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Rna Based Regulation In Human Health And Disease

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RNA Based Regulation in Human Health and Disease

RNA Based Regulation in Human Health and Disease Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-08-15
ISBN : 0128171944
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

RNA-based Regulation in Human Health and Disease offers an in-depth exploration of RNA mediated genome regulation at different hierarchies. Beginning with multitude of canonical and non-canonical RNA populations, especially noncoding RNA in human physiology and evolution, further sections examine the various classes of RNAs (from small to large noncoding and extracellular RNAs), functional categories of RNA regulation (RNA-binding proteins, alternative splicing, RNA editing, antisense transcripts and RNA G-quadruplexes), dynamic aspects of RNA regulation modulating physiological homeostasis (aging), role of RNA beyond humans, tools and technologies for RNA research (wet lab and computational) and future prospects for RNA-based diagnostics and therapeutics. One of the core strengths of the book includes spectrum of disease-specific chapters from experts in the field highlighting RNA-based regulation in metabolic & neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, viral and bacterial infections. We hope the book helps researchers, students and clinicians appreciate the role of RNA-based regulation in genome regulation, aiding the development of useful biomarkers for prognosis, diagnosis, and novel RNA-based therapeutics. Comprehensive information of non-canonical RNA-based genome regulation modulating human health and disease Defines RNA classes with special emphasis on unexplored world of noncoding RNA at different hierarchies Disease specific role of RNA - causal, prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic Features contributions from leading experts in the field

Epigenetics and Reproductive Health

Epigenetics and Reproductive Health Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-09-12
ISBN : 0128197544
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics and Reproductive Health, a new volume in the Translational Epigenetics series, provides a thorough overview and discussion of epigenetics in reproduction and implications for reproductive medicine. Twenty international researchers discuss epigenetic mechanisms operating during the formation of male and female gametes, fertilization and subsequent embryo and placental development, particularly in mammals and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. This volume also addresses aberrant epigenetic changes influencing male and female infertility, pregnancy related disorders, and those potentially linked to therapeutic manipulations and assisted reproductive technologies. Emphasis is placed on identifying biomarkers for early detection of aberrant epigenetic mechanisms. Later chapters examine the possibility of correcting these epigenetic dysfunctions, as well as current challenges and next steps in research, enabling new translational discoveries and efforts towards developing therapeutics. Thoroughly examines the influence of aberrant epigenetics during gametogenesis and embryogenesis, affecting parents, gametes and embryos, offspring and future generations Explores health outcomes for reproductive senescence, endocrine disruption, testicular cancer, prostrate cancer, breast cancer, ovarian, cancer, endometrial cancer and cervical cancers Features chapter contributions from international researchers in the field

Epigenetics of the Immune System

Epigenetics of the Immune System Book
Author : Dieter Kabelitz,Jaydeep Bhat
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-06-04
ISBN : 0128179651
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics of the Immune System focuses on different aspects of epigenetics and immunology, providing readers with the fundamental mechanisms relating to epigenetics and the immune system. This book provides in-depth information on immune cells as a toolbox in deciphering systematically regulated mechanisms using "omics" and computational biology approaches. In addition, the book presents the translational importance of epigenetics and the immune system in our understanding of pathophysiology in diseases and its therapeutic applications. Provides an overview of most important immune mechanisms, the current status of epigenetics, and how both of them are brought together Presents key principles of immune mechanisms in epigenetics, presenting current findings and key principles Features in-depth chapter contributions from a wide range of international researchers and specialists in immunology, translational medicine and epigenetics Merges two very large areas, covering the unique interrelatedness of epigenetics and immunology

Epigenetics Methods

Epigenetics Methods Book
Author : Trygve Tollefsbol
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-07-08
ISBN : 0128194154
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years, the field of epigenetics has grown significantly, driving new understanding of human developmental processes and disease expression, as well as advances in diagnostics and therapeutics. As the field of epigenetics continues to grow, methods and technologies have multiplied, resulting in a wide range of approaches and tools researchers might employ. Epigenetics Methods offers comprehensive instruction in methods, protocols, and experimental approaches applied in field of epigenetics. Here, across thirty-five chapters, specialists offer step-by-step overviews of methods used to study various epigenetic mechanisms, as employed in basic and translational research. Leading the reader from fundamental to more advanced methods, the book begins with thorough instruction in DNA methylation techniques and gene or locus-specific methylation analyses, followed by histone modification methods, chromatin evaluation, enzyme analyses of histone methylation, and studies of non-coding RNAs as epigenetic modulators. Recently developed techniques and technologies discussed include single-cell epigenomics, epigenetic editing, computational epigenetics, systems biology epigenetic methods, and forensic epigenetic approaches. Epigenetics methods currently in-development, and their implication for future research, are also considered in-depth. In addition, as with the wider life sciences, reproducibility across experiments, labs, and subdisciplines is a growing issue for epigenetics researchers. This volume provides consensus-driven methods instruction and overviews. Tollefsbol and contributing authors survey the range of existing methods; identify best practices, common themes, and challenges; and bring unity of approach to a diverse and ever-evolving field. Includes contributions by leading international investigators involved in epigenetic research and clinical and therapeutic application Integrates technology and translation with fundamental chapters on epigenetics methods, as well as chapters on more novel and advanced epigenetics methods Written at verbal and technical levels that can be understood by scientists and students alike Includes chapters on state-of-the-art techniques such as single-cell epigenomics, use of CRISPR/Cas9 for epigenetic editing, and epigenetics methods applied to forensics

microRNA Regulation in Health and Disease

microRNA Regulation in Health and Disease Book
Author : Clifford J. Steer,Subbaya Subramanian
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-02-21
ISBN : 3039217143
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that play a crucial role in posttranscriptional gene regulation. Over two thousand miRNAs have been identified in humans, and many of them are conserved in other species. miRNAs are implicated in fundamental cellular functions, including development and disease. In the last decade, there has been an overwhelming amount of data contributing to the understanding of miRNA biogenesis and their target genes. Moreover, a significant amount of work has been carried out in developing miRNA biomarkers and therapeutics for various disease conditions. RNA-based markers and therapeutics have been proven to have a clinical impact, and many of these miRNA-based therapies are at various stages of human clinical trials and clinical applications. Notably, miRNAs are also found in exosomes, and are considered to impart intercellular communication and function via several different modalities, including tunneling nanotubes. In spite of our understanding of miRNA biology and function, there are many challenges in effectively using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic agents in clinical applications. In this Special Issue, we are inviting reviews, perspectives, and original research articles to address some of these challenges. Topics will include, but are not limited to, miRNA biogenesis, clinical applications, extracellular function, biomarkers, miRNA immune regulation, signaling pathways, and preclinical models.

Redox Genome Interactions in Health and Disease

Redox Genome Interactions in Health and Disease Book
Author : Jürgen Fuchs,Maurizio Podda,Lester Packer
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2003-09-12
ISBN : 0824756614
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

At the nexus of advances in molecular genetics and findings in redox biology, this volume elaborates on the dynamics governing cellular redox states and aggregates the body of evidence linking oxidative stress and redox modulation with a host of monogenetic and polygenetic diseases.

Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease

Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease Book
Author : Randy L. Jirtle,Frederick L. Tyson
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-05-13
ISBN : 3642368271
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There are now compelling human epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing adult-onset complex diseases and neurological disorders are influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations in response to prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of the DNA. The main components of the epigenetic code are DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. The epigenetic programs are established as stem cell differentiate during embryogenesis, and they are normally faithfully reproduced during mitosis. Moreover, they can also be maintained during meiosis, resulting in epigenetic transgenerational disease inheritance, and also potentially introducing phenotypic variation that is selected for in the evolution of new species. The objective of this two volume book is to provide evidence that environmental exposures during early development can alter the risk of developing medical conditions, such as asthma, autism, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and schizophrenia later in life by modifying the epigenome. Consequently, epigenetic research promises to markedly improve our ability to diagnosis, prevent, and treat the pathological conditions of humans; however, it also introduces unique legal and ethical issues. This volume highlights the correlation between environmental factors and complex diseases, such as autism, addiction, neurological diseases, diabetes, obesity and cancer. It concludes with a chapter on legal and ethical implications of epigenetics. ​

Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease

Antioxidants in Human Health and Disease Book
Author : Tapan Kumar Basu,Norman J. Temple,Manohar L. Garg
Publisher : Wallingford [England] : CABI Pub.
Release : 1999
ISBN : 9780851993348
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Antioxidants and their mechanisms of action; Food factors as antioxidants; Coronary heart disease; Malignant disease; Other diseases; Indicators of oxidative stress; Consumer issues.

Steroid Receptors in Health and Disease

Steroid Receptors in Health and Disease Book
Author : Virinder Moudgil
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-09
ISBN : 1468455419
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

During the last two decades, progress in steroid hormone research has resulted in the development of new approaches to contraception as well as diagnosis and treatment of endocrine disorders and cancers. Although significant advances have been made in the purification, characterization, immunochemistry and molecular biology of steroid receptors, the precise molecular mechanism of steroid hormone action has remained obscure. This book captures the detailed presentations made at the first conference on Steroid Receptors in Health and Disease held at Meadow Brook Hall, Oakland University in the fall of 1987. The purpose of this international con ference was to facilitate scientific exchange toward a better understand ing of the mode of action of steroid hormones. The scientific sessions consisted of poster presentations and state-of-the-art lectures, the latter of which make up this volume. The first chapter is meant to provide the reader with a more general background of the topics covered in the book, as well as to discuss certain theme-related issues that are either not yet well-established or accepted or are in the stage of infancy. It is hoped that this volume will serve as a useful treatise for students and investigators interested in basic and clinical aspects of biological regulation by steroid hormones. A task of this magnitude could not have been undertaken without the encouragement, advice and continued generous assistance of the members of the scientific committee. I am gratefully indebted to Drs.

Genome Analysis and Human Health

Genome Analysis and Human Health Book
Author : Leena Rawal,Sher Ali
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-06-08
ISBN : 9811042985
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book highlights selected current data and its relevance in the human health care system, offering a fundamental primer on genetics and human health. With the advent of new high-throughput technologies (for the whole genome including exome sequencing), the conventional focus on genetics and individual genes is now shifting toward the analysis of complex genes, gene-gene interactions and the association between genes and environment, including epigenetics. The rapidly changing scientific research landscape, with the ever-growing influx of data on one hand and emergence of newer and more complicated diseases on the other, has created a dilemma for researchers and caregivers, who are still hopeful that advances in genetics and genomics will provide avenues for the understanding, prevention and possible cure of human diseases. The book focuses on the interactions between genes and proteins at both the transcriptome and proteome levels, which in turn affect the human genome and health. Additionally, it covers the domain that must be explored in order to understand the gene-gene and protein-protein interactions that contribute to human health. The book offers a valuable guide for all students and researchers working in the area of molecular genetics and genomics.

Glutathione and Sulfur Amino Acids in Human Health and Disease

Glutathione and Sulfur Amino Acids in Human Health and Disease Book
Author : Roberta Masella,Giuseppe Mazza
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2009-08-06
ISBN : 9780470475966
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The complex roles of glutathione and sulfur amino acids in human health Glutathione (γ-L-glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine, GSH) is a major antioxidant acting as a free radical scavenger that protects the cell from reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sulfur amino acids (SAAs), such as methionine and cysteine, play a critical role in the maintenance of health. GSH depletion as well as alterations of SAA metabolism are linked to a host of disease states including liver cirrhosis, various pulmonary diseases, myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury, aging, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, sepsis, and others. This book provides researchers with a comprehensive review of the biochemistry, absorption, metabolism, biological activities, disease prevention, and health promotion of glutathione and sulfur amino acids. The twenty-two chapters explore such topics as: Chemistry, absorption, transport, and metabolism of GSH and sulfur amino acids Antioxidant and detoxification properties of GSH and sulfur amino acids, highlighting the enzymatic systems involved in antioxidant defenses Biological activities of GSH and sulfur amino acids and their role in modulating cell processes Role of GSH and sulfur amino acid deficiency and alteration in the onset of diseases and in aging Protective effects exerted by GSH and sulfur amino acids when used as drugs, functional foods, and nutraceuticals in humans and animals Special attention is paid to the molecular mechanisms for the modulation of transcription factors and enzyme activities, as well as the nutritional and therapeutic significance of dietary sulfur amino acids as shown in human and animal models. With more than 2,000 scientific references, this book provides food scientists, nutritionists, biochemists, food technologists, chemists, molecular biologists, and public health professionals with a comprehensive and up-to-date examination of glutathione and sulfur amino acids in human health and disease.

Genomic Medicine

Genomic Medicine Book
Author : Dhavendra Kumar,Charis Eng
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2014-09-26
ISBN : 0199896038
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The first edition of Genomics and Clinical Medicine provided an overview of genomics-based advances in disease susceptibility, diagnosis, and prediction of treatment outcomes in various areas of medicine. Since its publication, the science of genomics has made tremendous progress, and exciting new developments in biotechnology and bioinformatics have created possibilities that were inconceivable only a few years ago. This completely revised second edition of Genomic Medicine reflects the rapidly changing face of applied and translational genomics in the medical and health context and provides a comprehensive coverage of principles of genetics and genomics relevant to the practice of medicine.

Novel roles of non coding brain RNAs in health and disease

Novel roles of non coding brain RNAs in health and disease Book
Author : Hermona Soreq
Publisher : Frontiers E-books
Release : 2014-10-23
ISBN : 2889193098
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), and in particular microRNAs are rapidly becoming the focus of research interest in numerous basic and translational fields, including brain research; and their importance for many aspects in brain functioning merits special discussion. The wide-scope, multi-targeted and highly efficient manner of ncRNA regulatory activities draws attention to this topic by many, but the available research and analysis tools and experimental protocols are still at their infancy, and calls for special discussion given their importance for many aspects in brain functioning. This eBook is correspondingly focused on the search for, identification and exploration of those non-coding RNAs whose activities modulate the multi-leveled functions of the eukaryotic brain. The different articles strive to cover novel approaches for identifying and establishing ncRNA-target relationships, provide state of the art reports of the affected neurotransmission pathways, describe inherited and acquired changes in ncRNA functioning and cover the use of ncRNA mimics and blockade tools for interference with their functions in health and disease of the brain. Non-coding RNAs are here to stay, and this exciting eBook provides a glimpse into their impact on our brain’s functioning at the physiology, cell biology, behavior and immune levels.

Free Radicals in Human Health and Disease

Free Radicals in Human Health and Disease Book
Author : Vibha Rani,Umesh Chand Singh Yadav
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-11-14
ISBN : 8132220358
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The role of oxidative stress in human disease has become an area of intense interest. Free radicals, a normal product of metabolism, exist in all aerobic cells in balance with biochemical antioxidants. Environmental stress increases the levels of free radicals drastically, thereby disturbing the equilibrium between free radical production and the antioxidant capability causing oxidative stress. Over the years, ROS has been implicated in the pathologies of various diseases like cancer, neurological disorder, cardiovascular diseases rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes etc. This book provides an in depth critical state-of-art reviews from established investigators on free radicals, ROS associated pathogenesis of human diseases, biomarkers of oxidative damage, antioxidants, phytonutrients and other related health concerns of modern society. The present book is aimed at graduate students, researchers in academia, industry and clinicians with the interest in redox biology. Special attention has been devoted to the topic of ROS signalling, oxidative stress induced human pathologies & antioxidative therapies. The book consists of four parts in specified topics based on the current literatures for the better understanding of the readers with respect to their subject-wise interests. The first section of the book provides an overview about the ROS production and their measuring tools and techniques followed by the mechanisms involved in the oxidative stress in the second section. The third section describes the involvement of oxidative stress in different human diseases and the last section focuses on the different strategies to ameliorate oxidative stress induced stress.

Molecular Biology of Long Non coding RNAs

Molecular Biology of Long Non coding RNAs Book
Author : Ahmad M. Khalil
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-30
ISBN : 3030170861
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This second edition shows how long non-coding RNAs (lnc)RNAs have emerged as a new paradigm in epigenetic regulation of the genome. Thousands of lncRNAs have been identified and observed in a wide range of organisms. Unlike mRNA, lncRNA have no protein-coding capacity. So, while their function is not entirely clear, they may serve as key organizers of protein complexes that allow for higher order regulatory events. Advances in the field also include better characterization of human long non-coding RNAs, novel insights into their roles in human development and disease, their diverse mechanisms of action and novel technologies to study them.

Early Life Origins of Human Health and Disease

Early Life Origins of Human Health and Disease Book
Author : John P. Newnham,Michael G. Ross
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release : 2009-01-01
ISBN : 380559139X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There is compelling evidence that many of the risks leading to the most frequent chronic diseases in adulthood originate in the earliest stages of life. Adverse environmental conditions in utero and during infancy can lead to negative health effects during the subsequent lifetime of the exposed individual.This book offers precious insights into the latest concepts and results from epidemiologic, clinical and basic studies in this burgeoning area of health care. The developmental origins of various diseases such as diabetes, obesity and cancer are examined, as well as the early programming of reproductive health and different organs. Attention is given to the impact of environmental factors such as nutrition and pollution, and the mediating genetic and epigenetic pathways are reviewed. A crucial point under discussion is the concept of environmental insults adversely affecting not only the exposed persons, but also their descendants. In addition, the economic consequences of a suboptimal start to life and the importance of preventive measures are stressed.This publication is of great value to anyone interested in health care, notably to specialists in obstetrics, pediatrics, internal medicine, obesity, diabetes and heart disease.

Stroke New Insights for the Healthcare Professional 2012 Edition

Stroke  New Insights for the Healthcare Professional  2012 Edition Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
Release : 2012-12-10
ISBN : 1464970335
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stroke: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Stroke. The editors have built Stroke: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Stroke in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Stroke: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Epigenetics and Human Health

Epigenetics and Human Health Book
Author : Alexander Haslberger,Sabine Greßler
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-08-24
ISBN : 352764475X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

After first introducing the concept of epigenetics, this handbook and ready reference provides an overview of the main research on epigenetics. It adopts a multidisciplinary approach, involving molecular biology, molecular epidemiology and nutritional science, with a special focus of the book is on disease prevention and treatment. Of interest to all healthcare-related professionals as well as nutritionists, and the medical community focusing on disease prevention.

Stress in Health and Disease An Issue of Psychiatric Clinics of North America

Stress in Health and Disease  An Issue of Psychiatric Clinics of North America  Book
Author : Daniel L. Kirsch
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2014-12-27
ISBN : 0323326773
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stress in the DSM is referred to only in the sense of post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, some research studies estimate up to two thirds of illnesses seen by general practitioners are ‘stress related’–GI problems, sleep disturbance, mental concentration, headaches, fatigue, shortness of breath, high blood pressure, dermatitis, illnesses from lowered immune system, and vague aches and pains – all can be symptoms and outcomes of the elusive stress factor. This issue of Psychiatric Clinics of North America discusses the scientific medical facets of stress, written by mental health and medical practitioners. It looks at the brain-body connection of stress – what the body does to result in stress and varying results stress has on the body. This fascinating cross-discipline look at stress is intended for psychiatrists, general practitioners, cardiologists, GI specialists, neurologists, sleep medicine specialists, respiratory specialists, and others who diagnose and treat patients with stress suspected as part of the illness equation or with self-reported stress. Topics include: Measurement of stress; Anxiety and stress-how they work together; Relationship between genetics and stress; Role of glia in stress; Sleep and stress; Diet and stress; Supplements and stress; Effect of severe stress on early brain development, attachment, and emotions; Role of stress and fear on the development of psychopathology; Expressions of stress in psychiatric illness; Dermatologic manifestations of stress in normal and psychiatric populations; Humor and the psychological buffers of stress; Stress expression in children and adolescents; Stress in service members; Stress in the geriatric population.