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Salinity Gradient Heat Engines

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Salinity Gradient Heat Engines

Salinity Gradient Heat Engines Book
Author : Alessandro Tamburini,Andrea Cipollina,Giorgio Micale
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2021-11-03
ISBN : 0081028644
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Salinity Gradient Heat Engines classifies all the existing SGHEs and presents an in-depth analysis of their fundamentals, applications and perspectives. The main SGHEs analyzed in this publication are Osmotic, the Reverse Electrodialysis, and the Accumulator Mixing Heat Engines. The production and regeneration unit of both cycles are described and analyzed alongside the related economic and environmental aspects. This approach provides the reader with very thorough knowledge on how these technologies can be developed and implemented as a low-impact power generation technique, wherever low-temperature waste-heat is available. This book will also be a very beneficial resource for academic researchers and graduate students across various disciplines, including energy engineering, chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, electrical and mechanical engineering. Focuses on advanced, yet practical, recovery of waste heat via salinity gradient heat engines Outlines the existing salinity gradient heat engines and discusses fundamentals, potential and perspectives of each of them Includes economics and environmental aspects Provides an innovative reference for all industrial sectors involving processes where low-temperature waste-heat is available.

Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients

Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients Book
Author : Andrea Cipollina,Giorgio Micale
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2016-03-01
ISBN : 0081003234
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Salinity gradient energy, also known as blue energy and osmotic energy, is the energy obtainable from the difference in salt concentration between two feed solutions, typically sea water and river water. It is a large-scale renewable resource that can be harvested and converted to electricity. Efficient extraction of this energy is not straightforward, however. Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients provides a comprehensive review of resources, technologies and applications in this area of fast-growing interest. Key technologies covered include pressure retarded osmosis, reverse electrodialysis and accumulator mixing. Environmental and economic aspects are also considered, together with the possible synergies between desalination and salinity gradient energy technologies. Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients is an essential text for R&D professionals in the energy & water industry interested in salinity gradient power and researchers in academia from post-graduate level upwards. For more than ten years the Editors have been sharing substantial research activities in the fields of renewable energy and desalination, successfully participating to a number of European Union research projects and contributing to the relevant scientific literature with more than 100 papers and 2 books on Desalination technologies and their coupling with Renewable Energy. They are intensely working in the field of Salinity Gradient Power, carrying out research with specific focus o.n open-loop and closed-loop reverse electrodialysis and pressure retarded osmosis. Covers applications of pressure retarded osmosis, reverse electrodialysis, and capacitive mixing for salinity gradient power in one convenient volume Presents the environmental aspects and economics of salinity gradient energy Explores possible synergies between desalination and salinity gradient energy

SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION AND PHOTOENERGY SYSTEMS Thermal Systems and Desalination Plants Volume I

SOLAR ENERGY CONVERSION AND PHOTOENERGY SYSTEMS  Thermal Systems and Desalination Plants Volume I Book
Author : Julian Blanco Gálvez, Sixto Malato Rodríguez, E. Delyannis, Vassilis G. Belessiotis, S. C. Bhattacharya and S. Kumar
Publisher : EOLSS Publications
Release : 2010-11-20
ISBN : 1848263759
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Solar Energy Conversion and Photoenergy Systems: Thermal Systems and Desalination Plants theme in five volumes is a component of Encyclopedia of Energy Sciences, Engineering and Technology Resources in the global Encyclopedia of Life Support Systems (EOLSS), which is an integrated compendium of twenty one Encyclopedias. The Theme on Solar Energy Conversion and Photoenergy Systems: Thermal Systems and Desalination Plants with contributions from distinguished experts in the field, discusses solar energy, renewable energy, thermal systems, and desalination systems, some of which are already in commercial and practical applications and others are under research and testing level. The volumes provide an analysis and discussion about the reasons behind the current efforts of our society, considering both developed and developing countries, to accelerate the exploitation of the huge solar energy potential in our normal daily lives. The five volumes also provide some basic information about the solar energy potential, history and the amazing trip of a photon from its creation in the Sun until its arrival to the Earth. These five volumes are aimed at the following five major target audiences: University and College Students Educators, Professional Practitioners, Research Personnel and Policy Analysts, Managers, and Decision Makers, NGOs and GOs.

Solar Energy Update

Solar Energy Update Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1983
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Wave and Salinity Gradient Energy Conversion Workshop Proceedings

Wave and Salinity Gradient Energy Conversion Workshop Proceedings Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1976
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Low Grade Thermal Energy Harvesting

Low Grade Thermal Energy Harvesting Book
Author : Shiren Wang
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2022-03-22
ISBN : 0128236914
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Low-Grade Thermal Energy Harvesting: Advances in Thermoelectrics, Materials, and Emerging Applications provides readers with fundamental and key concepts surrounding low-grade thermal energy conversion while also reviewing the latest research directions. The book covers the most promising and emerging technologies for low-grade heat recovery, harvesting and conversion, including wearable thermoelectrics and organic thermoelectrics. Each chapter includes key materials, principles, design and fabrication strategies for low-grade heat recovery. Special attention on emerging materials such as organic composites, 2D materials and nanomaterials are also included. The book emphasizes materials and device structures that enable the powering of wearable electronics and consumer electronics. The book is suitable for materials scientists and engineers in academia and R&D in manufacturing, industry, energy and electronics. Introduces key concepts and fundamental principles of low-grade thermal energy harvesting, storage and conversion Provides an overview on key materials, design principles and fabrication strategies for devices for low energy harvesting applications Focuses on materials and device designs that enable wearable thermoelectrics and flexible electronics applications

Ocean Energies

Ocean Energies Book
Author : R.H. Charlier,J.R. Justus
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1993-09-17
ISBN : 9780080870946
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This timely volume provides a comprehensive review of current technology for all ocean energies. It opens with an analysis of ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), with and without the use of an intermediate fluid. The historical and economic background is reviewed, and the geographical areas in which this energy could be utilized are pinpointed. The production of hydrogen as a side product, and environmental consequences of OTEC plants are looked at. The competitiveness of OTEC with conventional sources of energy is analysed. Optimisation, current research and development potential are also examined. Separate chapters provide a detailed examination of other ocean energy sources. The possible harnessing of solar ponds, ocean currents, and power derived from salinity differences is considered. There is a fascinating study of marine winds, and the question of using the ocean tides as a source of energy is examined, focussing on a number of tidal power plant projects, including data gathered from China, Australia, Great Britain, Korea and the USSR. Wave energy extraction has excited recent interest and activity, with a number of experimental pilot plants being built in northern Europe. This topic is discussed at length in view of its greater chance of implementation. Finally, geothermal and biomass energy are considered, and an assessment of their future is given. Each chapter contains bibliographic references. The author has also distinguished between energy schemes which might be valuable in less-industrialized regions of the world, but uneconomical in the developed countries. A large number of illustrations support the text. Every effort has been made to ensure that the book is readable and accessible for the specialist as well as the non-expert. It will be of particular interest to energy economists, engineers, geologists and oceanographers, and to environmentalists and environmental engineers.

Energy Research Abstracts

Energy Research Abstracts Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1984
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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ERDA Energy Research Abstracts

ERDA Energy Research Abstracts Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1983
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Solar Thermal Technology

Solar Thermal Technology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1980
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Harnessing Renewable Energy in Electric Power Systems

Harnessing Renewable Energy in Electric Power Systems Book
Author : Boaz Moselle,Jorge Padilla,Richard Schmalensee
Publisher : Earthscan
Release : 2010
ISBN : 1936331861
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reflecting its reliance on fossil fuels, the electric power industry produces the majority of the world's greenhouse gas emissions. The need for a revolution in the industry becomes further apparent given that 'decarbonization' means an increasing electrification of other sectors of the economy�in particular, through a switch from gasoline to electric vehicles. Of the options for producing electric power without significant greenhouse gas emissions, renewable energy is most attractive to policymakers, as it promises increased national self-reliance on energy supplies and the creation of new industries and jobs, without the safety and political concerns of nuclear power or the unproven technology of carbon capture and storage.Drawing on both economic theory and the experiences of the United States and EU member states, Harnessing Renewable Energy addresses the key questions surrounding renewable energy policies. How appropriate is the focus on renewable power as a primary tool for reducing greenhouse gas emissions? If renewable energy is given specific support, what form should that support take? What are the implications for power markets if renewable generation is widely adopted? Thorough and well-evidenced, this book will be of interest to a broad range of policymakers, the electric power industry, and economists who study energy and environmental issues.

Solar Energy

Solar Energy Book
Author : International Solar Energy Society
Publisher : Earthscan
Release : 2001
ISBN : 9781902916231
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

It is rare that a book draws together the knowledge and experience of scientists, each a world leader in their discipline, to create a work that presents the state of the art in a field as rich and diverse as solar energy.In Solar Energy -- the State of the Art this aim has been achieved. The book comprises 12 individual chapters, each dedicated to one of the major solar energy sub-disciplines and authored by an internationally recognized expert in the field. Areas covered range from solar radiation and meteorology, solar collectors and concentrators, solar energy and the built environment, to solar thermal electricity, photovoltaics, wind energy and the potential cost of ignoring solar energy resources. The papers examine the technology and field in question, discuss the rudiments and major applications, review the current science and technology and explore the remaining challenges for the future. TOPICS include:* solar and natural resources for a better efficiency in the built environment* glazings and coatings* selectively solar-absorbing coatings* solar collectors* solar water heating* photovoltaic physics and devices* solar concentrators* the cost of pollution and the benefit of solar energy* solar process heat: distillation, drying, agricultural and industrial uses* solar resource assessment: a review* solar thermal electricity* wind energy review Solar Energy -- the State of the Art is an essential reference work for all solar energy practitioners, students, researchers and engineers wishing to gain a broad-based understanding of the theory, technology, applications and issues surrounding the broad, interdisciplinary field of solar energy. The book will form an important component of any library's solar energy holding and will be of particular benefit as an academic reference, as well as being of practical value to professionals who wish to gain a clear understanding of the concepts required to move forward in this field.Solar Energy -- the State of the Art is an initiative of the International Solar Energy Society (ISES).

Energy a Continuing Bibliography with Indexes

Energy  a Continuing Bibliography with Indexes Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1981
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Energy

Energy Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1982
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Energy book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Auravana Habitat System

Auravana Habitat System Book
Author : Auravana
Publisher : Travis A. Grant
Release : 2022-07-12
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This publication is the Habitat System for a community-type society. A habitat (a.k.a., city, town) is a material-operational service environment where humans live and have their needs fulfilled. It is a service composed of interacting material objects. This habitat system standard identifies the services, technologies, components, and processes that compose a habitat service system. A habitat service system encodes and expresses humanity's decided material fulfillment services. When a decision resolves into a service, that service is specified to exist in the habitat system. Different configurations of a habitat lead to different levels and qualities of fulfillment. The coherent integration and open visualization of the habitat system is important for human requirements to be met at the local and global level through scientific planning. This standard represents the encoding of decisions into a global habitat service system with many local configurations of habitat that act together as a fulfillment platform for the whole community population. The visualization and simulation of humanity’s interconnected habitat systems is essential for maintaining a set of complex, fulfillment-oriented constructions and operations that meet human fulfillment requirements. This publication details what has been, what is, and what could be constructed in the material environment. It depicts through language and symbols, visualization, and simulation, a habitat service environment consisting of life, technology, and exploratory support services. For anything that is to be constructed in the material system, there is a written part, a drawing part, and a simulation part, which is also how the material system is sub-divided. Further, all habitats are designed and operated by means of master planning; they all have a master plan.

Solar Energy Sciences and Engineering Applications

Solar Energy Sciences and Engineering Applications Book
Author : Napoleon Enteria,Aliakbar Akbarzadeh
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-12-10
ISBN : 1138000132
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Solar energy is available all over the world in different intensities. Theoretically, the solar energy available on the surface of the earth is enough to support the energy requirements of the entire planet. However, in reality, progress and development of solar science and technology depends to a large extent on human desires and needs. This is due to the various barriers to overcome and to deal with the economics of practical utilization of solar energy. This book introduces the rapid development and progress in the field of solar energy applications for science and technology: the advancement in the field of biological processes & chemical processes; electricity production; and mechanical operations & building operations enhanced by solar energy. The volume covers bio-hydrogen production and other biological processes related to solar energy; chemical processes for the production of hydrogen from water and other endothermic processes using solar energy; the development of thermo-electric production through solar energy; the development of solar ponds for electric energy production; and the mechanical operation with solar energy; the building operation with solar energy optimization and urban planning. This book is an invaluable resource for scientists who need the scientific and technological knowledge of the wide coverage of solar energy sciences and engineering applications. This will further encourage researchers, scientists, engineers and students to stimulate the use of solar energy as an alternative energy source.

Energy Demand and Climate Change

Energy Demand and Climate Change Book
Author : Franklin Hadley Cocks
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-08-24
ISBN : 3527644598
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This scientifically sound, yet easily readable book provides the fundamentals necessary to understand today's energy and climate problems and provides possible answers based on current technology such as solar, water and geothermal power. Moreover, it introduces the reader to new concepts that are already or may soon be realized, such as nuclear fusion or a hydrogen-based economy. Aimed at a wide readership ranging from educated laypeople and students to practitioners in engineering and environmental science.

Electromembrane Processes

Electromembrane Processes Book
Author : Luigi Gurreri ,Alessandro Tamburini ,Giorgio Micale
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2021-09-08
ISBN : 3036515305
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Electromembrane processes offer a multitude of applications, allowing for the recovery of water, other products, and energy. This book is a collection of contributions on recent advancements in electromembrane processes attained via experiments and/or models. The first paper is a comprehensive review article on the applications of electrodialysis for wastewater treatment, highlighting current status, technical challenges, and key points for future perspectives. The second paper focuses on ZSM-5 zeolite/PVA mixed matrix CEMs with high monovalent permselectivity for recovering either acid or Li+. The third paper regards direct numerical simulations of electroconvection in an electrodialysis dilute channel with forced flow under potentiodynamic and galvanodynamic regimes. The fourth paper investigates the reasons for the formation and properties of soliton-like charge waves in overlimiting conditions. The fifth paper focuses on the characterization of AEMs functionalized by surface modification via poly(acrylic) acid yielding monovalent permselectivity for reverse electrodialysis. In the sixth paper, CFD simulations of reverse electrodialysis systems are performed. The seventh paper proposes an integrated membrane process, including electrochemical intercalation–deintercalation, for the preparation of Li2CO3 from brine with a high Mg2+/Li+ mass ratio. Finally, the eighth paper is a perspective article devoted to the acid–base flow battery with monopolar and bipolar membranes.

Electrostatics of Soft and Disordered Matter

Electrostatics of Soft and Disordered Matter Book
Author : David S. Dean,Jure Dobnikar,Ali Naji,Rudolf Podgornik
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-05-02
ISBN : 9814411868
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recently, there has been a surge of activity to elucidate the behavior of highly charged soft matter and Coulomb fluids in general. Such systems are ubiquitous, especially in biological matter where the length scale and the strength of the interaction between highly charged biomolecules are governed by strong electrostatic effects. Several interesting limits have been discovered in the parameter space of highly charged many-particle Coulomb matter where analytical progress is possible and completely novel and unexpected results have been obtained. One of the challenges in highly charged matter is to correctly describe systems with finite coupling strength in the transition regime between weak and strong couplings. After studying the fluctuations of both, several theories have been developed that describe this experimentally highly relevant regime. At the same time, computer simulation algorithms and computing power have advanced to the level where all-ion simulations, including many-body and polarization effects, are possible; the new theories thus can be subjected to numerical confirmation. Another important question is the effect of the structural disorder on electrostatic interactions. It has recently been demonstrated, both theoretically and experimentally, that charge disorder can impose long-range interaction between charged or even uncharged surfaces. These interactions might become very significant in biological processes. Filling a void in the literature, this volume cross-pollinates different theoretical and simulation approaches with new experiments and ties together the low temperature, high coupling constant, and disorder parameters in a unified description of the electrostatic interactions, which largely determine the stability and conformations of most important biological macromolecules. With striking graphical illustrations, the book presents a unified view of the current advances in the field of Coulomb (bio)colloidal systems, building on previous literature that summarized the field over 20 years ago. Leading scientists in the field offer a detailed introduction to different modern methods in statistical physics of Coulomb systems. They detail various approaches to elucidate the behavior of strongly charged soft matter. They also provide experimental and theoretical descriptions of disorder effects in Coulomb systems, which have not been discussed in any other book.

Solar Energy Utilization

Solar Energy Utilization Book
Author : Hafit Yüncü,E. Paykoc,Y. Yener
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9400936311
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Until very recently, energy supply of the world has been treated as being nearly inexhaustible. Nowadays about 90 percent of the energy used is obtained from non-renewable resources: oil, natural gas, coal and uranium. These resources are being used up at an alarming rate. To meet our demands we are now searching for new sources of energy. One of these new sources of energy is solar energy which will assume increasing importance. It is free but means must be developed to use it economically. Research is actively under way to reduce the storage cost of this low intensity energy and for the design of economical systems. The purpose of this Institute is to provide an international forum for the dissemination of information on solar energy utilization: fundamentals and applications in industry. This meeting is primarily a high level teaching activity. The subject is treated in considerable depth by lecturers eminent in their field. The other participants include scientists, engineers, and senior graduate students who themselves are involved in a similar research and who wish to learn more about current developments, as well as scientists from other areas who are planning to research on solar energy. The lectures are supplemented by informal discussions designed to encourage the free and critical exchange of ideas. A limited number of contributions are also included. This volume contains both basic and applied information contributed during the Institute. The editors appreciate the cooperation of Martinus Nijhoff Publishezsin making the proceedings widely available.