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Rotary Kilns

Rotary Kilns Book
Author : Akwasi A Boateng
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release : 2015-11-13
ISBN : 0128038535
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rotary Kilns—rotating industrial drying ovens—are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This professional reference book will be the first comprehensive book in many years that treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including a thorough grounding in the thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. This new edition contains an updated CFD section with inclusion of recent case studies and in line with recent developments covers pyrolysis processes, torrefaction of biomass, application of rotary kilns in C02 capture and information on using rotary kilns as incinerators for hydrocarbons. Provides essential information on fluid flow, granular flow, mixing and segregation, and aerodynamics during turbulent mixing and recirculation Gives guidance on which fuels to choose, including options such as natural gas versus coal-fired rotary kilns Covers principles of combustion and flame control, heat transfer and heating and material balances New edition contains information on pyrolysis processes with low temperatures and torrefaction of biomass. It also covers calcination of petcoke, how rotary kilns are used as incinerators for chlorinated hydrocarbons. Includes updated material on CFD simulation of kiln gas and solids flow with a selection of recent case studies.

Limestone Sorbent Regeneration in Externally Fired Rotary Kilns

Limestone Sorbent Regeneration in Externally Fired Rotary Kilns Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 1979
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Externally fired rotary kilns were evaluated for use as regeneration reactors for the spent limestone sorbent from a fluid-bed combustor. Coke and spent sorbent containing approximately 8 wt % sulfur were reacted at temperatures between 960 and 1060/sup 0/C in two laboratory-scale externally fired rotary kilns to produce lime sorbent suitable for reuse, and concentrated SO/sub 2/. It was possible to achieve a high percent of sorbent regeneration, but the SO/sub 2/ concentration in the off-gas was low. Different operating conditions were required to produce a higher concentration of SO/sub 2/ in the off-gas, and under these conditions, the percent of sorbent regeneration was low. Two empirical equations and the shrinking-core reaction-rate model were examined for application to the experimentally determined kinetic data. The shrinking-core model appeared to fit the data better than the empirical equations, and could be a useful predictor of the conversion of sulfated limestone and of the SO/sub 2/ concentration in the off-gas from a rotary-kiln regenerator. The materials used in the construction of one of the laboratory kilns were typical of commercially available production-size rotary kilns that are externally fired. However, the materials of construction were not sufficiently durable to withstand the high SO/sub 2/ concentrations and high temperatures involved in this reaction.

Refractory Engineering and Kiln Maintenance in Cement Plants

Refractory Engineering and Kiln Maintenance in Cement Plants Book
Author : J.P. Saxena
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2003-01-01
ISBN : 9788188305001
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book deals with two important areas that directly affect kiln availability for production. These two aspects decide if the cement plant would make profit or loss during the year. At the moment there is no book that deals with these aspects. The literature on these subjects is scattered and the totality of the subject is missing. The book Refractory Engineering and Kiln Maintenance in Cement Plants is an utmost requirement for the Cement Industry and would fulfil the needs of the Cement Industry all over the world. It has brought out various developments of refractory with the changing technological scenario. The contents is totally comprehensive in every respect and has been planned in such a way that starting from Changing Phases of Kiln Systems and Choice of Refractories, Improving the Kiln Up-time, there are also important chapters on Inspection, Storage and Packing of Refractories, Refractory Management, Kiln Maintenance with a bonus of a glossary of the technical terms. The book will serve as a handbook for production managers, production engineers, Kiln operators, refractory engineers, maintenance managers, purchase engineers, inventory engineers, warehouse officers and storekeepers.

The Rotary Cement Kiln

The Rotary Cement Kiln Book
Author : Kurt E. Peray
Publisher : California Historical Society
Release : 1986
ISBN : 9780820603674
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An indispensable reference source and training tool not only for kiln operators, but for supervisors and management staff as well. Extensive discussions on pre-heater and pre-calciner operations are included. The appendix includes a section with conversion tables, definitions of common terms relating to rotary kilns, and a suggested outline for a training program for new operators. Contents PART 1. KILN SYSTEMS AND THEORY 1. History 3 2. Types of Rotary Kilns 6 3. The Refractory 17 4. Fuels 37 5. Combustion 44 6. The Flame 63 7. Heat Transfer 83 8. Heat Balances 106 9. The Chemistry of Kiln Feed and Clinker 115 10. Reaction Zones in the Rotary Kiln 141 11. Coating and Ring Formation in a Rotary Kiln 147 12. The Air Circuit in a Rotary Kiln 155 13. Movement of Material Through the Kiln 174 PART II. KILN OPERATING PROCEDURES 199 14. Kiln Operating and Control Methods 201 15. Instrumentation 207 16. Kiln Control Variables 232 17. Fuel Systems 253 18. Clinker Cooler Control 266 19. Kiln Exit-Gas Temperature Control 292 20. Feed-Rate Control 299 2I. Kiln Starts and Shutdowns 308 22. The 27 Basic Kiln Conditions 327 23. Kiln Emergency Conditions 346 24. Safety and Accident Prevention 362 Appendix A: The International System of Units (SI) 367 Appendix B: Weights and Measures 369 Appendix C: Temperature Conversions 378 Appendix D: Kiln Operator's Quiz 382 Index 386

China s Technological Catch Up Strategy

China s Technological Catch Up Strategy Book
Author : Michael T. Rock,Michael Toman
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2015-02-09
ISBN : 0190225653
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Prior to 1979, China had a bifurcated and geographically-dispersed industrial structure made up of a relatively small number of large-scale, state-owned enterprises in various industries alongside numerous small-scale, energy-intensive and polluting enterprises. Economic reforms beginning in 1979 led to the rapid expansion of these small-scale manufacturing enterprises in numerous energy-intensive industries such as aluminum, cement, iron and steel, and pulp and paper. Subsequently, the government adopted a new industrial development strategy labeled "grasp the large, let go the small." The aims of this new policy were to close many of the unprofitable, small-scale manufacturing plants in these (and other) industries, create a small number of large enterprises that could compete with OECD multinationals, entice these larger enterprises to engage in high-speed technological catch-up, and save energy. China's Technological Catch-Up Strategy traces the impact of this new industrial development strategy on technological catch-up, energy use, and CO2 emissions. In doing so, the authors explore several detailed, enterprise-level case studies of technological catch-up; develop industry-wide estimates of energy and CO2 savings from specific catch-up interventions; and present detailed econometric work on the determinants of energy intensity. The authors conclude that China's strategy has contributred to substantial energy and CO2 savings, but it has not led to either a peaking of or a decline in CO2 emissions in these industries. More work is needed to cap and reduce China's CO2 emissions.

Modeling and Validation of the Siderite Decomposition in a Rotary Kiln

Modeling and Validation of the Siderite Decomposition in a Rotary Kiln Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 2017
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: The decomposition behavior of siderite in rotary kilns has been insufficiently investigated up to now. In particular, the interaction of the two primary reactions calcination of the carbonate and oxidation of the wustite under the conditions in a rotary kiln are not known. Therefore, experimental investigations were carried out with a selected siderite with regard to the specific properties of bulk bed motion behavior and reaction sequence. An existing process model has been extended by these specific model parameters. Thus, the entire process of siderite decomposition could be simulated. In order to validate the extended process model, experimental investigations were carried out in a technical scale rotary kiln. The results show sufficiently accurate consistency.

Beyond the Blast Furnace

Beyond the Blast Furnace Book
Author : Amit Chatterjee
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1993-11-18
ISBN : 9780849366765
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This unique book presents an in-depth analysis of all the emerging ironmaking processes, supplementing the conventional blast furnace method. Various processes for producing solid and liquid iron are discussed, including important features such as process outline, techno-economics, and process fundamentals. The present global status of each process is examined, projections for the future are made, and processes are compared. Beyond the Blast Furnace is valuable reading for process developers, because it gives them a complete picture of various process options. Conventional iron- and steelmakers as well as researchers and practitioners working in the area of alternative processes of ironmaking will also benefit from this ready reference. The book is an ideal text for undergraduate and postgraduate students in metallurgy.

The Rotary Kiln

The Rotary Kiln Book
Author : Victor J. Azbe
Publisher :
Release : 1956
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Industrial Combustion Testing

Industrial Combustion Testing Book
Author : Jr., Charles E. Baukal
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2010-07-29
ISBN : 1420085298
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Until now, anyone conducting industrial combustion tests had to either rely on old methods, go scurrying through the literature to find proven applicable methodologies, or hire top-shelf consultants such as those that work for cutting-edge companies like John Zink. Manufacturers can no longer take industrial combustion for granted. Air and noise po

Energy Efficiency in the Cement Industry

Energy Efficiency in the Cement Industry Book
Author : J. Sirchis
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1990-09-06
ISBN : 1851665463
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text presents the proceedings of a seminar organized by the CEC, Directorate-General for Energy and CIMPOR Cimentos de Portugal E.P. with the co-operation of Cembureau European Cement Association, held in Oporto, Portugal, 6-7 November 1989.

Dimensional Analysis of Solids Transport and Dispersion in a Rotary Kiln

Dimensional Analysis of Solids Transport and Dispersion in a Rotary Kiln Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 1977
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

To organize data being obtained in an existing experimental program on the dispersion coefficient for material in a rotating kiln, a dimensional analysis was performed using all of the variables now thought to be relevant. Rotary kilns are being considered for use in the voloxidation process for the recovery of tritium from spent nuclear power reactor fuels. Design for the efficient recovery of tritium stipulates a residence time distribution for material within the kiln; therefore, a consideration of material dispersion is important. The study revealed that the system is fairly tightly constrained. Of all possible dimensionless groups formed from the process variables, only three remained after those groups consisting of ratios of length were extracted and allowance was made for implicit relations among variables. The set that describes the system includes the velocity number, the Watt number, and the fraction of the kiln filled with solids. Since the velocity number divided by the operating slope of the kiln behaves as a constant (at least for first-order effects), the program should correlate the Watt number with fraction full and the dimensionless numbers that relate the geometry of the system, including size of the feed material and flight dimensions.