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Sex Differences In Neurology And Psychiatry

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Sex Differences in Neuropsychiatry

Sex Differences in Neuropsychiatry Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-11-15
ISBN : 9780444641236
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sex Differences in Neuropsychiatry, Volume 175 addresses this important issue by viewing major neurological and psychiatric conditions through the lens of sexual dimorphism, providing an entirely novel approach to understanding vulnerability factors, as well as potential new treatment strategies in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. The handbook comprises four major sections: (1) Introduction to sex differences in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, (2) Description of the impact of genetic, epigenetic, sex hormonal and other environmental effects on cerebral sex dimorphism, (3) Review of sex differences in neurologic disorders, and (4) Review of sex differences in psychiatric disorders. Explores sex differences in human neuroanatomy and neurophysiology Offers a pathway toward a gender-specific treatment of neurologic and psychiatric disorders Provides an overview of the genetics of sex hormones, human brain structure, and function, as well as the epigenetics, environment and social context

Sex Differences in Neurology and Psychiatry

Sex Differences in Neurology and Psychiatry Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-09-30
ISBN : 0444641246
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sex Differences in Neurology and Psychiatry, Volume 175, addresses this important issue by viewing major neurological and psychiatric conditions through the lens of sexual dimorphism, providing an entirely novel approach to understanding vulnerability factors, as well as potential new treatment strategies in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. The handbook comprises four major sections: (1) Introduction to sex differences in neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, (2) Description of the impact of genetic, epigenetic, sex hormonal and other environmental effects on cerebral sex dimorphism, (3) Review of sex differences in neurologic disorders, and (4) Review of sex differences in psychiatric disorders. Explores sex differences in human neuroanatomy and neurophysiology Offers a pathway toward a gender-specific treatment of neurologic and psychiatric disorders Provides an overview of the genetics of sex hormones, human brain structure, and function, as well as the epigenetics, environment and social context

Neurology and Psychiatry of Women

Neurology and Psychiatry of Women Book
Author : Mary Angela O’Neal
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-02-14
ISBN : 3030042456
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This comprehensive resource covers a range of women’s health issues and their intersection with neurologic and psychiatric disease. Chapters feature high quality, integrated information based on leading-edge research on gender-specific care and are grouped by reproductive years, pregnancy and health, and aging. Emerging science regarding sex differences in neurological and psychiatric illnesses, including anxiety, reproductive health, conversion disorders, depression and ethical issues in pregnancy, stroke risk factors, and successful aging strategies are covered along with clinical application of this knowledge to the delivery of care. In addition, in those medical problems that afflict both men and women, authors will point out the different risks, prevalence, presentations, and responses to treatments or outcomes in women. Written by renowned experts in the field, this textbook will thoroughly address the educational needs of physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants in the areas of neurology, psychiatry, internal medicine, and obstetrics and expanding their understanding of concerns unique to female patients.

Digest of Neurology and Psychiatry

Digest of Neurology and Psychiatry Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1997
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Abstracts and reviews of selected literature in psychiatry, neurology and their allied fields." (varies slightly)

Sex Differences in the Human Brain their underpinnings and implications

Sex Differences in the Human Brain  their underpinnings and implications Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2010-12-03
ISBN : 9780444536310
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume of Progress in Brain Research documents recent developments and research findings in relation to sex and how the brain’s function and behavior differs from men to women. Specific areas include cerebral function, morphology and organization, sexual dimorphism, neural origins,and genetics and epigenetics, as well as potential causes/affects of stress, pain, sexual orientation and identity and other social issues such as distribution of disorders across the sexes and autism. * Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field * Highlights areas for future research * Contributions from leading authorities and industry experts

The Year in Neurology and Psychiatry

The Year in Neurology and Psychiatry Book
Author : Daniel H. Geschwind
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Year in Neurology and Psychiatry book written by Daniel H. Geschwind, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

From Sex Differences in Neuroscience to a Neuroscience of Sex Differences New Directions and Perspectives

From Sex Differences in Neuroscience to a Neuroscience of Sex Differences  New Directions and Perspectives Book
Author : Belinda Pletzer
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-06-20
ISBN : 2889196895
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This research topic aims to integrate scattered findings on sex differences in neuroscience into a broader theory of how the human brain is shaped by sex and sex hormones in order to cause the great variety of sex differences that are commonly observed. It can be assumed that these differences didn’t occur arbitrarily, but that they rather determined and still determine evolutionary success of individuals and were shaped by the processes of natural and in particular sexual selection. Therefore, sex differences are not negligible and sex difference research cannot be discriminating against one sex or the other. In fact a better understanding of the underlying causes of sex differences has great advantages for both men and women and society as a whole, not only in terms of health care, but in every aspect of life. Gender equality can only work out if it is equally well understood for men and women what their individual resources and needs are. Therefore, it is of great importance to pave the way for identifying the underlying principles of structural and functional brain organization that cause men and women to act, think and feel differently. To this end it is of particular interest to identify possible similarities and interrelations between sex differences that did so far stand separately, in order to investigate whether they share a common source. To understand, where a specific sex difference comes from and whether or not it is caused by the same principle as other sex differences, it is necessary to explicitly link sex differences in behavior to their neuronal correlates and vice versa link sex differences in brain structure and function to their behavioral outcomes. In particular a new understanding of male and female brain functioning may arise from findings on how sex hormones interact with various neurotransmitter systems. In the past few years several findings demonstrated that women’s behavior is influenced by the sex hormone fluctuations they experience naturally during their menstrual cycle to the extent that sex differences may only be detectable in one cycle phase but not another. The study of menstrual cycle dependent effects gives important hints about which sex differences are activational and which are organizational. Additionally it only recently came to attention, that hormonal contraception may alter a women’s mood, cognition and behavior as a consequence of changes in brain structure and function. The underlying mechanisms are so poorly understood that it is even hard to predict, whether hormonal contraception will mask or amplify sex differences in a given task. Since the oral hormonal contraceptive pill is meanwhile used by 100 million women worldwide and even by teenagers whose brains are not yet fully developed, the question of how the synthetic steroids contained in hormonal contraceptives act on the brain is to be studied hand in hand with naturally occurring sex differences. This topic summarizes the current state of the art in sex difference research and gives new perspectives in terms of hypothesis generation an methodology. Both are necessary to gain a complete picture of what it is that makes a brain male or female and move towards a neuroscience of sex differences.

Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry

Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1946
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Archives of Neurology and Psychiatry book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Sex Differences and Implications for Translational Neuroscience Research

Sex Differences and Implications for Translational Neuroscience Research Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2011-02-25
ISBN : 030916124X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biological differences between the sexes influence not only individual health but also public health, biomedical research, and health care. The Institute of Medicine held a workshop March 8-9, 2010, to discuss sex differences and their implications for translational neuroscience research, which bridges the gap between scientific discovery and application.

Sex Differences in the Brain From Genes to Behavior

Sex Differences in the Brain From Genes to Behavior Book
Author : Jill B. Becker,Karen J. Berkley,Nori Geary,Elizabeth Hampson,James P. Herman,Elizabeth Young
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2007-12-04
ISBN : 9780195311587
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sex is a fundamentally important biological variable. Recent years have seen significant progress in the integration of sex in many aspects of basic and clinical research, including analyses of sex differences in brain function. Significant advances in the technology available for studying the endocrine and nervous systems are now coupled with a more sophisticated awareness of the interconnections of these two communication systems of the body. A thorough understanding of the current knowledge, conceptual approaches, methodological capabilities, and challenges is a prerequisite to continued progress in research and therapeutics in this interdisciplinary area.Sex Differences in the Brain provides scientists with the basic tools for investigating sex differences in brain and behavior and insight into areas where important progress in understanding physiologically relevant sex differences has already been made. This book was edited and co-authored by members of the Isis Fund Network on Sex, Gender, Drugs and the Brain, sponsored by the Society for Womens Health Research.The book is arranged in three parts. The first part of the book introduces the study of sex differences in the brain, with an overview of how the brain, stress systems, and pharmacogenetics differ in males and females and how this information is important for the study of behavior and neurobiology of both genders. The second part presents examples of sex differences in neurobiology and behavior from both basic and clinical research perspectives, covering both humans and nonhuman animals. The final part discusses sex differences in the neurobiology of disease and neurological disorders.For interested individuals as well as those who are considering conducting research at the intersections of endocrinology, neuroscience, and other areas of biomedicine, the study of sex differences offers exciting and challenging questions and perspectives. This book is intended as a guide and resource for clinicians, scientists, and students.

Sex Differences in Lateralization in the Animal Brain

Sex Differences in Lateralization in the Animal Brain Book
Author : V L Bianki,E. B. Filippova
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2003-09-02
ISBN : 0203304640
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Until recently, little account has been taken of sex differences in many research studies in psychiatry, medicine and physiology. Subjects of these research studies were mainly men, with most researchers using twice as many males as females in their studies. The need to take a sexually differentiated approach has led to the work described in this book, concerning detailed investigations into the correlations between functional asymmetry of the brain and sex. Sex Differences in Lateralization in the Animal Brain is the first monograph summarizing the sexual specificity of functional lateralization of the brain in animals and humans. It is based on original experimental data from animals and will be of interest to biologists, psychologists and neurobiologists.

Animal Models in Psychiatry and Neurology

Animal Models in Psychiatry and Neurology Book
Author : Israel Hanin,Earl Usdin
Publisher : Pergamon
Release : 1977
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Animal Models in Psychiatry and Neurology book written by Israel Hanin,Earl Usdin, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The American Journal of Psychiatry

The American Journal of Psychiatry Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2002-07
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The American Journal of Psychiatry book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Sex and the Developing Brain

Sex and the Developing Brain Book
Author : Margaret M. McCarthy,Margaret McCarthy
Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release : 2010-10-29
ISBN : 1615040609
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The brains of males and females, men and women, are different-that is a fact. What is debated is how different and how important those differences are. Sex differences in the brain are determined by genetics, hormones, and experience, which in humans includes culture, society, and parental and peer expectations. The importance of nonbiological variables to sex differences in humans is paramount, making it difficult if not impossible to parse out those contributions that are truly biological. The study of animals provides us the opportunity to understand the magnitude and scope of biologically based sex differences in the brain and understanding the cellular mechanisms provides us insight into novel sources of brain plasticity. Many sex differences are established during a developmental sensitive window by differences in the hormonal milieu of males versus females. The neonatal testis produces large amounts of testosterone, which gains access to the brain and is further metabolized into active androgens and estrogens, which modify brain development. Major parameters that are influenced by hormones include neurogenesis, cell death, neurochemical phenotype, axonal and dendritic growth, and synaptogenesis. Variance in these parameters results in sex differences in the size of particular brain regions, the projections between brain regions, and the number and type of synapses within particular brain regions. The cellular mechanisms are both region and endpoint specific and invoke many surprising systems such as prostaglandins, endocannabinoids, and cell death proteins. By understanding when, why, and how sex differences in the brain are established, we may also learn the source of strong gender biases in the relative risk and severity of numerous neurological diseases and disorders of mental health, including but not limited to autism, dyslexia, attention deficit disorder, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's, and maj

The British Journal of Psychiatry

The British Journal of Psychiatry Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1992
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The British Journal of Psychiatry book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Female Brain

The Female Brain Book
Author : Cynthia L. Darlington,Cynthia Darlington
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2002-04-11
ISBN : 9780415277228
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ironically, the organ with the greatest reason to differ between the sexes, the brain, is often viewed as the most androgynous of all. Are there differences? Almost by convention, male animals are used in laboratory experiments in neuroscience. Even in clinical drug trials in humans, females are often excluded from the early phases of testing because of the risk of pregnancy and because females tend to be inconsistent in their responses due to the influence of their hormones and the menstrual cycle. The flaw in this reasoning is enormous: These very results are often applied to females. In The Female Brain, Cynthia Darlington examines the evidence for structural and functional differences between the male and female brain in an accessible, straightforward manner, while providing substantial scientific material for the academic reader.

Genetic Dissection of Sex Differences in Human Brain and Behaviour

Genetic Dissection of Sex Differences in Human Brain and Behaviour Book
Author : G. C.-Y. Tan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The importance of sex differences in the brain and behaviour is indisputable. It forms the basis for differences in risk across a range of neurological and psychiatric disorders, as well as gender roles within society. The classical approach to investigating sex differences primarily involves comparisons between males and females. While informative for characterizing the wide array of sexually dimorphic traits, straight comparisons are insufficient to elucidate specific molecular contributions due to the multiplicity of confounding factors. Discrete genetic polymorphisms can be used to investigate variance in these traits due to sex-related molecular factors independent of confounds of sex. This thesis applies candidate genetics to understand the specific contributions of molecular components of the sex hormone pathways to sexual dimorphism in brain structure, personality and cognition. A cohort of 384 individuals were recruited to undergo MRI brain scans, cognitive and personality testing. They also provided blood samples for candidate genotyping in polymorphisms in genes for the androgen receptor, oestrogen receptors, progesterone receptor and aromatase enzyme that converts testosterone to oestrogen. Voxel-based morphometry was used to characterise regional differences in brain volume accounted for by these polymorphisms and the relationship to sex differences in brain volume. Diffusion tensor imaging was then used to determine variation in white matter integrity and structural connectivity due to these polymorphisms. Sex differences in personality and cognition are further investigated in terms of correlations with the polymorphisms and brain structure. Finally an endophenotype approach was used to investigate differential risk for conditions such as Alzheimer's disease and depression between sexes through related brain and personality-based traits. The neural and molecular genetic mechanisms underlying this risk are inferred from correlations with brain-based measures and genotype. The strengths and weaknesses of this approach and the scientific implications of this work to gender research are discussed.

Psychopathology in Women

Psychopathology in Women Book
Author : Margarita Sáenz-Herrero
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-15
ISBN : 3030151794
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book examines sex and gender differences in the causes and expression of medical conditions, including mental health disorders. Sex differences are variations attributable to individual reproductive organs and the XX or XY chromosomal complement. Gender differences are variations that result from biological sex as well as individual self-representation which include psychological, behavioural, and social consequences of an individual’s perceived gender. Gender is still a neglected field in psychopathology, and gender differences is often incorrectly used as a synonym of sex differences. A reconsideration of the definition of gender, as the term that subsumes masculinity and femininity, could shed some light on this misperception and could have an effect in the study of health and disease. This second edition of Psychopathology clarifies the anthropological, cultural and social aspects of gender and their impact on mental health disorders. It focuses on gender perspective as a paradigm not only in psychopathology but also in mental health disorders. As such it promotes open mindedness in the definition and perception of symptoms, as well as assumptions about those symptoms, and raises awareness of mental health.

Multiple Origins of Sex Differences in Brain

Multiple Origins of Sex Differences in Brain Book
Author : Donald W Pfaff,Yves Christen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-01-26
ISBN : 364233721X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In theoretical terms, sex differences in brains and behaviors of laboratory animals offer the possibility of fascinating scientific studies on a range of molecular phenomena such as genomic imprinting, DNA methylation, chromatin protein modification, non-coding DNA, potentially resulting in important neuroanatomical and neurochemical sex differences in the brain. Such sex differences could arise consequent to exposures to testosterone early in development, or to other effects deriving from the Y chromosome. However, this general subject has been treated with much hyperbole. Historically, sex differences were assumed to be present where they did not really exist, e.g. with respect to mathematics, executive leadership, etc. etc. Under what circumstances do we really care about sex differences in brain and behavior? These circumstances concern human maladies whose diagnoses are much different between boys and girls, or between women and men. Prominent examples discussed in this volume include autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorders and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In fact, infant boys are more susceptible than infant girls to a variety of disorders that arise early in development. This volume then ends with a consideration of effects of estrogenic hormones on the injured brain, and their roles as protective agents.

The American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Geriatric Neuropsychiatry

The American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Geriatric Neuropsychiatry Book
Author : C. Edward Coffey,Jeffrey L. Cummings
Publisher : Amer Psychiatric Pub Incorporated
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For most of human history, life expectancy was remarkably stable at about 30-40 years. Within the past 150 years, however, medical advances have virtually doubled that number. The worlds elderly population is growing at 2.4% per year, faster than the rest of the population, with disproportionate increases expected to continue as newer and better treatments are found that minimize the disabilities associated with advanced age. Key to improving the health and quality of life of the elderly is understanding and treating the brain diseases and behavioral disorders that become highly prevalent with age. Geriatric neuropsychiatry is an integrative specialty that draws from many diverse fields, including psychiatry, neurology, neuroscience, and geriatrics. It provides expertise on how to distinguish normal age-related changes from those of disease and disordered brain function. Edited by two eminent practitioners and educators, this wide-ranging textbooks 41 chapters are divided into five major sections: ? Introduction to Geriatric NeuropsychiatryIntroduces the field, including the epidemiology of aging and its array of interacting and accumulating disadvantages, the neurobiology of aging, and the neurobiological basis of behavior? Neuropsychiatric Assessment of the ElderlyDescribes how to ensure early, accurate diagnoses, using both the fundamental cognitive skills evaluation and the more in-depth neuropsychological evaluation; age-associated memory impairment (AAMI) and its biological bases; anatomic imaging of age-related changes in brain morphology; and the latest imaging techniques that allow visualization of brain function in vivo? Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Psychiatric Disorders in the ElderlyCovers everything from affective and anxiety disorders, substance abuse, and psychoses that start late in life to sleep disorders, delirium, pain, contemporary personality psychology, mental retardation, and aggression? Neuropsychiatric Aspects of Neurological Disease in the ElderlyFocuses on diseases such as nondegenerative dementing disorders, Alzheimers and Parkinsons diseases, hyperkinetic movement disorders, stroke, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury, concluding with medical illnesses and therapies? Principles of Neuropsychiatric Treatment of the ElderlyDiscusses the effect of age in geriatric neuropsychopharmacology, psychopharmacology, ECT, psychosocial therapies, neuropsychiatry in nursing homes, genetic interventions, rehabilitation, ethical issues, and competency and related forensic issues Exhaustively researched and annotated, the American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Geriatric Neuropsychiatry, Second Edition provides a definitive core reference for psychiatry and neurology residents, particularly those pursuing a specialty in geriatrics, and for graduate students in psychology, neuropsychology, and related fields.