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Sample Return Missions

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Sample Return Missions

Sample Return Missions Book
Author : Andrea Longobardo
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-05-20
ISBN : 0128183314
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sample Return Missions: The Last Frontier of Solar System Exploration examines the discoveries and results obtained from sample return missions of the past, present, and future. It analyses the results in the context of the current state of knowledge and their relation to the formation and evolution of planetary bodies, as well as to the available technologies and techniques. It provides detailed descriptions of experimental procedures applied to returned samples. Beginning with an overview of previous missions, Sample Return Missions then goes on to provide an overview of facilities throughout the world used to analyze the returned samples. Finally, it addresses techniques for collection, transport, and analysis of the samples, with an additional focus on lessons learned and future perspectives. Providing an in-depth examination of a variety of missions, with both scientific and engineering implications, this book is an important resource for the planetary science community, as well as the experimentalist and engineering communities. Presents sample return results obtained so far in relation to remote sensing measurements, methods and techniques for laboratory analysis, and technology Provides an overview of a variety of sample return missions, from Apollo, to Hayabusa-2, to future missions Examines technological and methodological advances in analyzing returned samples, as well as the resources available globally

Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis

Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Extraterrestrial Sample Analysis Facilities
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2019-04-29
ISBN : 0309486696
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The United States possesses a treasure-trove of extraterrestrial samples that were returned to Earth via space missions over the past four decades. Analyses of these previously returned samples have led to major breakthroughs in the understanding of the age, composition, and origin of the solar system. Having the instrumentation, facilities and qualified personnel to undertake analyses of returned samples, especially from missions that take up to a decade or longer from launch to return, is thus of paramount importance if the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is to capitalize fully on the investment made in these missions, and to achieve the full scientific impact afforded by these extraordinary samples. Planetary science may be entering a new golden era of extraterrestrial sample return; now is the time to assess how prepared the scientific community is to take advantage of these opportunities. Strategic Investments in Instrumentation and Facilities for Extraterrestrial Sample Curation and Analysis assesses the current capabilities within the planetary science community for sample return analyses and curation, and what capabilities are currently missing that will be needed for future sample return missions. This report evaluates whether current laboratory support infrastructure and NASA's investment strategy is adequate to meet these analytical challenges and advises how the community can keep abreast of evolving and new techniques in order to stay at the forefront of extraterrestrial sample analysis.

Mars Sample Return

Mars Sample Return Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Task Group on Issues in Sample Return
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1997-03-28
ISBN : 0309057337
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Space Studies Board of the National Research Council (NRC) serves as the primary adviser to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on planetary protection policy, the purpose of which is to preserve conditions for future biological and organic exploration of planets and other solar system objects and to protect Earth and its biosphere from potential extraterrestrial sources of contamination. In October 1995 the NRC received a letter from NASA requesting that the Space Studies Board examine and provide advice on planetary protection issues related to possible sample-return missions to near-Earth solar system bodies.

Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions

Assessment of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on the Review of Planetary Protection Requirements for Mars Sample Return Missions
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2009-06-06
ISBN : 0309130735
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

NASA maintains a planetary protection policy to avoid the forward biological contamination of other worlds by terrestrial organisms, and back biological contamination of Earth from the return of extraterrestrial materials by spaceflight missions. Forward-contamination issues related to Mars missions were addressed in a 2006 National Research Council (NRC) book, Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars. However, it has been more than 10 years since back-contamination issues were last examined. Driven by a renewed interest in Mars sample return missions, this book reviews, updates, and replaces the planetary protection conclusions and recommendations contained in the NRC's 1997 report Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations. The specific issues addressed in this book include the following: The potential for living entities to be included in samples returned from Mars; Scientific investigations that should be conducted to reduce uncertainty in the above assessment; The potential for large-scale effects on Earth's environment by any returned entity released to the environment; Criteria for intentional sample release, taking note of current and anticipated regulatory frameworks; and The status of technological measures that could be taken on a mission to prevent the inadvertent release of a returned sample into Earth's biosphere.

Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies

Evaluating the Biological Potential in Samples Returned from Planetary Satellites and Small Solar System Bodies Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Task Group on Sample Return from Small Solar System Bodies
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1998-10-14
ISBN : 0309061369
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For the first time since the Apollo program, NASA and space agencies abroad have plans to bring samples to Earth from elsewhere in the solar system. There are missions in various stages of definition to gather material over the next decade from Mars, an asteroid, comets, the satellites of Jupiter, and the interplanetary dust. Some of these targets, most especially Jupiter's satellites Europa and Ganymede, now appear to have the potential for harboring living organisms. This book considers the possibility that life may have originated or existed on a body from which a sample might be taken and the possibility that life still exists on the body either in active form or in a form that could be reactiviated. It also addresses the potential hazard to terrestrial ecosystems from extraterrestrial life if it exists in a returned sample. Released at the time of the Internationl Committee on Space Research General Assembly, the book has already established the basis for plans for small body sample retruns in the international space research community.

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons

Planetary Protection Classification of Sample Return Missions from the Martian Moons Book
Author : European Science Foundation,European Space Sciences Committee,National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Planetary Protection Requirements for Sample Return Missions from Martian Moons
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2019-07-20
ISBN : 0309488591
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An international consensus policy to prevent the biological cross-contamination of planetary bodies exists and is maintained by the Committee on Space Research (COSPAR) of the International Council for Science, which is consultative to the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space. Currently, COSPAR's planetary protection policy does not specify the status of sample-return missions from Phobos or Deimos, the moons of Mars. Although the moons themselves are not considered potential habitats for life or of intrinsic relevance to prebiotic chemical evolution, recent studies indicate that a significant amount of material recently ejected from Mars could be present on the surface of Phobos and, to a lesser extent, Deimos. This report reviews recent theoretical, experimental, and modeling research on the environments and physical conditions encountered by Mars ejecta during certain processes. It recommends whether missions returning samples from Phobos and/or Deimos should be classified as "restricted" or "unrestricted" Earth return in the framework of the planetary protection policy maintained by COSPAR. This report also considers the specific ways the classification of sample return from Deimos is a different case than sample return from Phobos.

Lunar Sourcebook

Lunar Sourcebook Book
Author : Grant Heiken,David Vaniman,Bevan M. French
Publisher : CUP Archive
Release : 1991-04-26
ISBN : 9780521334440
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The only work to date to collect data gathered during the American and Soviet missions in an accessible and complete reference of current scientific and technical information about the Moon.

Primitive Meteorites and Asteroids

Primitive Meteorites and Asteroids Book
Author : Neyda M. Abreu
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-07-27
ISBN : 0128133260
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Primitive Meteorites and Asteroids: Physical, Chemical, and Spectroscopic Observations Paving the Way to Exploration covers the physical, chemical and spectroscopic aspects of asteroids, providing important data and research on carbonaceous chondrites and primitive meteorites. This information is crucial to the success of missions to parent bodies, thus contributing to an understanding of the early solar system. The book offers an interdisciplinary perspective relevant to many fields of planetary science, as well as cosmochemistry, planetary astronomy, astrobiology, geology and space engineering. Including contributions from planetary and missions scientists worldwide, the book collects the fundamental knowledge and cutting-edge research on carbonaceous chondrites and their parent bodies into one accessible resource, thus contributing to the future of space exploration. Presents the most current data and information on the mission-relevant characteristics of primitive asteroids Addresses the physical, chemical and spectral characteristics of carbonaceous chondritic meteorites and the bearings on successful exploration of their parent asteroids Includes chapters on geotechnical properties and resource extraction

Hayabusa2 Asteroid Sample Return Mission

Hayabusa2 Asteroid Sample Return Mission Book
Author : Masatoshi Hirabayashi
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2022-04-14
ISBN : 0323997325
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hayabusa2 Asteroid Sample Return Mission: Technological Innovation and Advances covers the second Japanese asteroid sample return mission. The purpose of the mission is to survey the asteroid Ryugu’s surface features, touch down on the asteroid, form an artificial crater by shooting an impactor, and collect sample materials. This book covers these operations, along with everything known about key technologies, hardware and ground systems upon Hayabusa2’s return to Earth in 2020. This book is the definitive reference on the mission and provides space and planetary scientists with information on established technologies to further advance the knowledge and technologies in future space exploration missions. Broadly and comprehensively covers technologies necessary for space exploration missions Provides a unique focus on small body exploration missions Covers landing and impact experiments during the proximity operations of Hayabusa2

The Quarantine and Certification of Martian Samples

The Quarantine and Certification of Martian Samples Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2002-05-16
ISBN : 0309075718
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

One of the highest-priority activities in the planetary sciences identified in published reports of the Space Studies Board's Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) and in reports of other advisory groups is the collection and return of extraterrestrial samples to Earth for study in terrestrial laboratories. In response to recommendations made in such studies, NASA has initiated a vigorous program that will, within the next decade, collect samples from a variety of solar system environments. In particular the Mars Exploration Program is expected to launch spacecraft that are designed to collect samples of martian soil, rocks, and atmosphere and return them to Earth, perhaps as early as 2015. International treaty obligations mandate that NASA conduct such a program in a manner that avoids the cross-contamination of both Earth and Mars. The Space Studies Board's 1997 report Mars Sample Return: Issues and Recommendations examined many of the planetary-protection issues concerning the back contamination of Earth and concluded that, although the probability that martian samples will contain dangerous biota is small, it is not zero.1 Steps must be taken to protect Earth against the remote possibility of contamination by life forms that may have evolved on Mars. Similarly, the samples, collected at great expense, must be protected against contamination by terrestrial biota and other matter. Almost certainly, meeting these requirements will entail opening the sample-return container in an appropriate facility on Earth-presumably a BSL-4 laboratory-where testing, biosafety certification, and quarantine of the samples will be carried out before aliquots are released to the scientific community for study in existing laboratory facilities. The nature of the required quarantine facility, and the decisions required for disposition of samples once they are in it, were regarded as issues of sufficient importance and complexity to warrant a study by the Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX) in isolation from other topics. (Previous studies have been much broader, including also consideration of the mission that collects samples on Mars and brings them to Earth, atmospheric entry, sample recovery, and transport to the quarantine facility.) The charge to COMPLEX stated that the central question to be addressed in this study is the following: What are the criteria that must be satisfied before martian samples can be released from a quarantine facility?

Mars Sample Return Mission

Mars Sample Return Mission Book
Author : J. Pieter de Vries,Harry N. Norton,Douglas P. Blanchard
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1984
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mission and vehicle concepts were developed for obtaining surface and sub-surface samples of Mars, by a roving vehicle, and returning the samples to Earth.

Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities

Assessment of Mars Science and Mission Priorities Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2003-07-08
ISBN : 9780309167932
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Within the Office of Space Science of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) special importance is attached to exploration of the planet Mars, because it is the most like Earth of the planets in the solar system and the place where the first detection of extraterrestrial life seems most likely to be made. The failures in 1999 of two NASA missions-Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander-caused the space agency's program of Mars exploration to be systematically rethought, both technologically and scientifically. A new Mars Exploration Program plan (summarized in Appendix A) was announced in October 2000. The Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration (COMPLEX), a standing committee of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council, was asked to examine the scientific content of this new program. This goals of this report are the following: -Review the state of knowledge of the planet Mars, with special emphasis on findings of the most recent Mars missions and related research activities; -Review the most important Mars research opportunities in the immediate future; -Review scientific priorities for the exploration of Mars identified by COMPLEX (and other scientific advisory groups) and their motivation, and consider the degree to which recent discoveries suggest a reordering of priorities; and -Assess the congruence between NASA's evolving Mars Exploration Program plan and these recommended priorities, and suggest any adjustments that might be warranted.

Mars Sample Return

Mars Sample Return Book
Author : Task Group on Issues in Sample Return,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Space Studies Board,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,National Research Council
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1997-03-14
ISBN : 0309524474
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Space Studies Board of the National Research Council (NRC) serves as the primary adviser to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on planetary protection policy, the purpose of which is to preserve conditions for future biological and organic exploration of planets and other solar system objects and to protect Earth and its biosphere from potential extraterrestrial sources of contamination. In October 1995 the NRC received a letter from NASA requesting that the Space Studies Board examine and provide advice on planetary protection issues related to possible sample-return missions to near-Earth solar system bodies.

Review and Assessment of Planetary Protection Policy Development Processes

Review and Assessment of Planetary Protection Policy Development Processes Book
Author : National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on the Review of Planetary Protection Policy Development Processes
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2018-10-17
ISBN : 0309478650
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Protecting Earth's environment and other solar system bodies from harmful contamination has been an important principle throughout the history of space exploration. For decades, the scientific, political, and economic conditions of space exploration converged in ways that contributed to effective development and implementation of planetary protection policies at national and international levels. However, the future of space exploration faces serious challenges to the development and implementation of planetary protection policy. The most disruptive changes are associated with (1) sample return from, and human missions to, Mars; and (2) missions to those bodies in the outer solar system possessing water oceans beneath their icy surfaces. Review and Assessment of Planetary Protection Policy Development Processes addresses the implications of changes in the complexion of solar system exploration as they apply to the process of developing planetary protection policy. Specifically, this report examines the history of planetary protection policy, assesses the current policy development process, and recommends actions to improve the policy development process in the future.

Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology

Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology Book
Author : Swapan Kumar Haldar
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-07-29
ISBN : 0323851363
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology, second edition, presents the essentials of both disciplines through an approach accessible to industry professionals, academic researchers, and students alike. This new edition emphasizes the relationship between rocks and minerals, right from the structures created during rock formation through the economics of mineral deposits. While petrology is classified on the lines of geological evolution and rock formation, mineralogy speaks to the physical and chemical properties, uses, and global occurrences for each mineral, emphasizing the need for the growth of human development. The primary goal is for the reader to identify minerals in all respects, including host-rocks, and mineral deposits, with additional knowledge of mineral-exploration, resource, extraction, process, and ultimate use. To help provide a comprehensive analysis across ethical and socio-economic dimensions, a separate chapter describes the hazards associated with minerals, rocks, and mineral industries, and the consequences to humanity along with remedies and case studies. New to the second edition: includes coverage of minerals and petrology in extra-terrestrial environments as well as case studies on the hazards of the mining industry. Addresses the full scope of core concepts of mineralogy and petrology, including crystal structure, formation and grouping of minerals and soils, definition, origin, structure and classification of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks Features more than 250 figures, illustrations and color photographs to vividly explore the fundamental principles of mineralogy and petrology Offers a holistic approach to both subjects, beginning with the formation of geologic structures that is followed by the hosting of mineral deposits and the exploration and extraction of lucrative, usable products that improve the health of global economies Includes new content on minerals and petrology in extraterrestrial environments and case studies on hazards in the mining industry

Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars

Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Committee on Preventing the Forward Contamination of Mars
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2006-04-22
ISBN : 030909724X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent spacecraft and robotic probes to Mars have yielded data that are changing our understanding significantly about the possibility of existing or past life on that planet. Coupled with advances in biology and life-detection techniques, these developments place increasing importance on the need to protect Mars from contamination by Earth-borne organisms. To help with this effort, NASA requested that the NRC examine existing planetary protection measures for Mars and recommend changes and further research to improve such measures. This report discusses policies, requirements, and techniques to protect Mars from organisms originating on Earth that could interfere with scientific investigations. It provides recommendations on cleanliness and biological burden levels of Mars-bound spacecraft, methods to reach those levels, and research to reduce uncertainties in preventing forward contamination of Mars.

New Views of the Moon

New Views of the Moon Book
Author : Bradley L. Jolliff,Mark A. Wieczorek,Charles K. Shearer,Clive R. Neal
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release : 2018-12-17
ISBN : 1501509535
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Volume 60 of Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry assesses the current state of knowledge of lunar geoscience, given the data sets provided by missions of the 1990's, and lists remaining key questions as well as new ones for future exploration to address. It documents how a planet or moon other than the world on which we live can be studied and understood in light of integrated suites of specific kinds of information. The Moon is the only body other than Earth for which we have material samples of known geologic context for study. This volume seeks to show how the different kinds of information gained about the Moon relate to each other and also to learn from this experience, thus allowing more efficient planning for the exploration of other worlds.

From Habitability to Life on Mars

From Habitability to Life on Mars Book
Author : Nathalie A. Cabrol,Edmond A. Grin
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-07-10
ISBN : 0128099364
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

From Habitability to Life on Mars explores the current state of knowledge and questions on the past habitability of Mars and the role that rapid environmental changes may have played in the ability of prebiotic chemistry to transition to life. It investigates the role that such changes may have played in the preservation of biosignatures in the geological record and what this means for exploration strategies. Throughout the book, the authors show how the investigation of terrestrial analogs to early Martian habitats under various climates and environmental extremes provide critical clues to understand where, what and how to search for biosignatures on Mars. The authors present an introduction to the newest developments and state-of-the-art remote and in situ detection strategies and technologies that are being currently developed to support the upcoming ExoMars and Mars 2020 missions. They show how the current orbital and ground exploration is guiding the selection for future landing sites. Finally, the book concludes by discussing the critical question of the implications and ethics of finding life on Mars. Edited by the lead on a NASA project that searches for habitability and life on Mars leading to the Mars 2020 mission Presents the evidence, questions and answers we have today (including a summary of the current state of knowledge in advance of the ESA ExoMars and NASA Mars 2020 missions) Includes contributions from authors directly involved in past, current and upcoming Mars missions Provides key information as to how Mars rovers, such as ExoMars and Mars 2020, will address the search for life on Mars with their instrumentation

Exploration of Near Earth Objects

Exploration of Near Earth Objects Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Engineering and Physical Sciences,Space Studies Board,Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications,Committee on Planetary and Lunar Exploration
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1998-05-04
ISBN : 9780309174084
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Comets and asteroids are in some sense the fossils of the solar system. They have avoided most of the drastic physical processing that shaped the planets and thus represent more closely the properties of the primordial solar nebula. What processing has taken place is itself of interest in decoding the history of our solar neighborhood. Near-Earth objects are also of interest because one or more large ones have been blamed for the rare but devastating events that caused mass extinctions of species on our planet, as attested by recent excitement over the impending passage of asteroid 1997 XF11. The comets and asteroids whose orbits bring them close to Earth are clearly the most accessible to detailed investigation, both from the ground and from spacecraft. When nature kindly delivers the occasional asteroid to the surface of Earth as a meteorite, we can scrutinize it closely in the laboratory; a great deal of information about primordial chemical composition and primitive processes has been gleaned from such objects. This report reviews the current state of research on near-Earth objects and considers future directions. Attention is paid to the important interplay between ground-based investigations and spaceborne observation or sample collection and return. This is particularly timely since one U.S. spacecraft is already on its way to rendezvous with a near-Earth object, and two others plus a Japanese mission are being readied for launch. In addition to scientific issues, the report considers technologies that would enable further advances in capability and points out the possibilities for including near-Earth objects in any future expansion of human exploration beyond low Earth orbit.

The Genesis Mission

The Genesis Mission Book
Author : C.T. Russell
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2003-07-31
ISBN : 9781402011252
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

NASA's Genesis mission, launched on August 8, 2001 is the fifth mission in the Discovery series. Genesis addresses questions about the materials and processes involved in the origin of the solar system by providing precise knowledge of solar isotopic and elemental compositions for comparison with the compositions of meteoritic and planetary materials. This book describes the Genesis mission, the solar wind collector materials, the solar wind concentrator and simulations of its performance, the plasma ion and electron instruments, and the way these two instruments are used to determine the solar wind flow regime on board the spacecraft. The book is of interest to all potential users of the data returned by the Genesis mission, to those studying the isotopic and chemical composition of the early solar system whose work will be influenced by the measurements made by Genesis and by all those interested in the design and implementation of space instruments to study space plasmas.