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Site Specific And Global Epigenomic Editing

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Quantitative Genetics Genomics and Plant Breeding 2nd Edition

Quantitative Genetics  Genomics and Plant Breeding  2nd Edition Book
Author : Manjit S. Kang
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2020-04-01
ISBN : 1789240212
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents state-of-the-art, authoritative chapters on contemporary issues in the broad areas of quantitative genetics, genomics and plant breeding. Section 1 (Chapters 2 to 12) emphasizes the application of genomics, and genome and epigenome editing techniques, in plant breeding; bioinformatics; quantitative trait loci mapping; and the latest approaches of examining and exploiting genotype-environment interactions. Section 2 (Chapters 13 to 20) represents the intersection of breeding, genetics and genomics. This section describes the use of cutting-edge molecular breeding and quantitative genetics techniques in wheat, rice, maize, root and tuber crops and pearl millet. Overall, the book focuses on using genomic information to help evaluate traits that can combat biotic/abiotic stresses, genome-wide association mapping, high-throughput genotyping/phenotyping, biofortification, use of big data, orphan crops, and gene editing techniques. The examples featured are taken from across crop science research and cover a wide geographical base.

Mechanisms of DNA Methylation Control and Epigenome Engineering

Mechanisms of DNA Methylation Control and Epigenome Engineering Book
Author : Wanlu Liu
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cytosine DNA methylation is an evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mark that plays critical roles in diverse biological processes, including gene and transposon silencing and imprinting. In mammals, DNA methylation mostly occurs in the symmetric dinucleotide CG sites. In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, DNA methylation frequently occurs at cytosine bases in all sequence contexts (CG, CHG and CHH, where H represents A, C or T). In Arabidopsis, de novo DNA methylation is established by a process known as RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM). RdDM in plants not only requires the upstream production of 24-nucleotide (nt) small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and the downstream recruitment of de novo DNA methyltransferase DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE 2 (DRM2), the production of RNA polymerase V (Pol V)-dependent intergenic non-coding (IGN) transcripts plays a crucial role likely in serving as scaffolds for siRNAs binding. Pol V is required for DNA methylation and gene silencing and has been shown to be transcriptionally active in vitro. However, the characteristics of Pol V transcripts is poorly understood probably due to its low abundance. In this dissertation, to better understand the features of Pol V transcripts in vivo, I will first describe the application of a technique modified from global nuclear run-on (GRO) assay to characterize nascent Pol V transcripts at genome-wide level. With this technique, we captured Pol V nascent transcripts and we uncovered a novel mechanism of ARGONAUTE4/6/9 (AGO4/6/9) dependent, small-RNA-guided co-transcriptional slicing of nascent Pol V transcripts. With the fast development of genome editing recent years, epigenetic modification including targeted DNA methylation and demethylation also becomes attractive for its capability of stably regulate gene expression. In order to develop site-specific and efficient tools for DNA methylation targeting, we tethered artificial zinc finger protein recognizing specific DNA sequence to various RdDM proteins (ZF-RdDM) in Arabidopsis. With this tool, we studied the hierarchy of action within RdDM pathway by testing their ability to target methylation in different mutant backgrounds. Also, at thousands of ZF-RdDM off target sites, we characterized the ectopic siRNAs production, Pol V recruitment and DNA methylation establishment and found that simultaneously recruiting both arms of the RdDM pathway, siRNA biogenesis and Pol V recruitment, dramatically enhanced targeted methylation. We then also developed a tool to target DNA demethylation in plants by fusing the catalytic domain of the human demethylase TEN-ELEVEN TRANSLOCATION1 (TET1cd) and an artificial zinc finger protein or CRISPR/dCas9 system. Finally, I will discuss DNA methylation landscape in human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). hESCs are morphologically and transcriptionally similar to stem cells derived from the mouse post-implantation epiblast. Thus, hESCs are typically considered to exhibit 'primed' pluripotency. Various culture conditions have been developed to promote maintenance and self-renewal of hypomethylated 'naive' hESCs. We have discovered that reverting primed hESCs to naive hESCs results in a Stage Specific Embryonic Antigen 4 (SSEA4)-negative population with a transcriptional program resembling the human pre-implantation epiblast. However, we also discovered that the methylation landscape of naive hESCs in vitro is distinct from human epiblast in vivo with a lost 'memory' of methylation state at primary imprints and human oocyte.

DNA Methyltransferases Role and Function

DNA Methyltransferases   Role and Function Book
Author : Albert Jeltsch,Renata Z. Jurkowska
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-11-08
ISBN : 3319436244
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

DNA methyltransferases are important enzymes in a broad range of organisms. Dysfunction of DNA methyltransferases in humans leads to many severe diseases, including cancer. This book focuses on the biochemical properties of these enzymes, describing their structures and mechanisms in bacteria, humans and other species, including plants, and also explains the biological processes of reading of DNA methylation and DNA demethylation. It covers many emerging aspects of the biological roles of DNA methylation functioning as an essential epigenetic mark and describes the role of DNA methylation in diseases. Moreover, the book explains modern technologies, like targeted rewriting of DNA methylation by designed DNA methyltransferases, as well as technological applications of DNA methyltransferases in DNA labelling. Finally, the book summarizes recent methods for the analysis of DNA methylation in human DNA. Overall, this book represents a comprehensive state-of-the-art- work and is a must-have for advanced researchers in the field of DNA methylation and epigenetics.

Reprogramming the Genome CRISPR Cas based Human Disease Therapy

Reprogramming the Genome  CRISPR Cas based Human Disease Therapy Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-09-01
ISBN : 0323853242
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reprogramming the Genome: CRISPR-Cas-based Human Disease Therapy, presents the collation of chapters written by eminent scientists worldwide. CRISPR-Cas9 is a key technology for targeted genome editing and regulation in a number of organisms including mammalian cells. It is a rapid, simple, and cost-effective solution. CRISPR-Cas system has recently gained much scientific and public attention. This volume covers CRISPR-Cas9 based mammalian genome editing, creating disease models, cancer therapy, neurological, heredity, blood disorders, defective gene correction, stem cells therapy, epigenetic modifications, patents, ethics, biosafety and regulatory issues challenges and opportunities. This book is a key source of information on mammalian genome editing available in a single volume. This book will be useful for beginners in mammalian genome editing and also students, researchers, scientists, policymakers, clinicians and stakeholders interested in genome editing in several areas. Offers basic understanding and a clear picture of mammalian genome editing through CRISPR-Cas systems Discusses how to create mammalian disease models, stem cell modification, epigenetic modifications, correction of defective gene in blood disorders, heredity, neurological disorders and many more Discusses the application of CRISPR-Cas9 systems in basic sciences, biomedicine, molecular biology, translational sciences, neurobiology, neurology, cancer, stem cells, and many more

Chromatin and Epigenetics

Chromatin and Epigenetics Book
Author : Colin Logie,Tobias Aurelius Knoch
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-01-29
ISBN : 1789844924
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genomics has gathered broad public attention since Lamarck put forward his top-down hypothesis of 'motivated change' in 1809 in his famous book "Philosophie Zoologique" and even more so since Darwin published his famous bottom-up theory of natural selection in "The Origin of Species" in 1859. The public awareness culminated in the much anticipated race to decipher the sequence of the human genome in 2002. Over all those years, it has become apparent that genomic DNA is compacted into chromatin with a dedicated 3D higher-order organization and dynamics, and that on each structural level epigenetic modifications exist. The book "Chromatin and Epigenetics" addresses current issues in the fields of epigenetics and chromatin ranging from more theoretical overviews in the first four chapters to much more detailed methodologies and insights into diagnostics and treatments in the following chapters. The chapters illustrate in their depth and breadth that genetic information is stored on all structural and dynamical levels within the nucleus with corresponding modifications of functional relevance. Thus, only an integrative systems approach allows to understand, treat, and manipulate the holistic interplay of genotype and phenotype creating functional genomes. The book chapters therefore contribute to this general perspective, not only opening opportunities for a true universal view on genetic information but also being key for a general understanding of genomes, their function, as well as life and evolution in general.

Molecular Breeding in Wheat Maize and Sorghum

Molecular Breeding in Wheat  Maize and Sorghum Book
Author : Mohammad Anwar Hossain,Mobashwer Alam,Saman Seneweera,Sujay Rakshit,Robert J. Henry
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2021-06-30
ISBN : 1789245435
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The global population is projected to reach almost 10 billion by 2050, and food and feed production will need to increase by 70%. Wheat, maize and sorghum are three key cereals which provide nutrition for the majority of the world's population. Their production is affected by various abiotic stresses which cause significant yield losses. The effects of climate change also increase the frequency and severity of such abiotic stresses. Molecular breeding technologies offer real hope for improving crop yields. Although significant progress has been made over the last few years, there is still a need to bridge the large gap between yields in the most favorable and most stressful conditions.

Omics Technologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security Volume 1

Omics Technologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security Volume 1 Book
Author : Anirudh Kumar
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-09-24
ISBN : 9811608318
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Omics Technologies for Sustainable Agriculture and Global Food Security Volume 1 book written by Anirudh Kumar, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Human Neural Stem Cells

Human Neural Stem Cells Book
Author : Leonora Buzanska
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-09-12
ISBN : 3319934856
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book summarizes early pioneering achievements in the field of human neural stem cell (hNSC) research and combines them with the latest advances in stem cell technology, including reprogramming and gene editing. The powerful potential of hNSC to generate and repair the developing and adult CNS has been confirmed by numerous experimental in vitro and in vivo studies. The book presents methods for hNSC derivation and discusses the mechanisms underlying NSC in vitro fate decisions and their in vivo therapeutic mode of action. The long-standing dogma that the human central nervous system (CNS) lacks the ability to regenerate was refuted at the end of the 20th century, when evidence of the presence of neurogenic zones in the adult human brain was found. These neurogenic zones are home to human neural stem cells (hNSCs), which are capable of self-renewing and differentiating into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. NSCs isolated from human CNS have a number of clinical advantages, especially the innate potential to differentiate into functional neural cells. Nevertheless, their full clinical exploitation has been hindered by limited access to the tissue and low expansion potential. The search for an alternative to CNS sources of autologous, therapeutically competent hNSCs was the driving force for the many studies proving the in vitro plasticity of different somatic stem cells to generate NSCs and their functional progeny. Now the era of induced pluripotent stem cells has opened entirely new opportunities to achieve research and therapeutic goals with the aid of hNSCs.

Hormonal Control of Important Agronomic Traits

Hormonal Control of Important Agronomic Traits Book
Author : Chi-Kuang Wen,Yunde Zhao,Yong-Ling Ruan
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2018-12-21
ISBN : 2889456862
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

One of the goals of plant science is to improve agricultural sustainability, increasing yield, food diversity, and nutrition, while minimizing the negative impact on our environment. In response to internal and external cues, plant hormones control various aspects of plant growth and development. The wealth of our knowledge on plant hormones shall greatly advance sustainable agriculture.

Past Present and Future Trends in Cotton Breeding

Past  Present and Future Trends in Cotton Breeding Book
Author : Mehboob-Ur- Rahman,Yusuf Zafar
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-05-02
ISBN : 1789230764
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cotton, a source of natural fiber for textile industry, has a long breeding history aiming at increasing cotton fiber yield and its quality. Newly developed cotton varieties poorly respond in low-input environments. Secondly, the impact of changing climate may threaten the cotton production in the future. To address these challenges, efforts toward the development of resilient cotton varieties have been initiated using genetic and modern genomic approaches. In this book, research updates on cotton fiber types and properties, DNA markers for selecting desirable cotton plants, and cotton fiber genomics were compiled. Also, the modern breeding trends including development of transgenic cotton and the biosafety studies and possibilities of improving cotton genome using modern genome editing tools were also compressively discussed.

CRISPR Crops

CRISPR Crops Book
Author : Aftab Ahmad,Sultan Habibullah Khan,Zulqurnain Khan
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-01-08
ISBN : 9811571422
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book compiles the latest applications of the cutting-edge gene editing tool CRISPR/Cas in the area of crop improvement. It begins with an introduction to the technique and its application in crop plants. Next, it gives an updated overview of available delivery methods, design tools and resources in CRISPR/Cas. The book subsequently reviews the applications of CRISPR/Cas in connection with e.g. insect stress, disease stress, abiotic stress, nutritional and yield improvement in crop plants, etc. It also discusses the various regulatory, ethical and social aspects of the technique that must be kept in mind when designing experiments. In closing, the book summarizes the status quo and outlines future prospects for the tool in crop improvement and food security. Given its scope, the book will especially benefit students and researchers in food science, biotechnology, agriculture and the plant sciences.

Methods in iPSC Technology

Methods in iPSC Technology Book
Author : Alexander Birbrair
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-06-15
ISBN : 0323856446
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Methods in iPSC Technology, Volume Nine in the Advances in Stem Biology series, addresses the methods used for induced pluripotent stem cell formation, maintenance, expansion and differentiation. The ability to reprogram different cell types to induced pluripotent stem cells offers an opportunity to generate pluripotent patient-specific cell lines that can help in the understanding of multiple human disorders. This volume addresses a variety of methods used with iPSCs, such as magnetic nanoparticles, combining bioscaffolds, hiPSC expansion and differentiation, biomaterials for iPSCs, CRISPR/Cas9, and much more. The volume is written for researchers and scientists in stem cell therapy, cell biology, regenerative medicine and organ transplantation; and is contributed by world-renowned authors in the field. Ideal for researchers and scientists in stem cell therapy, cell biology, regenerative medicine and organ transplantation Presents a comprehensive solution for both graduate and undergraduate students in a variety of fields of study

Curing Genetic Diseases through Genome Reprogramming

Curing Genetic Diseases through Genome Reprogramming Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-06-24
ISBN : 0323853021
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Curing Genetic Diseases through Genome Reprogramming, Volume 182 captures an historic moment in the field of gene therapy—the dawn of a new age in which the dream of curing genetic diseases has become realizable. The volume presents the most clinically advanced gene therapy and genome editing approaches for the treatment of genetic diseases in specific organs, including difficult therapeutic targets, futuristic ideas of genetic interventions, and large scale human genome repair. An initial chapter addresses the complex ethical aspects involved in the very idea of modifying the human genome. Provides a comprehensive view of gene therapy and genome editing technologies, including epigenetic editing Describes the state-of-the-art and future directions for the treatment of genetic diseases, also considering economical aspects Presents chapters that each give a thorough review of a specific disease, target organ or visionary approach, including ethical considerations

Plant Small RNA

Plant Small RNA Book
Author : Praveen Guleria,Vineet Kumar
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-02-19
ISBN : 012817336X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plant Small RNA: Biogenesis, Regulation and Application describes the biosynthesis of small RNA in plant systems. With an emphasis on the various molecular mechanisms affected by small RNA and their applications in supporting plant growth and survival, this books presents the basics and most recent advancements in small RNA mediated plant genomics, metabolomics, proteomics and physiology. In addition, it emphasizes the various molecular mechanisms affected by small RNA and their applications in supporting plant growth and survival. Final sections cover the most recent advancements in small RNA mediated plant genomics, metabolomics, proteomics and physiology. Presents foundational information about small RNA biology and regulation in plants Includes small RNA pathway advances Describes the application and scope of small RNA technology for agricultural stability

Genome Research

Genome Research Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Genome Research book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

OMICS Based Approaches in Plant Biotechnology

OMICS Based Approaches in Plant Biotechnology Book
Author : Rintu Banerjee,Garlapati Vijay Kumar,S.P. Jeevan Kumar
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2019-02-13
ISBN : 111950998X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Burgeoning world population, decreased water supply and land resources, coupled with climate change, result in severe stress conditions and a great threat to the global food supply. To meet these challenges, exploring Omics Technologies could lead to improved yields of cereals, tubers and grasses that may ensure food security. Improvement of yields through crop improvement and biotechnological means are the need-of-the-hour, and the current book “OMICS-Based Approaches in Plant Biotechnology”, reviews the advanced concepts on breeding strategies, OMICS technologies (genomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics) and bioinformatics that help to glean the potential candidate genes/molecules to address unsolved problems related to plant and agricultural crops. The first six chapters of the book are focused on genomics and cover sequencing, functional genomics with examples on insecticide resistant genes, mutation breeding and miRNA technologies. Recent advances in metabolomics studies are elucidated in the next 3 chapters followed by 5 chapters on bioinformatics and advanced techniques in plant biotechnology and crop breeding. The information contained in the volume will help plant breeders, plant biotechnologists, plant biochemists, agriculture scientists and researchers in using this applied research to focus on better crop breeding and stress adaptation strategies.

Mutagenesis Cytotoxicity and Crop Improvement

Mutagenesis  Cytotoxicity and Crop Improvement Book
Author : Tariq Ahmad Bhat
Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Release : 2021-01-11
ISBN : 152756438X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Induced mutagenesis is a common and promising method for the screening of new crops with improved production methods, and has made a tremendous contribution to crop improvement. Now, as the techniques of molecular biology become more widely adopted by plant breeders, this comprehensive summary sets mutation breeding within a contemporary context and relates it to other breeding techniques. This book opens a new chapter of inducing mutations at the gene level, and details techniques that can be used to harvest and exploit such mutation to improve the productivity of crops, particularly cereals, grains and vegetables. The chapters within this volume are supported by diagrams, tables and graphs to make the content more comprehensible. The book will be extremely useful for advanced undergraduates, graduates, postgraduate students, and research scientists of botany, agriculture, horticulture, genetics, biotechnology, biochemistry and agronomy.

Epigenetic Cancer Therapy

Epigenetic Cancer Therapy Book
Author : Steven Gray
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-07-01
ISBN : 0128002247
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetic Cancer Therapy unites issues central to a translational audience actively seeking to understand the topic. It is ideal for cancer specialists, including oncologists and clinicians, but also provides valuable information for researchers, academics, students, governments, and decision-makers in the healthcare sector. The text covers the basic background of the epigenome, aberrant epigenetics, and its potential as a target for cancer therapy, and includes individual chapters on the state of epigenome knowledge in specific cancers (including lung, breast, prostate, liver). The book encompasses both large-scale intergovernmental initiatives as well as recent findings across cancer stem cells, rational drug design, clinical trials, and chemopreventative strategies. As a whole, the work articulates and raises the profile of epigenetics as a therapeutic option in the future management of cancer. Concisely summarizes the therapeutic implications of recent, large-scale epigenome studies, including the cancer epigenome atlas Discusses targeted isoform specific versus pan-specific inhibitors, a rational drug design approach to epigenetics relevant to pharmacoepigenetic clinical applications Covers new findings in the interplay between cancer stem cells (CSCs) and drug resistance, demonstrating that epigenetic machinery is a candidate target for the eradication of these CSCs

Entering the RNA Wonderland Opportunities and Challenges for RNA Therapeutics in the Cardiovascular System

Entering the RNA Wonderland  Opportunities and Challenges for RNA Therapeutics in the Cardiovascular System Book
Author : Anna Zampetaki,Lars Maegdefessel
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-07-22
ISBN : 2889638820
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Entering the RNA Wonderland Opportunities and Challenges for RNA Therapeutics in the Cardiovascular System book written by Anna Zampetaki,Lars Maegdefessel, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Epigenetics of Chronic Pain

Epigenetics of Chronic Pain Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-10-29
ISBN : 0128140712
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics of Chronic Pain, Volume Nine, presents comprehensive information on the role of epigenetics in chronic pain sensitivity, providing a detailed, but accessible, view of the field from basic principles, to clinical application. Leading international researchers discuss essential mechanisms of chronic pain epigenetics, including the molecular processes of chromatin remodeling, histone modifications, and the microRNAs and noncoding RNAs involved in regulating genes tied to pain sensitivity. The influence of epigenetics in inflammatory, neuropathic, visceral and other pain models is examined, with data derived from epigenetic studies on peripheral and central mechanisms of pain sensitivity in animal models and clinical cases studies. The studies and case examples cited highlight therapeutic pathways of significance and next steps for researchers to develop epigenetic-based treatments for chronic pain. In recent years, epigenetic regulation of gene expression has been shown to play a central role in managing human pain sensitivity. Findings show that expression of many genes critical to increases or decreases in pain sensitivity are indeed regulated by DNA methylation and its enzymes, histone-involved chromatin remodeling, and noncoding RNAs, mainly microRNAs. Compiles all known information on epigenetic regulation of chronic pain in one volume Covers the basic functionality of epigenetic mechanisms involved in pain management, applications of recent research in understanding different types of chronic pain, and pathways for developing therapeutics Leading international researchers from across academia, clinical settings, and the pharmaceutical industry discuss epigenetics in inflammatory, neuropathic, visceral, and other pain models in-depth Enables clinicians, researchers, and pharmacologists to better understand and treat chronic pain