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Sex Estimation Of The Human Skeleton

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Sex Estimation of the Human Skeleton

Sex Estimation of the Human Skeleton Book
Author : Alexandra R. Klales
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-05-30
ISBN : 0128157682
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sex Estimation of the Human Skeleton is a comprehensive work on the theory, methods, and current issues for sexing human skeletal remains. This work provides practitioners a starting point for research and practice on sex estimation to assist with the identification and analysis of human remains. It contains a collection of the latest scientific research, using metric and morphological methods, and contains case studies, where relevant, to highlight methodological application to real cases. This volume presents a truly comprehensive representation of the current state of sex estimation while also detailing the history and how we got to this point. Divided into three main sections, this reference text first provides an introduction to the book and to sex estimation overall, including a history, practitioner preferences, and a deeper understanding of biological sex. The second section addresses the main methodological areas used to estimate sex, including metric and morphological methods, statistical applications, and software. Each chapter topic provides a review of older techniques and emphasizes the latest research and methodological improvements. Chapters are written by practicing physical anthropologists and also include their latest research on the topics, as well as relevant case studies. The third section addresses current considerations and future directions for sex estimation in forensic and bioarchaeological contexts, including DNA, secular change, and medical imaging Sex Estimation of the Human Skeleton is a one-of-a-kind resource for those involved in estimating the sex of human skeletal remains. Provides the first comprehensive text reference on sex estimation, with historical perspectives and current best practices Contains real case studies to underscore key estimation concepts Demonstrates the changing role of technology in sex estimation

THE HUMAN SKELETON IN FORENSIC MEDICINE

THE HUMAN SKELETON IN FORENSIC MEDICINE Book
Author : Mehmet Yasar Iscan,Maryan Steyn
Publisher : Charles C Thomas Publisher
Release : 2013-09-01
ISBN : 0398088799
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This classic in forensic anthropology has been thoroughly updated and greatly expanded for the new Third Edition. The result presents the state of the medicolegal art of investigating human skeletal remains. The third edition follows more than 25 years after the second edition. During this time, considerable changes occurred in the field and Forensic Anthropology became a distinct specialty in its own right. Included in the book are detailed discussions on crime scene investigation, including excavation techniques, time interval since death, human or animal remains, mass graves, and preparation of remains. Existing chapters, all dramatically revised, bring readers in line with the current concepts of skeletal age; determination of sex; assessment of ancestry; calculation of stature; factors of individualization; superimposition and restoration of physiognomy. There is also a section on dental analysis examining such topics as dental anatomy, nomenclature, estimation of age in subadults and adults, determination of sex and ancestry, and pathological conditions. New additions are chapters on skeletal pathology and trauma assessment. A new chapter has also been added on “Forensic Anthropology of the Living.” Although all of the sections of the book have been updated significantly, the authors have retained some sense of history to recognize the many pioneers that have shaped the discipline. The text will assist forensic anthropologists and forensic pathologists who have to analyze skeletons found in forensic contexts. This book has a global perspective in order to make it usable to practitioners across the world. Where possible, short case studies have been added to illustrate the diverse aspects of the work.

Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton

Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton Book
Author : M. Anne Katzenberg,Shelley R. Saunders
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-09-23
ISBN : 1118211650
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"This book is virtually required reading for biological anthropologists and will be a useful, up-to-date primer on osteological analyses for a wider audience." —The Quarterly Review of Biology, March 2009 "… a comprehensive guide to the ever-changing discipline of physical anthropology… provides an in depth introduction to human skeletal biology. The structure of the book makes it easy for the reader to follow the progression of the field of human skeletal biology." —PaleoAnthropology, 2009 Issue The First Edition of Biological Anthropology of the Human Skeleton is the market-leading reference and textbook on the scientific analysis of human skeletal remains recovered from archaeological sites. Now, featuring scores of new or thoroughly revised content, this Second Edition provides the most comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of the topic available. Like the previous edition, this Second Edition is organized into five parts with contributing chapters written by experts in the field of human skeletal biology: Part One covers theory and application; Part Two discusses morphological analyses of bone, teeth, and age changes; Part Three reviews prehistoric health and disease; Part Four examines chemical and genetic analysis of hard tissues; and Part Five closes with coverage of quantitative methods and population studies. Each chapter includes a review of recent studies, descriptions of analytical techniques and underlying assumptions, theory, methodological advances, and speculation about future research. New or thoroughly revised content includes: Techniques in the analysis of human skeletal and dental remains Extensive coverage of new technologies, including modern morphometric techniques Advances in the field of forensic anthropology Enhanced discussion of ethical terms regarding the study of aboriginal peoples' remains where those people are no longer the dominant culture This book serves as an indispensable research guide to biological anthropologists, osteologists, paleoanthropologists, and archaeologists. Now with a stronger focus on teaching complex material to students, this revised edition provides enhanced case studies and discussions for future directions, making it an invaluable textbook for advanced undergraduates and graduate students in biological anthropology and forensic anthropology programs.

The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine

The Human Skeleton in Forensic Medicine Book
Author : Wilton Marion Krogman,Mehmet Yasar Iscan,Maryna Steyn
Publisher : Charles C Thomas Pub Limited
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9780398088781
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Revision of: The human skeleton in forensic medicine / by Wilton Marion Krogman and Mehmet Yasar Iscar. -- 2nd ed. -- Springfield, Ill., U.S.A.: C.C. Thomas, 1986.

Human Osteology

Human Osteology Book
Author : Margaret Cox,Simon Mays
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2000-01-04
ISBN : 9780521691468
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This advanced textbook provides the reader with an up-to-date account of recent developments and future potential in the study of human skeletons from both an archaeological and forensic context. It is well-illustrated, comprehensive in its coverage and is divided into six sections for ease of reference, encompassing such areas as palaeodemography, juvenile health and growth, disease and trauma, normal skeletal variation, biochemical and microscopic analyses and facial reconstruction. Each chapter is written by a recognised specialist in the field, and includes in-depth discussion of the reliability of methods, with appropriate references, and current and future research directions. It is essential reading for all students undertaking osteology as part of their studies and will also prove a valuable reference for forensic scientists, both in the field and the laboratory.

FORENSIC OSTEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS

FORENSIC OSTEOLOGICAL ANALYSIS Book
Author : Scott I. Fairgrieve
Publisher : Charles C Thomas Publisher
Release : 1999-01-01
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This timely volume on case studies in forensic osteology with background information on how osteological analysis is applied to human/faunal remains found in legal contexts is primarily designed for students of forensic anthropology/osteology who have a background in human anatomy and/or osteology. It also will be of interest to those individuals lacking this background and who may very well want to read the book for its many case studies. Although many journals publish case reports, there are instances when a more detailed and full description of circumstances are warranted. Further, beginning students initially require a more thorough treatment of the thinking behind the application of analytical techniques; an important aspect that may not be covered in the professional literature. Based on the foregoing, the premise of this book is that each case has a unique quality and thus presents unique problems for the analyst to approach. It is important for the reader to understand the limits for forensic osteology by examining not only its successes but also its failures. This book presents this type of information. The chapters appear as follows: Forensic Osteological Analysis: An Introduction; Of Beasts and Humans: A Case of Recognition; Identification of Human Skeletal Remains: Was He a She or She a He?; Sex Determination: XX or XY from the Human Skeleton; Identification of a Missing Person Using Biomechanical and DNA Analysis: A Case Study; DISH Rats and a Rolex; Death on the Danforth; The Identification of the Remains of Don Francisco Pizarro; Clinkers on the Little Bighorn Battlefield: In Situ Investigation of Scattered Recent Cremains; The Wrong Urn: Commingling of Cremains in Mortuary Practices; Cremated Remains and Expert Testimony in a Homicide Case; An Anthropological Investigation of a Rural Homicide Scene; Forensic Osteology of Strangulation; Pathological Changes on Human Skeletal Remains: Before, During or After?; Unusual Skeletal Anomalies and Pathologies in Forensic Casework; Biker's Bones: An Avocational Syndrome; Identity Crisis: Two Case Studies -- Success and Failure in Personal Identification Determination; Mass Disasters: Comments and Discussion Regarding the Hinton Train Collision of 1986; The Role of Forensic Anthropology in Human Rights Issues; and Forensic Entomology: The Use of Insects in Death Investigations.

Research Methods in Human Skeletal Biology

Research Methods in Human Skeletal Biology Book
Author : Elizabeth A. DiGangi,Megan K. Moore
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-11-27
ISBN : 0123851904
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Research Methods in Human Skeletal Biology serves as the one location readers can go to not only learn how to conduct research in general, but how research is specifically conducted within human skeletal biology. It outlines the current types of research being conducted within each sub-specialty of skeletal biology, and gives the reader the tools to set up a research project in skeletal biology. It also suggests several ideas for potential projects. Each chapter has an inclusive bibliography, which can serve as a good jumpstart for project references. Provides a step-by-step guide to conducting research in human skeletal biology Covers diverse topics (sexing, aging, stature and ancestry estimation) and new technologies (histology, medical imaging, and geometric morphometrics) Excellent accompaniment to existing forensic anthropology or osteology works

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains Book
Author : Donald J. Ortner
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2003-01-10
ISBN : 9780080525631
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Identification of Pathological Conditions in Human Skeletal Remains provides an integrated and comprehensive treatment of pathological conditions that affect the human skeleton. There is much that ancient skeletal remains can reveal to the modern orthopaedist, pathologist, forensic anthropologist, and radiologist about the skeletal manifestations of diseases that are rarely encountered in modern medical practice. Beautifully illustrated with over 1,100 photographs and drawings, this book provides essential text and materials on bone pathology, which will improve the diagnostic ability of those interested in human dry bone pathology. It also provides time depth to our understanding of the effect of disease on past human populations. Key Features *Comprehensive review of skeletal diseases encountered in archeological human remains * More than 1100 photographs and line drawings illustrating skeletal disease including both microscopic and gross features * Based on extensive research on skeletal paleopathology in many countries for over 35 years * Review of important theoretical issues in interpreting evidence of skeletal disease in archeological human populations

The Human Bone Manual

The Human Bone Manual Book
Author : Tim D. White,Pieter A. Folkens
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2005-11-08
ISBN : 9780080488998
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Building on the success of their previous book, White and Folkens' The Human Bone Manual is intended for use outside the laboratory and classroom, by professional forensic scientists, anthropologists and researchers. The compact volume includes all the key information needed for identification purposes, including hundreds of photographs designed to show a maximum amount of anatomical information. Features more than 500 color photographs and illustrations in a portable format; most in 1:1 ratio Provides multiple views of every bone in the human body Includes tips on identifying any human bone or tooth Incorporates up-to-date references for further study

Forensic Anthropology

Forensic Anthropology Book
Author : Natalie R. Langley,MariaTeresa A. Tersigni-Tarrant
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-09-19
ISBN : 1439898235
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The field of forensic anthropology has evolved dramatically in the past 40 years, as technological advances have led to new research initiatives and extended applications. This robust, dynamic, and international field has grown to include interdisciplinary research, continually improving methodology, and globalization of training. Reflecting the di

Investigations in Sex Estimation

Investigations in Sex Estimation Book
Author : Donna L. Harrison
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-09-29
ISBN : 0128162171
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Investigations in Sex Estimation: A Comparison of Morphological and Metrical Methods is a collective comparison of the many morphological and metric methods currently used on adult and juvenile human remains. This single comprehensive resource for sex estimation in skeletal material includes discussion on the evolution of sexual dimorphism in modern humans, how sexual dimorphism manifests itself in those bones, the growth development in juveniles and how sexual dimorphism can be measured in their bones. Data is presented which contradicts previously held postulates and some different uses of sex estimation methods are suggested, such as using the grading system to assess evolutionary change in skeletons or grouping juveniles into smaller groups by age to better estimate sex. New insights are offered for future research from the presentation of case studies on gender and a comparison of the sex differences between two African-American collections which suggests a correlation between occupation and evolutionary change. To achieve the objective, data on 294 adults from four diverse collections of known sex are obtained using a total of 67 morphological and metric methods. An additional 23 morphological and metric methods used on juveniles, aged 0 to 18, from two of the collections. The methods are specific to either the cranium, mandible, pelvis, humerus or femur. The compilation of assessment of sex provides definitive answers on which type of method, morphological or metric, is more accurate, which morphological and metric methods are the most accurate, and which bones are more reliable to estimate sex especially in the absence of a pelvis. Investigations in Sex Estimation is intended to be used in the field and the laboratory for the identification of sex in human remains and aims to provide a wealth of data for future research in sexual dimorphic studies. Provides the anthropological community with the results of the first collective comparison of the many morphological and metric methods currently used on adults and juveniles Introduces methods, reviews sexual dimorphism, and shares new insights for future research Highly illustrated, using testing data from four very diverse skeletal collections

Forensic Anthropology

Forensic Anthropology Book
Author : Angi M. Christensen,Nicholas V. Passalacqua,Eric J. Bartelink
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-12-30
ISBN : 0124172903
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice—winner of a 2015 Textbook Excellence Award (Texty) from The Text and Academic Authors Association—approaches forensic anthropology through an innovative style using current practices and real case studies drawn from the varied experiences, backgrounds, and practices of working forensic anthropologists. This text guides the reader through all aspects of human remains recovery and forensic anthropological analysis, presenting principles at a level that is appropriate for those new to the field, while at the same time incorporating evolutionary, biomechanical, and other theoretical foundations for the features and phenomena encountered in forensic anthropological casework. Attention is focused primarily on the most recent and scientifically valid applications commonly employed by working forensic anthropologists. Readers will therefore learn about innovative techniques in the discipline, and aspiring practitioners will be prepared by understanding the necessary background needed to work in the field today. Instructors and students will find Forensic Anthropology: Current Methods and Practice comprehensive, practical, and relevant to the modern discipline of forensic anthropology. Winner of a 2015 Most Promising New Textbook Award from the Text and Academic Authors Association Focuses on modern methods, recent advances in research and technology, and current challenges in the science of forensic anthropology Addresses issues of international relevance such as the role of forensic anthropology in mass disaster response and human rights investigations Includes chapter summaries, topicoriented case studies, keywords, and reflective questions to increase active student learning

Osteoarchaeology

Osteoarchaeology Book
Author : Efthymia Nikita
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-12-22
ISBN : 0128040971
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Osteoarchaeology: A Guide to the Macroscopic Study of Human Skeletal Remains covers the identification of bones and teeth, taphonomy, sex, ancestry assessment, age estimation, the analysis of biodistances, growth patterns and activity markers, and paleopathology. The book aims to familiarize the reader with the main applications of osteoarchaeology and provide the necessary knowledge required for the implementation of a broad range of osteological methods. It is ideal as a complement to existing textbooks used in upper level undergraduate and graduate courses on osteoarchaeology, human osteology, and, to some extent, forensic anthropology. Pedagogical features include ample illustrations, case study material, revision exercises, and a glossary. Additional features comprise macros that facilitate data processing and analysis, as well as an extensive chapter on applied statistics. Contains coverage of nearly every aspect of human osteological macroscopic analysis Presents detailed descriptions of the application of different methods Includes a variety of online resources, including macros designed by the author for the calculation of the number of individuals in commingled assemblages, processing cranial landmarks and nonmetric traits, and more

Skeleton Keys

Skeleton Keys Book
Author : Jeffrey H. Schwartz
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 1995
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An inquiry into why we should study and practice human osteology, Skeleton Keys: An Introduction to Human Skeletal Morphology, Development, and Analysis is a unique, integrative textbook that is relevant to many different types of analyses and interests, including theoretical aspects of development as well as practical elements of classroom work, laboratory studies, and field situations routinely encountered by physical anthropologists, archaeologists, and forensic pathologists. Designed as much more than a manual on skeletal analysis, this book is as concerned with the foundations for the morphologies that osteologists typically study as with the analysis of the morphologies themselves. This book includes much more basic morphology than other osteology texts, and it also places emphasis on understanding the development of adult morphology, from the cellular levels of bone and tooth formation to the theoretical aspects of the determination of size and shape of these structures. Another area of concentration deals with how sexual difference, normal variation, and certain pathological conditions can be better understood in a developmental context. Because of this integrated presentation, particular information (for example, on variation in facet or foramen number, abnormalities in bone growth and regulation, sexually dimorphic features, and supernumerary structures) is included in the descriptions and discussions of individual bones and regions so that a fuller perspective of our own species, Homo sapiens, can be achieved. In addition to offering practical aspects of analysis--such as determining age or sex, or taking measurements for the calculation of various indices--the author intersperses the text with theoretical discussions of the relevance of pursuing osteological analyses. Most importantly, whether in discussing the morphology and development of individual bones, the criteria often employed in the determination of age, sex, and populational affinity, or the differential diagnosis of diseases, Skeleton Keys accomplishes much more than providing background information. Useful and accessible for students and researchers in physical, biological, medical, and methods anthropology, forensic pathology, and archaeology, Skeleton Keys presents osteology as a vibrant field with a plethora of research avenues waiting to be pursued, thereby encouraging readers to imagine and aspire to future possibilities in research and study.

Biological Affinity in Forensic Identification of Human Skeletal Remains

Biological Affinity in Forensic Identification of Human Skeletal Remains Book
Author : Gregory E. Berg,Sabrina C Ta'ala
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-12-13
ISBN : 1439815771
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ancestry determination in the identification of unknown remains can be a challenge for forensic scientists and anthropologists, especially when the remains available for testing are limited. There are various techniques for the assessment of ancestry, ranging from traditional to new microbiological and computer-assisted methods. Biological Affinity

The Influence of Body Size on Sexual Dimorphism

The Influence of Body Size on Sexual Dimorphism Book
Author : Haley Elizabeth Horbaly
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Accurate sex estimation of human skeletal remains is imperative for skeletal biologists, and relies upon the sexual dimorphism between males and females in a population. The degree of dimorphism, and hence the accuracy of sex estimation methods, are known to vary among populations, and while such global patterns have been well studied, the underlying causes of this variation are relatively unclear. Body size--a sexually dimorphic trait that also varies among populations--has previously been shown to affect skeletal morphology, yet whether specific body size parameters, such as stature and body mass, influence the expression of traits used for nonmetric sex estimation has not been previously tested. To address this problem, this study tests three hypotheses: (1) variation in expression of sexually dimorphic traits will co-vary with body size, (2) stature will be a greater contributor to the sexual dimorphism of specific skeletal traits than body mass, and (3) sexual dimorphism will increase as stature increases. Over 200 skeletons of varying body size were scored according to three widely-used sex estimation methods for the cranium, pelvis, and humerus. Existing and novel metrics provide more nuanced measures of dimorphism in the same skeletal regions. A suite of parametric and nonparametric statistical tests were conducted to determine the degree of covariation among the skeletal traits, method performance, and body size. Results show significant correlations exist between dimorphic traits and both body size parameters, with stature exhibiting stronger correlations than body mass. However, the effects of stature on individual traits become diluted when analyzing overall method performance, which remains unaffected by body size. The exception is the pelvic method, which exhibits high classification accuracy for the tallest and shortest males in the sample, with individuals around the mean at the highest risk of misclassification. Despite the results of the pelvic method, overall there is little effect of body size on morphological sex estimation performance. However, body size does influence metric traits, with stature exerting more influence than body mass. Future research should explore whether body size, particularly stature, has the potential to affect both intra- and interpopulational application of metric sex estimation methods.

A Laboratory Manual for Forensic Anthropology

A Laboratory Manual for Forensic Anthropology Book
Author : Angi M. Christensen,Nicholas V. Passalacqua
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-01-09
ISBN : 0128123303
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A Laboratory Manual for Forensic Anthropology approaches forensic anthropology as a modern and well-developed science, and includes consideration of forensic anthropology within the broader forensic science community, with extensive use of case studies and recent research, technology and challenges that are applied in field and lab contexts. This book covers all practical aspects of forensic anthropology, from field recoveries, to lab analyses, emphasizing hands-on activities. Topics include human osteology and odontology, examination methods, medicolegal significance, scene processing methods, forensic taphonomy, skeletal processing and sampling, sex estimation, ancestry estimation, age estimation, stature estimation, skeletal variation, trauma analysis, and personal identification. Although some aspects are specific to the United States, the vast majority of the material is internationally-relevant and therefore suitable for forensic anthropology courses in other countries. Provides a comprehensive lab manual that is applicable to coursework in forensic anthropology and archaeology Covers all practical aspects of forensic anthropology, from field recoveries, to lab analyses Includes discussions of human osteology and odontology, examination methods, medicolegal significance, scene processing methods, forensic taphonomy, skeletal processing and sampling, sex estimation, and more Emphasizes best practices in the field, providing an approach that is in line with today's professional forensic anthropology

A Companion to Forensic Anthropology

A Companion to Forensic Anthropology Book
Author : Dennis Dirkmaat
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-04-20
ISBN : 1118959795
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A Companion to Forensic Anthropology presents the most comprehensive assessment of the philosophy, goals, and practice of forensic anthropology currently available, with chapters by renowned international scholars and experts. Highlights the latest advances in forensic anthropology research, as well as the most effective practices and techniques used by professional forensic anthropologists in the field Illustrates the development of skeletal biological profiles and offers important new evidence on statistical validation of these analytical methods. Evaluates the goals and methods of forensic archaeology, including the preservation of context at surface-scattered remains, buried bodies and fatal fire scenes, and recovery and identification issues related to large-scale mass disaster scenes and mass grave excavation.