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Soil Carbon Storage

Soil Carbon Storage Book
Author : Brajesh Singh
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-04-12
ISBN : 0128127678
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Soil Carbon Storage: Modulators, Mechanisms and Modeling takes a novel approach to the issue of soil carbon storage by considering soil C sequestration as a function of the interaction between biotic (e.g. microbes and plants) and abiotic (climate, soil types, management practices) modulators as a key driver of soil C. These modulators are central to C balance through their processing of C from both plant inputs and native soil organic matter. This book considers this concept in the light of state-of-the-art methodologies that elucidate these interactions and increase our understanding of a vitally important, but poorly characterized component of the global C cycle. The book provides soil scientists with a comprehensive, mechanistic, quantitative and predictive understanding of soil carbon storage. It presents a new framework that can be included in predictive models and management practices for better prediction and enhanced C storage in soils. Identifies management practices to enhance storage of soil C under different agro-ecosystems, soil types and climatic conditions Provides novel conceptual frameworks of biotic (especially microbial) and abiotic data to improve prediction of simulation model at plot to global scale Advances the conceptual framework needed to support robust predictive models and sustainable land management practices

Management of Carbon Sequestration in Soil

Management of Carbon Sequestration in Soil Book
Author : Rattan Lal
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2022-01-20
ISBN : 1351091158
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book addresses the importance of soil processes in the global carbon cycle.Agricultural activities considered responsible for an increase in CO2 levels in our atmosphere include: deforestation, biomass burning, tillage and intensive cultivation, and drainage of wetlands.However, agriculture can also be a solution to the problem in which carbon can be removed from the atmosphere and permanently sequestered into the soil. Management of Carbon Sequestration in Soil highlights the importance of world soils as a sink for atmospheric carbon and discusses the impact of tillage, conservation reserve programs (CRP), management of grasslands and woodlands, and other soil and crop management and land use practices that lead to carbon sequestration.

Research on Soil Carbon Storages and Storage Changes in Yangtze Delta Region China

Research on Soil Carbon Storages and Storage Changes in Yangtze Delta Region  China Book
Author : Xu Naizheng
Publisher : Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. USA
Release : 2016-08-03
ISBN : 1618963538
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Soil carbon stock, including soil organic carbon (SOC) and soil inorganic carbon(SIC) stock, is the largest pool in terrestrial ecosystem, and only a small changein storage has an impact on level of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Therefore,soil carbon sequestration is believed to be one of the cost-effective ways toreduce greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere and mitigate globalgreenhouse effects. This study calculates soil carbon storages and evaluates soilorganic storage change in the course of industrialization and urbanization inYangtze Delta region, China, based on the data of the Second National Soil Survey(1982-1985) and the Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey (2002-2005), which may provide baseline dada for research into regional carbon sequestration/source effect and carbon circulation.

Soil Carbon Stabilization to Mitigate Climate Change

Soil Carbon Stabilization to Mitigate Climate Change Book
Author : Rahul Datta,Ram Swaroop Meena
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-08-25
ISBN : 9813367652
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Carbon stabilization involves to capturing carbon from the atmosphere and fix it in the forms soil organic carbon stock for a long period of time, it will be present to escape as a greenhouse gas in the form of carbon dioxide. Soil carbon storage is an important ecosystem service, resulting from interactions of several ecological processes. This process is primarily mediated by plants through photosynthesis, with carbon stored in the form of soil organic carbon. Soil carbon levels have reduced over decades of conversion of pristine ecosystems into agriculture landscape, which now offers the opportunity to store carbon from air into the soil. Carbon stabilization into the agricultural soils is a novel approach of research and offers promising reduction in the atmospheric carbon dioxide levels. This book brings together all aspects of soil carbon sequestration and stabilization, with a special focus on diversity of microorganisms and management practices of soil in agricultural systems. It discusses the role of ecosystem functioning, recent and future prospects, soil microbial ecological studies, rhizosphere microflora, and organic matter in soil carbon stabilization. It also explores carbon transformation in soil, biological management and its genetics, microbial transformation of soil carbon, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs), and their role in sustainable agriculture. The book offers a spectrum of ideas of new technological inventions and fundamentals of soil sustainability. It will be suitable for teachers, researchers, and policymakers, undergraduate and graduate students of soil science, soil microbiology, agronomy, ecology, and environmental sciences

Storing Carbon in Agricultural Soils

Storing Carbon in Agricultural Soils Book
Author : Norman J. Rosenberg,Roberto C. Izaurralde
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-09
ISBN : 940173089X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Soil carbon sequestration can play a strategic role in controlling the increase of CO2 in the atmosphere and thereby help mitigate climatic change. There are scientific opportunities to increase the capacity of soils to store carbon and remove it from circulation for longer periods of time. The vast areas of degraded and desertified lands throughout the world offer great potential for the sequestration of very large quantities of carbon. If credits are to be bought and sold for carbon storage, quick and inexpensive instruments and methods will be needed to monitor and verify that carbon is actually being added and maintained in soils. Large-scale soil carbon sequestration projects pose economic and social problems that need to be explored. This book focuses on scientific and implementation issues that need to be addressed in order to advance the discipline of carbon sequestration from theory to reality. The main issues discussed in the book are broad and cover aspects of basic science, monitoring, and implementation. The opportunity to restore productivity of degraded lands through carbon sequestration is examined in detail. This book will be of special interest to professionals in agronomy, soil science, and climatology.

Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect

Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect Book
Author : R. Lal,Ronald F. Follett
Publisher : ASA-CSSA-SSSA
Release : 2009
ISBN : 9780891188506
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is about the concept of the Greenhouse Effect is more than a century old, but today the observed and predicted climate changes. This second edition of Soil Carbon Sequestration and the Greenhouse Effect is essential reading for understandingthe processes, properties, and practices affecting the soil carbon pool and its dynamics.

Soil Carbon in Sensitive European Ecosystems

Soil Carbon in Sensitive European Ecosystems Book
Author : Robert Jandl,Mirco Rodeghiero,Mats Olsson
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-10-20
ISBN : 1119977673
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Soil Carbon in Sensitive European Ecosystems - From Science to Land Management is a comprehensive overview of the latest research in this field drawn together by a network of scientists from across Europe. Soil carbon assessments are crucial at present to our understanding of the dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems and our ability to assess implications for the global carbon exchange and its consequences on the future climate. This book focuses primarily on ecosystems and their soil carbon stocks. The book identifies three key sensitive ecosystems within Europe: Mediterranean Forest and Agricultural Systems; Mountains; and Peatland. Contributors include those currently working for the European research programme, COST Action 639 BurnOut (www.cost639.net; 2006-2010). COST Action 639 emerged from a demand from policy makers in Europe for more detailed information on soil carbon dynamics. The cooperation between experts for reporting and experts for soil dynamics is the focus of the book. This book seeks to provide an up-to-date account on the state-of-the-art research within this topical field.

Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon

Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon Book
Author : R. Lal
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Methods for assessing soil C pools; Methodology for sampling and preparation for soil carbon determination; Importance of soil bulk density and methods of its measurement; The effects of terrain position and elevation on soil C in the southern Appalachians; Approaching "functional"soil organic matter pools through particle-size fractionation: examples for tropical soils; Spatial variability: enhancing the mean estimate of organic and inorganic carbon in a sampling unit; Assessment of soil organic carbon using the U.S. soil survey; Organic carbon methods, microbial biomass, root biomass, and sampling design under development by NRCS; Characterization of soil organic carbon pools; Measuring and comparing soil carbon storage; Estimating total systems C in smallhold farming systems of the East African highlands; Assessment and significance of labile organic C pools in forest soils; Interlaboratory carbon isotope measurements of five soils; The determination of soil C pool sizes and turnover rates: biophysical fractionation and tracers; Ecozone and soil profile screening for C-residence time, rejuvenation, bomb 14C photosynthetic 13 changes; Use of 13C isotopes to determine net carbon sequestration in soil under ambient and elevated CO2; Methods using amino sugars as markers for microbial residues in soil; Characterization of soil organic matter; Fractionating soil in stable aggregates using a rainfall simulator; Toward an efficient method for measuring total organic stocks in forests; Soil organic matter evaluation; The development of the KMnO4 oxidation technique to determine labile carbon in soil and its use in a carbon management index; Effects of soil morphological and physical properties on estimation of carbon storage in arctic soils; Estimation of particulate and total organic matter by weight loss-on-ignition; Use of near infrared spectroscopy to determine inorganic and organic carbon fractions in soil and litter; Development of rapid instrumental methods for measuring soil organic carbon; Soil quality evaluations of alternative and conventional management systems in the great plains; 137 Cs for measuring soil erosion and redeposition: application for understanding soil carbon; Assesing the impact of erosion on soil organic carbon pools and fluxes; Assessing water erosion impacts on soil carbon pools fluxes; Soil organic carbon erosion assessment by Cesium- 137; A simple model to estmate soil carbon dynamics at the BOREAS northern study area, Manitoba, Canada; Methods used to create the North American Soil Organic Carbon Digital Database; Basic principles for soil carbon sequestration and calculating dynamic country-level balances including future scenarios; Examining the carbon stocks of boreal forest ecosystems at stand and regional scales; Predicting broadscale C stores of woody detritus from plot data; Soil C dynamics: measurement, simulation and site-to-region scale-up; Some factors affecting the distribution of carbon in soils of a dryland agricultural system in southwestern Australia; A national inventory of changes in soil carbon from national resources inventory data; Assessing economics of carbon sequestration in agriculture; Climate change policy and the agricultural sector; Approaches to assessing carbon credits and identifying trading mechanisms; Methodological challenges: toward balancing soil C pools and fluxes.

The Future of Soil Carbon

The Future of Soil Carbon Book
Author : Carlos Garcia,Paolo Nannipieri,Teresa Hernandez
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-04-10
ISBN : 0128116889
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Future of Soil Carbon: Its Conservation and Formation provides readers with an integrative approach to understanding the important role of organic carbon in soil functioning and fertility. Terrestrial interactions between SOC and complex human-natural systems require new fundamental and applied research into regional and global SOC budgets. This book provides new and synthesized information on the dynamics of SOC in the terrestrial environment. In addition to rigorous state-of-the art on soil science, the book also provides strategies to avoid risks of soil carbon losses. Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a vital component of soils, with important and far-reaching effects on the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Human activities over the last several decades have significantly changed the regional and global balance of SOC, greatly exacerbating global warming and climate change. Provides a holistic overview of soil carbon status and main threats for its conservation Offers innovative solutions to conserve soil carbon Includes in-depth treatment of regional and global changes in soil organic carbon budget

Agricultural Practices and Policies for Carbon Sequestration in Soil

Agricultural Practices and Policies for Carbon Sequestration in Soil Book
Author : John M. Kimble,Rattan Lal,Ronald F. Follett
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-04-19
ISBN : 1420032291
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The potential to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and global climate change is one factor driving agricultural policy development of programs that might pay farmers for practices with a high potential to sequester carbon. With chapters by economists, policy makers, farmers, land managers, energy company representatives, and soil scientists, Agricu

Crop Residue and Soil Carbon Storage in Dryland Farming

Crop Residue and Soil Carbon Storage in Dryland Farming Book
Author : Hema Singh
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2012-03
ISBN : 9783848421442
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Decreasing trends of organic matter and plant-available nutrients in arable soils, other negative consequences of fertilizer inputs and frequent tillage call for newer techniques in agriculture, one such technique which has attracted considerable interest is microbial management. Microbial biomass is a small active fraction of the soil organic matter which turns over very rapidly, and holds a large pool of plant-available nutrients. It acts as a source and a sink of nutrients and is responsive to several agricultural practices. Soil organic carbon (SOC) has also been identified as a factor that is important to soil fertility as well as for the environment because of huge carbon sequestration potential of the soils. Present study was undertaken to evaluate the influence of applications of straw and chemical fertilizer on the soil microbial biomass, available nutrient pools and crop growth under reduced tillage, dryland conditions. The major hypothesis tested in this study was that the management practices which can increase the size of active soil organic pool can enhance the nutrient supply rate and hence crop growth in drylands under reduced tillage cultivation

The Response of Soil Organic Carbon to Climate Change and Potential to Increase Carbon Sequestration in Soils Through Management

The Response of Soil Organic Carbon to Climate Change and Potential to Increase Carbon Sequestration in Soils Through Management Book
Author : Christiana Dietzen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As the largest terrestrial carbon pool, changes in soil carbon pools in response to climate change or management practices have the potential to significantly impact atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This dissertation examines the effects of climate change and two management strategies on soil carbon pools in order to understand how soil carbon storage might change under these conditions. Changes in soil carbon concentrations were studied in a Danish heath/grassland exposed to elevated CO2, summer drought, and warming. Soil carbon was observed to increase significantly over the course of 8 years in the presence of elevated CO2, regardless of the addition of warming or drought treatments. Soil carbon pools at this site are therefore likely to serve as a negative feedback to increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. To examine how management strategies could take advantage of the potential for soils to be used as a carbon sequestration tool, this dissertation also investigated the effects of two types of management practices on soil carbon dynamics. In a Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir stand, deep soil carbon storage was shown to increase when competing vegetation was not controlled, presumably due to deeper Douglas-fir rooting in response to competition for more shallow soil moisture reserves. In an incubation study, applying olivine with the goal of increasing soil pH and capturing CO2 resulted in decreased decomposition of organic matter compared to the application of agricultural lime. There was no difference in CO2 flux between the olivine amended and control samples, whereas the CO2 flux from the limed samples was 221% higher than the control. The application of olivine also increased soil pH to a level sufficient to overcome aluminum toxicity. The use of olivine as an alternative to lime would therefore significantly reduce agricultural CO2 emissions. The results of this dissertation suggest that not only is there potential for increasing soil carbon stocks to serve as a negative feedback to rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but that an opportunity also exists to design management practices that utilize soils as a climate change mitigation tool.

Carbon Sequestration in Forests

Carbon Sequestration in Forests Book
Author : Ross W. Gorte
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release : 2009
ISBN : 1437922678
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Contents: (1) Background: Congressional Interest in Carbon Sequestration; (2) Carbon Cycling in Forests: The Forest Cycle; Forest Types: Tropical Forests; Temperate Forests; Boreal Forests; (3) Measuring and Altering Forest Carbon Levels: Forest Carbon Accounting; Land Use Changes; Forestry Events and Management Activities: Vegetation and Soil Carbon; Forest Events ¿ Wildfires; Forestry Practices; Wood Energy; Leakage: Land Use Leakage; Product Demand Leakage; Federal Government Programs: Federal Forests; Federal Assistance for State and Private Forestry; Federal Tax Expenditures; Federal Programs Affecting Land Use; Accounting for Forest Carbon Sequestration; (4) Conclusions. Table.

Measuring and modelling soil carbon stocks and stock changes in livestock production systems A scoping analysis for the LEAP work stream on soil carbon stock changes

Measuring and modelling soil carbon stocks and stock changes in livestock production systems     A scoping analysis for the LEAP work stream on soil carbon stock changes Book
Author : Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
Publisher : Food & Agriculture Org.
Release : 2019-01-14
ISBN : 9251312354
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In order to build consensus on methods to measure and model soil carbon stocks and stock changes, the Steering Committee of the Livestock Environmental Assessment and Performance (LEAP) Partnership mandated a task force to develop this scoping analysis and pave the way towards the formation of the LEAP Tecnical Advisory Group on soil carbon stock changes. Soil carbon sequestration and storage in grasslands offers a significant potential to compensate for GHG emissions from livestock, but the lack of consensus on the appropriate methodologies to account for soil carbon stock changes hinders robust and standardized assessments. In this report, we reviewed several published soil organic carbon (SOC) models, and evaluated their aptitude to combine them with life cycle assessments (LCAs). Among contentious issues, the most relevant are: a) the lack of universal models, b) the uneven data availability, comparability and quality between countries and regions, and c) the difficulty to match measurable SOC fractions with those determined by the models. Taking this into account, a tiered approach is proposed, according to the availability of original data to run the models. The use of IPCC carbon (C) accounting system appears to be the simplest approach suitable to countries with scarcity of original C data. Conversely, more complex models such as Century (Parton 1987, 1988) or Roth C (Smith 1998) are likely to perform better and give less uncertainty when original input data are easily available.

Carbon Sequestration in Urban Ecosystems

Carbon Sequestration in Urban Ecosystems Book
Author : Rattan Lal,Bruce Augustin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-12-09
ISBN : 9400723652
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Urbanization drastically alters the ecosystems structure and functions, disrupts cycling of C and other elements along with water. It alters the energy balance and influences climate at local, regional and global scales. In 2008, urban population exceeded the rural population. In 2050, 70% of the world population will live in urban centers. The number of megacities (10 million inhabitants) increased from three in 1975 to 19 in 2007, and is projected to be 27 in 2025. Rapid urbanization is altering the ecosystem C budget. Yet, urban ecosystems have a large C sink capacity in soils and biota. Judicious planning and effective management can enhance C pool in urban ecosystems, and off-set some of the anthropogenic emissions. Principal components with regards to C sequestration include home lawns and turfs, urban forests, green roofs, park and recreational/sports facilities and urban agriculture.

Stuffing Carbon Away

Stuffing Carbon Away Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Soils offer the potential to sequester large quantities of carbon from the atmosphere for decades to millennia and so may ameliorate the anthropogenic influence of fossil fuel release. However changes in climate can drastically affect the soil's ability to store carbon through changes mineralogy on time scales of human interest. It is essential to understand the major controls on soil carbon dynamics before we attempt to manage sequestration to control atmospheric CO2 buildup. Models of the terrestrial carbon cycle often use clay content to parameterize soil carbon turnover. Evidence from volcanic soils suggests that soil mineralogy is a major control on a soil's ability to store carbon, because different types of minerals have widely varying abilities to physically and chemically isolate soil organic matter from decomposition, however volcanic soils represent only a small percentage of the earth's soils. The relationship between precipitation and soil carbon storage is also complex and poorly constrained. Significantly, precipitation changes predicted as a result of atmospheric CO2 doubling include increased rainfall throughout California. We utilized 14C, [delta]13C, and the total organic carbon, iron, and aluminum contents to address the question of the importance of mineralogy and climate on carbon storage in soils formed on a globally representative parent material. The California coastal terraces, formed over the last 500 thousand years as a result of tectonic uplift and sea level change, provide a natural laboratory to examine the effect of mineralogy and climate on carbon storage. We have focused on two terraces sequences, one near Eureka and one near Santa Cruz. Within each set of terraces only soil mineral development varies; all other variables are constant (rainfall, plant systems, and soil parent material, and land management). Annual precipitation at Eureka is twice that at Santa Cruz, allowing us to examine its role in the transport of organic carbon to deeper horizons. The objective of the study is to improve the understanding of soil carbon storage and derive a set of proxies for organic carbon turnover for terrestrial carbon cycle models.

Carbon Capture Utilization and Sequestration

Carbon Capture  Utilization and Sequestration Book
Author : Ramesh K. Agarwal
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-09-12
ISBN : 1789237645
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is divided in two sections. Several chapters in the first section provide a state-of-the-art review of various carbon sinks for CO2 sequestration such as soil and oceans. Other chapters discuss the carbon sequestration achieved by storage in kerogen nanopores, CO2 miscible flooding and generation of energy efficient solvents for postcombustion CO2 capture. The chapters in the second section focus on monitoring and tracking of CO2 migration in various types of storage sites, as well as important physical parameters relevant to sequestration. Both researchers and students should find the material useful in their work.

Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon

Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon Book
Author : John M. Kimble,Ronald F. Follett,B.A. Stewart
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2000-12-28
ISBN : 1482278642
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since carbon sequestration in soils reduces the amount of carbon available to the atmosphere, the Kyoto Protocols have heightened interest in soil carbon pools and their effect on carbon fluxes. Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon addresses many of the questions related to the measurement, monitoring, and verification of organic and inorganic carbon in soils. The major topics covered are: carbon pools; soil sampling and preparation, analytical techniques for soil carbon; soil erosion and sedimentation; remote sensing, GIS and modeling; procedures for scaling carbon data from point and local measurements to regional and even national scales; and economic and policy issues. In Assessment Methods for Soil Carbon, leading researchers show that we now have the ability to measure, monitor, and verify changes to soil carbon. The book establishes the need for standardized methods that can be used by anyone, and helps us better understand the link between the pedosphere (soils) and the atmosphere. It also shows the importance of developing links between the economics of carbon sequestration and the amounts sequestered, and highlights the need for scientists and policy makers to interact to ensure that policies fit within the scope of present technologies.

Carbon Capture

Carbon Capture Book
Author : Ronald E. Hester,Roy M. Harrison
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2010
ISBN : 1847559174
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reports on methods of capturing and storing CO2 from major sources to reduce the levels emitted to the atmosphere by human activities.

Soil Processes and the Carbon Cycle

Soil Processes and the Carbon Cycle Book
Author : Rattan Lal,John M. Kimble,Ronald F. Follett,Bobby A. Stewart
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1997-11-25
ISBN : 9780849374418
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

World soils contain about 1500 gigatons of organic carbon. This large carbon reserve can increase atmospheric concentrations of CO2 by soil misuse or mismanagement, or it can reverse the 'greenhouse' effect by judicious land use and proper soil management. Soil Processes and the Carbon Cycle describes soil processes and their effects on the global carbon cycle while relating soil properties to soil quality and potential and actual carbon reserves in the soil. In addition, this book deals with modeling the carbon cycle in soil, and with methods of soil carbon determinations.