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Single Photon Generation And Detection

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Single Photon Generation and Detection

Single Photon Generation and Detection Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013-11-29
ISBN : 0123876966
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Single-photon generation and detection is at the forefront of modern optical physics research. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the current status of single-photon techniques and research methods in the spectral region from the visible to the infrared. The use of single photons, produced on demand with well-defined quantum properties, offers an unprecedented set of capabilities that are central to the new area of quantum information and are of revolutionary importance in areas that range from the traditional, such as high sensitivity detection for astronomy, remote sensing, and medical diagnostics, to the exotic, such as secretive surveillance and very long communication links for data transmission on interplanetary missions. The goal of this volume is to provide researchers with a comprehensive overview of the technology and techniques that are available to enable them to better design an experimental plan for its intended purpose. The book will be broken into chapters focused specifically on the development and capabilities of the available detectors and sources to allow a comparative understanding to be developed by the reader along with and idea of how the field is progressing and what can be expected in the near future. Along with this technology, we will include chapters devoted to the applications of this technology, which is in fact much of the driver for its development. This is set to become the go-to reference for this field. Covers all the basic aspects needed to perform single-photon experiments and serves as the first reference to any newcomer who would like to produce an experimental design that incorporates the latest techniques Provides a comprehensive overview of the current status of single-photon techniques and research methods in the spectral region from the visible to the infrared, thus giving broad background that should enable newcomers to the field to make rapid progress in gaining proficiency Written by leading experts in the field, among which, the leading Editor is recognized as having laid down the roadmap, thus providing the reader with an authenticated and reliable source

Single Photon Generation and Detection

Single Photon Generation and Detection Book
Author : Alan Migdall
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9780123876959
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Single-photon generation and detection is at the forefront of modern optical physics research. This book is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the current status of single-photon techniques and research methods in the spectral region from the visible to the infrared. The use of single photons, produced on demand with well-defined quantum properties, offers an unprecedented set of capabilities that are central to the new area of quantum information and are of revolutionary importance in areas that range from the traditional, such as high sensitivity detection for astronomy, remote sensing, and medical diagnostics, to the exotic, such as secretive surveillance and very long communication links for data transmission on interplanetary missions. The goal of this volume is to provide researchers with a comprehensive overview of the technology and techniques that are available to enable them to better design an experimental plan for its intended purpose. The book will be broken into chapters focused specifically on the development and capabilities of the available detectors and sources to allow a comparative understanding to be developed by the reader along with and idea of how the field is progressing and what can be expected in the near future. Along with this technology, we will include chapters devoted to the applications of this technology, which is in fact much of the driver for its development. This is set to become the go-to reference for this field. Covers all the basic aspects needed to perform single-photon experiments and serves as the first reference to any newcomer who would like to produce an experimental design that incorporates the latest techniques Provides a comprehensive overview of the current status of single-photon techniques and research methods in the spectral region from the visible to the infrared, thus giving broad background that should enable newcomers to the field to make rapid progress in gaining proficiency Written by leading experts in the field, among which, the leading Editor is recognized as having laid down the roadmap, thus providing the reader with an authenticated and reliable source

A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics

A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics Book
Author : Hans-A. Bachor,Timothy C. Ralph
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2019-10-28
ISBN : 3527411933
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides fully updated coverage of new experiments in quantum optics This fully revised and expanded edition of a well-established textbook on experiments on quantum optics covers new concepts, results, procedures, and developments in state-of-the-art experiments. It starts with the basic building blocks and ideas of quantum optics, then moves on to detailed procedures and new techniques for each experiment. Focusing on metrology, communications, and quantum logic, this new edition also places more emphasis on single photon technology and hybrid detection. In addition, it offers end-of-chapter summaries and full problem sets throughout. Beginning with an introduction to the subject, A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics, 3rd Edition presents readers with chapters on classical models of light, photons, quantum models of light, as well as basic optical components. It goes on to give readers full coverage of lasers and amplifiers, and examines numerous photodetection techniques being used today. Other chapters examine quantum noise, squeezing experiments, the application of squeezed light, and fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. The book finishes with a section on quantum information before summarizing of the contents and offering an outlook on the future of the field. -Provides all new updates to the field of quantum optics, covering the building blocks, models and concepts, latest results, detailed procedures, and modern experiments -Places emphasis on three major goals: metrology, communications, and quantum logic -Presents fundamental tests of quantum mechanics (Schrodinger Kitten, multimode entanglement, photon systems as quantum emulators), and introduces the density function -Includes new trends and technologies in quantum optics and photodetection, new results in sensing and metrology, and more coverage of quantum gates and logic, cluster states, waveguides for multimodes, discord and other quantum measures, and quantum control -Offers end of chapter summaries and problem sets as new features A Guide to Experiments in Quantum Optics, 3rd Edition is an ideal book for professionals, and graduate and upper level students in physics and engineering science.

Single Photon Generation and Detection

Single Photon Generation and Detection Book
Author : Alain Aspect,Philippe Grangier
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-29
ISBN : 0128058099
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Single Photon Generation and Detection book written by Alain Aspect,Philippe Grangier, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Single Photon Generation and Detection

Single Photon Generation and Detection Book
Author : Sergey V. Polyakov
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-29
ISBN : 0128058072
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

We discuss applying single-photon detectors to measurements with high accuracy. Two primary standard methods of detector calibration are reviewed: one based on a radiant power measurement (substitution method) and the other—on a simultaneous generation of photon pairs (correlation method). It is shown how to apply these methods to two types of detectors: with no photon number resolution (PNR) and with full PNR. In addition, an experimental comparison of the two calibration methods with non-PNR detectors is presented.

Single Photon Generation and Detection

Single Photon Generation and Detection Book
Author : Ivo Pietro Degiovanni,Sergey Polyakov,Alan Migdall,Hendrik B. Coldenstrodt-Ronge,Ian A. Walmsley,Franco N.C. Wong
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-29
ISBN : 0128058064
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter presents an overview of efforts to improve photon-counting detection systems through the use of hybrid detection techniques such as spatial- and time-multiplexing of conventional detectors, and frequency up-conversion. It reviews the basic operation for these methods and illustrates their utility in a number of applications showing new or improved capabilities compared with conventional methods.

Single Photon Generation and Detection

Single Photon Generation and Detection Book
Author : Jungsang Kim,Kyle S. McKay,Paul G. Kwiat,Kevin Zielnicki,Eric J. Gansen
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-29
ISBN : 0128058048
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this Chapter, we summarize the current status and future prospects of a number of novel semiconductor-based single-photon detectors, including visible-light photon counters (VLPCs), solid-state photo-multipliers (SSPMs), and quantum-dot-based detectors. SSPMs and VLPCs utilize the gain produced by impact ionization of the impurity band to detect single photons over a wide wavelength range between 0.4 and 28. Quantum-dot-based single-photon detectors use photoconductive gain associated with photogenerated carriers trapped in quantum dots. We cover the basic operating principles of these devices, describe experimental results that demonstrate their unique attributes, present mathematical models that quantify their performance, and discuss the future of these novel detector technologies.

Single Photon Generation and Detection

Single Photon Generation and Detection Book
Author : Sergio Cova,Massimo Ghioni,Mark A. Itzler,Joshua C. Bienfang,Alessandro Restelli
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-29
ISBN : 012805803X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter presents a broad review of the principle, design, fabrication, operation, and performance of single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs), and provides a comparative basis to assess the relative merits of the wide variety of devices and techniques covered. Particular attention is paid to the design of and operation of both silicon and high-speed-gated InGaAs/InP detection systems, as well as array-based systems.

Single Photon Generation and Detection

Single Photon Generation and Detection Book
Author : J.C. Bienfang,J. Fan,A. Migdall,S.V. Polyakov
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-29
ISBN : 0128058005
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Single Photon Generation and Detection book written by J.C. Bienfang,J. Fan,A. Migdall,S.V. Polyakov, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Single Photon Generation and Detection

Single Photon Generation and Detection Book
Author : Martin J. Stevens
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-29
ISBN : 0128058013
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To understand the nature of light sources, one needs to know the statistical properties of emitted light and how the tools used to measure those properties reflect those statistics. This chapter will cover the vocabulary and notation necessary for understanding the characteristics of the sources and detectors covered in this book. After a brief review of the quantized electric field and relevant operators, we explore properties of single-photon sources, starting with relationships among state vectors, density matrices and photon number probabilities . Next we investigate properties of , the second-order coherence, and how it relates to . We present an in-depth study of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss interferometer, showing how it can be used to accurately measure in many—but not all—experimental situations. This is followed by a discussion of bunching, antibunching, Poissonian photon statistics, high-order coherences and indistinguishability. The second half of the chapter discusses characteristics of single-photon detectors, starting with the definition of detection efficiency used in this book. We review the POVM (Positive-Operator-Valued-Measure) operators, use them to illustrate the distinction between photon number-resolving (PNR) detectors and click/ no-click detectors, and explore some of the practical limitations of photon number-resolving and energy-resolving detectors. We next discuss the time response of detectors, including timing latency, rise time, timing jitter, dead time, reset time and recovery time. Finally, we cover the distinction between dark count rate and background count rate, and briefly discuss afterpulse probability, active area and operating temperature.

Single Photon Generation and Detection

Single Photon Generation and Detection Book
Author : Andreas Christ,Alessandro Fedrizzi,Hannes Hübel,Thomas Jennewein,Christine Silberhorn
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-29
ISBN : 0128058102
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this chapter we review the process of parametric down-conversion (PDC) and discuss the different methods to use PDC as a heralded single-photon source. PDC is a non-linear optical process, where an incoming pump photon decays, under energy and momentum conservation, into a photon-pair. The creation of photons in pairs allows for the implementation of a single-photon source by detecting one photon (trigger) to herald the presence of its partner (signal). The engineering possibilities of PDC enable the generation of single-photons with high rates in a wide range of frequencies. This chapter is structured as follows: Section 11.2 describes the principles of PDC in non-linear media. We derive the quantum state of the generated photon-pairs, investigate the spectral purity and photon-number purity of the heralded signal photon and discuss the achievable single-photon generation rates. In section 11.3 we turn towards experimental realizations and introduce bulk crystal PDC. Section 11.4 elaborates on the use of periodic poling to engineer the PDC process. Finally, section 11.5 gives an overview over PDC in waveguides. A comparison of experimental data from various heralded singe-photon sources based on PDC is presented in section 11.6 with an overview of nonlinear materials suited for PDC given in section 11.7.

Single Photon Generation and Detection

Single Photon Generation and Detection Book
Author : Alex McMillan,Yu-Ping Huang,Bryn Bell,Alex Clark,Prem Kumar,John Rarity
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-29
ISBN : 0128058110
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The efficient generation of single photon and entangled photon states is of considerable interest both for fundamental studies of quantum mechanics and practical applications, such as quantum communications and computation. It is now well known that correlated pairs of photons suitable for such applications can be generated directly in a guided mode of an optical fiber through the nonlinear process of spontaneous four-wave mixing. Detection of one photon of the pair can be used to herald the presence of the other, in order to realise a probabilistic heralded single photon source. Alternatively, both photons can be used directly as an entangled photon pair if the source is designed such that the two photons are correlated in one or more of their degrees of freedom. This chapter provides an overview of the progress that has been made into the development of photon sources based on four-wave mixing in optical fibers. A theoretical model of four-wave mixing is described in Section 12.2, which demonstrates how the dispersion characteristics of an optical fiber influence the properties of the photon pair state that is generated. Section 12.3 focusses on heralded single photon sources operating in both the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes of optical fiber, and highlights several experimental demonstrations of this type of source. Section 12.4 discusses the concept of non-classical interference and the parameters of the generated photons that can influence the interference visibility. Section 12.5 expands upon this discussion to consider two different approaches for preparing photons in pure states that have been used to demonstrate high visibility two-photon interference. Section 12.6 describes several different experimental implementations of entangled photon pair sources. Finally, two practical applications using fiber-based photon sources are presented, with an all-fiber, quantum controlled-NOT gate discussed in Section 12.7, and the potential to use photonic fusion to build up large photonic cluster states outlined in Section 12.8.

Single Photon Generation and Detection

Single Photon Generation and Detection Book
Author : Glenn S. Solomon,Charles Santori,Axel Kuhn
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-29
ISBN : 0128058129
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Single Photon Generation and Detection book written by Glenn S. Solomon,Charles Santori,Axel Kuhn, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Single Photon Generation and Detection

Single Photon Generation and Detection Book
Author : Karl K. Berggren,Eric A. Dauler,Andrew J. Kerman,Sae-Woo Nam,Danna Rosenberg
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-29
ISBN : 0128058056
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Superconducting materials provide a unique opportunity for single-photon detectors. The combination of the strong non-linearity present in the superconducting-metal transition and in Josephson junctions; the unique electrical property of zero resistance; the fast relaxation processes present in many superconducting materials; and the easily engineered optical absorptance of metals results in a system that can be adapted to many photo-detection requirements. As a result of these material features, a variety of detector families have emerged in recent years based on superconducting nanowires, tunnel junctions, weak thermal links, and kinetic-inductive resonators. The detectors variously provide high speed single-photon detection; high-sensitivity in the infrared, optical, UV, or even x-ray wavelengths; and high efficiency. The resulting applications include quantum and classical high-data-rate communication, biological imaging, LIDAR, and VLSI circuit evaluation among others.

Single Photon Generation and Detection

Single Photon Generation and Detection Book
Author : Lijian Zhang,Hendrik Coldenstrodt-Ronge,Animesh Datta,Ian A. Walmsley
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-11-29
ISBN : 0128058080
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As quantum detectors evolve to become ever more sophisticated, their description in terms of a limited number of generic parameters falls short. An alternative description of the performance of a detector is provided by its positive-operator-valued measure (POVM). In this chapter we introduce a technique, quantum detector tomography, which allows us to experimentally reconstruct the POVM of the detector under test. Detailed examples on how to apply this technique to phase-insensitive detectors are given. We also discuss the challenges for the tomography of phase-sensitive detectors and possible solutions.

Single photon Devices and Applications

Single photon Devices and Applications Book
Author : Charles Santori,David Fattal,Yoshihisa Yamamoto
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2010-11-01
ISBN : 352740807X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the past ten years, on-demand single photon generation has been realized in numerous physical systems including neutral atoms, ions, molecules, semiconductor quantum dots, impurities and defects in solids, and superconductor circuits. The motivations for generation and detection of single photons are two-fold: basic and applied science. On the one hand, a single photon plays a central role in the experimental foundation of quantum mechanics and measurement theory. On the other hand, an efficient and high-quality single-photon source is needed to implement quantum key distribution, quantum repeaters and photonic quantum information processing. Written by top authors from academia and industry, this is the only textbook focused on single-photon devices and thus fills the gap for a readily accessible update on the rapid progress in the field.

Single Photon Imaging

Single Photon Imaging Book
Author : Peter Seitz,Albert J. P. Theuwissen
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2011-08-03
ISBN : 364218443X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The acquisition and interpretation of images is a central capability in almost all scientific and technological domains. In particular, the acquisition of electromagnetic radiation, in the form of visible light, UV, infrared, X-ray, etc. is of enormous practical importance. The ultimate sensitivity in electronic imaging is the detection of individual photons. With this book, the first comprehensive review of all aspects of single-photon electronic imaging has been created. Topics include theoretical basics, semiconductor fabrication, single-photon detection principles, imager design and applications of different spectral domains. Today, the solid-state fabrication capabilities for several types of image sensors has advanced to a point, where uncoooled single-photon electronic imaging will soon become a consumer product. This book is giving a specialist ́s view from different domains to the forthcoming “single-photon imaging” revolution. The various aspects of single-photon imaging are treated by internationally renowned, leading scientists and technologists who have all pioneered their respective fields.

Quantum Nano Photonics

Quantum Nano Photonics Book
Author : Baldassare Di Bartolo,Luciano Silvestri,Maura Cesaria,John Collins
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-09-19
ISBN : 9402415440
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book brings together more closely researchers working in the two fields of quantum optics and nano-optics and provides a general overview of the main topics of interest in applied and fundamental research. The contributions cover, for example, single-photon emitters and emitters of entangled photon pairs based on epitaxially grown semiconductor quantum dots, nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond as single-photon emitters, coupled quantum bits based on trapped ions, integrated waveguide superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors, quantum nano-plasmonics, nanosensing, quantum aspects of biophotonics and quantum metamaterials. The articles span the bridge from pedagogical introductions on the fundamental principles to the current state-of-the-art, and are authored by pioneers and leaders in the field. Numerical simulations are presented as a powerful tool to gain insight into the physical behavior of nanophotonic systems and provide a critical complement to experimental investigations and design of devices.

Time correlated single photon counting

Time correlated single photon counting Book
Author : Desmond O'Connor
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 0323141447
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Time-correlated Single Photon Counting has been written in the hope that by relating the authors' experiences with a variety of different single photon counting systems, they may provide a useful service to users and potential users of this formidably sensitive technique. Of all the techniques available to obtain information on the rates of depopulation of excited electronic singlet states of molecular species, monitoring of fluorescence provides, in principle, the simplest and most direct measure of concentration. This volume comprises eight chapters, with the first focusing on the time dependence and applications of fluorescence. Succeeding chapters go on to discuss basic principles of the single photon counting lifetime measurement; light sources; photomultipliers; electronics; data analysis; nanosecond time-resolved emission spectroscopy; time dependence of fluorescence anisotropy. This book will be of interest to practitioners in the field of chemistry.

Mathematics and Physics of Emerging Biomedical Imaging

Mathematics and Physics of Emerging Biomedical Imaging Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Committee on the Mathematics and Physics of Emerging Dynamic Biomedical Imaging
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1996-02-28
ISBN : 9780309175975
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This cross-disciplinary book documents the key research challenges in the mathematical sciences and physics that could enable the economical development of novel biomedical imaging devices. It is hoped that the infusion of new insights from mathematical scientists and physicists will accelerate progress in imaging. Incorporating input from dozens of biomedical researchers who described what they perceived as key open problems of imaging that are amenable to attack by mathematical scientists and physicists, this book introduces the frontiers of biomedical imaging, especially the imaging of dynamic physiological functions, to the educated nonspecialist. Ten imaging modalities are covered, from the well-established (e.g., CAT scanning, MRI) to the more speculative (e.g., electrical and magnetic source imaging). For each modality, mathematics and physics research challenges are identified and a short list of suggested reading offered. Two additional chapters offer visions of the next generation of surgical and interventional techniques and of image processing. A final chapter provides an overview of mathematical issues that cut across the various modalities.