity throughout the event are described. It is found that the history of the intensity of the solar protons is consistent, once isotropy is established, with their having diffused through interplanetary space with an effective mean free path of 0.04 AU. This result is discussed and is shown to be not obviously in disagreement with the generally accepted views regarding the configuration of the interplanetary magnetic field. An estimate of the distance from the sun at which diffusion becomes unimportant and particles escape gives 2 to 3 AU. It is pointed out that simple diffusion (where the particles are scattered from discrete scattering centers and the influence of a general magnetic field is negligible) does not account for the behavior of the anisotropy before isotropy is reached. Two days after the flare, and beginning just before the sudden commencement of a magnetic storm, there was a large increase in the intensity of protons between 2 and 15 Mev, the lower energy limit being determined by the sensitivity of the detectors. As most of these particles, which we have called 'energetic storm particles,' arrived after the sudden commencement occurred, we suggest that they were solar protons trapped within the plasma cloud which caused the magnetic storm. The outline of a possible trapping mechanism is given. Explorer 12 measurements of the Forbush decrease of September 30, 1961, are compared with neutron monitor measurements at Deep River. The decrease is larger at Explorer 12 by a factor of 1.7 ±0.3.

Radiation Protection for Human Missions to the Moon and Mars

Radiation Protection for Human Missions to the Moon and Mars Book
Author : Lisa C. Simonsen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1991
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Radiation Protection for Human Missions to the Moon and Mars book written by Lisa C. Simonsen, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.