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Rna Based Regulation In Human Health And Disease

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RNA Based Regulation in Human Health and Disease

RNA Based Regulation in Human Health and Disease Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-08-15
ISBN : 0128171944
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

RNA-based Regulation in Human Health and Disease offers an in-depth exploration of RNA mediated genome regulation at different hierarchies. Beginning with multitude of canonical and non-canonical RNA populations, especially noncoding RNA in human physiology and evolution, further sections examine the various classes of RNAs (from small to large noncoding and extracellular RNAs), functional categories of RNA regulation (RNA-binding proteins, alternative splicing, RNA editing, antisense transcripts and RNA G-quadruplexes), dynamic aspects of RNA regulation modulating physiological homeostasis (aging), role of RNA beyond humans, tools and technologies for RNA research (wet lab and computational) and future prospects for RNA-based diagnostics and therapeutics. One of the core strengths of the book includes spectrum of disease-specific chapters from experts in the field highlighting RNA-based regulation in metabolic & neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, viral and bacterial infections. We hope the book helps researchers, students and clinicians appreciate the role of RNA-based regulation in genome regulation, aiding the development of useful biomarkers for prognosis, diagnosis, and novel RNA-based therapeutics. Comprehensive information of non-canonical RNA-based genome regulation modulating human health and disease Defines RNA classes with special emphasis on unexplored world of noncoding RNA at different hierarchies Disease specific role of RNA - causal, prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic Features contributions from leading experts in the field

Epigenetics and Reproductive Health

Epigenetics and Reproductive Health Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-09-12
ISBN : 0128197544
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Epigenetics and Reproductive Health, a new volume in the Translational Epigenetics series, provides a thorough overview and discussion of epigenetics in reproduction and implications for reproductive medicine. Twenty international researchers discuss epigenetic mechanisms operating during the formation of male and female gametes, fertilization and subsequent embryo and placental development, particularly in mammals and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. This volume also addresses aberrant epigenetic changes influencing male and female infertility, pregnancy related disorders, and those potentially linked to therapeutic manipulations and assisted reproductive technologies. Emphasis is placed on identifying biomarkers for early detection of aberrant epigenetic mechanisms. Later chapters examine the possibility of correcting these epigenetic dysfunctions, as well as current challenges and next steps in research, enabling new translational discoveries and efforts towards developing therapeutics. Thoroughly examines the influence of aberrant epigenetics during gametogenesis and embryogenesis, affecting parents, gametes and embryos, offspring and future generations Explores health outcomes for reproductive senescence, endocrine disruption, testicular cancer, prostrate cancer, breast cancer, ovarian, cancer, endometrial cancer and cervical cancers Features chapter contributions from international researchers in the field

Molecular Biology of Long Non coding RNAs

Molecular Biology of Long Non coding RNAs Book
Author : Ahmad M. Khalil
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-30
ISBN : 3030170861
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This second edition shows how long non-coding RNAs (lnc)RNAs have emerged as a new paradigm in epigenetic regulation of the genome. Thousands of lncRNAs have been identified and observed in a wide range of organisms. Unlike mRNA, lncRNA have no protein-coding capacity. So, while their function is not entirely clear, they may serve as key organizers of protein complexes that allow for higher order regulatory events. Advances in the field also include better characterization of human long non-coding RNAs, novel insights into their roles in human development and disease, their diverse mechanisms of action and novel technologies to study them.

microRNA Regulation in Health and Disease

microRNA Regulation in Health and Disease Book
Author : Clifford J. Steer,Subbaya Subramanian
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-02-21
ISBN : 3039217143
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory RNAs that play a crucial role in posttranscriptional gene regulation. Over two thousand miRNAs have been identified in humans, and many of them are conserved in other species. miRNAs are implicated in fundamental cellular functions, including development and disease. In the last decade, there has been an overwhelming amount of data contributing to the understanding of miRNA biogenesis and their target genes. Moreover, a significant amount of work has been carried out in developing miRNA biomarkers and therapeutics for various disease conditions. RNA-based markers and therapeutics have been proven to have a clinical impact, and many of these miRNA-based therapies are at various stages of human clinical trials and clinical applications. Notably, miRNAs are also found in exosomes, and are considered to impart intercellular communication and function via several different modalities, including tunneling nanotubes. In spite of our understanding of miRNA biology and function, there are many challenges in effectively using miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic agents in clinical applications. In this Special Issue, we are inviting reviews, perspectives, and original research articles to address some of these challenges. Topics will include, but are not limited to, miRNA biogenesis, clinical applications, extracellular function, biomarkers, miRNA immune regulation, signaling pathways, and preclinical models.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Book
Author : National Academy of Sciences (U.S.)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America book written by National Academy of Sciences (U.S.), available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Transcriptional Gene Regulation in Health and Disease

Transcriptional Gene Regulation in Health and Disease Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-01-15
ISBN : 0128123400
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Transcriptional Gene Regulation in Health and Disease, Volume 335, the latest release in the International Review of Cell and Molecular Biology reviews and details current advances in cell and molecular biology. The IRCMB series has a worldwide readership, maintaining a high standard by publishing invited articles on important and timely topics that are authored by prominent cell and molecular biologists. The articles published in IRCMB have a high impact and an average cited half-life of nine years. This great resource ranks high amongst scientific journals dealing with cell biology. Publishes only invited review articles on selected topics Authored by established and active cell and molecular biologists drawn from international sources Offers a wide range of perspectives on specific subjects

Engineering Synthetic Ligand responsive RNA Devices for Controlling the Cell Cycle

Engineering Synthetic Ligand responsive RNA Devices for Controlling the Cell Cycle Book
Author : Kathy Yufeng Wei
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Synthetic biology aims to program cells by applying engineering principles to the design of genetic circuits to control and monitor cellular behavior. Programmed cells can harness existing dynamically coordinated biologically processes to rescue cellular malfunctions, control existing cellular morphology, and introduce useful novel functionality. Recent advances in the field are leading to genetic circuits of higher-order complexity in mammalian cells, which may ultimately be used to study and reprogram phenotypes that play a key role in human health and disease, such as those linked to the cell cycle. RNA-based control devices can provide specific and modular control of gene expression in response to endogenous or exogenous inputs in living cells. Specifically, we show that for a ribozyme-based device platform, ribozyme switches previously prototyped in yeast are able to regulate gene expression in a predictable (R-squared = 0.63--0.97), ligand-responsive manner in human HEK 293, HeLa, and U2-OS cell lines without any change to device sequence nor further optimization. We also show that these simple, general-purpose components (an RNA ribozyme coupled to an RNA aptamer) are a compact (~200 nt) and effective way to control a complex phenomenon such as arresting up to 80% of a population of mammalian cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Current methods for altering cell cycle progression can present a number of limitations, including exhibiting specificity towards particular cell types, being broadly disruptive of cellular processes, and being limited in capacity to extend to different networks. A genetically encoded system supporting control over cell cycle progression has the potential to address limitations with existing chemical approaches. Further, these switches are modular and readily adapted to arrest cells in the G0/1 phase of the cell cycle and in response to at least two different small molecule inputs. This work describes the first example of the application of synthetic RNA-based gene-control devices to the regulation of cell cycle progression in human cells. We further show that siRNAs can induce the arrest of> 90% of a population of cells in the G0/1 phase of the cell cycle. This indicates the potential to build miRNA-based devices to control the cell cycle that complement the ribozyme-based approaches. Thus, ligand-responsive RNAs represent a class of synthetic biology tools that are both genetically encoded and capable of regulating intracellular protein levels in response to user-specified molecular signals, and can be adapted for sophisticated control of complex processes in human cells.

Human Epigenomics

Human Epigenomics Book
Author : Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-02-01
ISBN : 9811076146
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The term epigenetics describes regulatory and information storing mechanisms of specific genes that do not involve any change of their DNA sequence. Epigenetics is closely related to the extensively folded state, in which the genome is packaged, known as chromatin. New genomic tools nowadays allow the genome-wide assessment of, for example, chromatin states and DNA modifications, and led to the discovery of unexpected new epigenetic principles, such as epigenomic memory. This was the start of the field of epigenomics, the relation of which to human health and disease is discussed in this textbook. This book aims to summarize, in a condensed form, the role of epigenomics in defining chromatin states that are representative of active genes (euchromatin) and repressed genes (heterochromatin). Moreover, this book discusses the principles of gene regulation, chromatin stability, genomic imprinting and the reversibility of DNA methylation and histone modifications. This information should enable a better understanding of cell type identities and will provide new directions for studies of, for example, cellular reprograming, the response of chromatin to environmental signals and epigenetic therapies that can improve or restore human health. In order to facilitate the latter, we favor a high figure-to-text ratio following the rule “a picture tells more than thousand words”. The content of the book is based on the lecture course “Molecular Medicine and Genetics” that is given by one of us (C. Carlberg) in different forms since 2002 at the University of Eastern Finland in Kuopio. Thematically, this book is located between our textbooks “Mechanisms of Gene Regulation” (ISBN 978-94-017-7741-4) and “Nutrigenomics” (ISBN 978-3-319-30415-1), studying of which may also be interesting to our readers. The book is sub-divided into three sections and 13 chapters. Following the Introduction (section A), section B will explain the molecular basis of epigenomics, while section C will provide examples for the impact of epigenomics in human health and disease. The lecture course is primarily designed for Master level students of biomedicine, but is also frequented by PhD students as well as by students of other bioscience disciplines. Besides its value as a textbook, Human Epigenomics will be a useful reference for individuals working in biomedicine.

Government Research Directory

Government Research Directory Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Government Research Directory book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Applications of RNA Seq and Omics Strategies

Applications of RNA Seq and Omics Strategies Book
Author : Fabio Marchi,Priscila Cirillo,Elvis Cueva Mateo
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2017-09-13
ISBN : 9535135031
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The large potential of RNA sequencing and other "omics" techniques has contributed to the production of a huge amount of data pursuing to answer many different questions that surround the science's great unknowns. This book presents an overview about powerful and cost-efficient methods for a comprehensive analysis of RNA-Seq data, introducing and revising advanced concepts in data analysis using the most current algorithms. A holistic view about the entire context where transcriptome is inserted is also discussed here encompassing biological areas with remarkable technological advances in the study of systems biology, from microorganisms to precision medicine.

Environmental Epigenetics in Toxicology and Public Health

Environmental Epigenetics in Toxicology and Public Health Book
Author : Rebecca Fry
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-10-23
ISBN : 0128199695
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental Epigenetics in Toxicology and Public Health provides in-depth discussions of the suite of complex environmental factors shown to impact epigenetic components within the cell, as well as evidence that these epigenetic modifications are tied to early and later life health effects. This book offers a translational research perspective, highlighting both in vivo and human population-based evidence for ties between the environment, the epigenome, and health outcomes, with an emphasis on evidence for transgenerational effects of exposures, as well as developmental windows of susceptibility to environmentally-linked epigenetic effects. This volume in the Translational Epigenetics series aides in the development of new therapeutic options meant to reverse inappropriate epigenetic alterations, helping researchers in their efforts prevent and treat a variety of chronic diseases tied to environmental exposures. Offers a thorough discussion of the environmental factors influencing epigenetic mechanisms in early and late life, and in transgenerational inheritance Examines both animal model and human population-based research in environmental epigenetics, highlighting developmental windows of vulnerability to epigenetic modification Features contributions from international experts in the field

Gene Control

Gene Control Book
Author : David Latchman
Publisher : Garland Science
Release : 2018-03-29
ISBN : 1136844201
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gene Control offers a current description of how gene expression is controlled in eukaryotes, reviewing and summarizing the extensive primary literature into an easily accessible format. Gene Control is a comprehensively restructured and expanded edition of Latchman’s Gene Regulation: A Eukaryotic Perspective, Fifth Edition. The first part of the book deals with the fundamental processes of gene control at the levels of chromatin structure, transcription, and post-transcriptional processes. Three pairs of chapters deal with each of these aspects, first describing the basic process itself, followed by the manner in which it is involved in controlling gene expression. The second part of the book deals with the role of gene control in specific biological processes. Certain chapters deal with the importance of gene control in cellular signaling processes and for normal development of the embryo. Another chapter discusses the key roles played by gene-regulatory processes in the specification of differentiated cell types such as muscle cells and neurons. The final chapters discuss the consequences of errors in gene control; the relationship between gene misregulation and human diseases, especially cancer; and potential therapies designed specifically to target particular levels of gene control. Gene Control will be of value to students in biological sciences, as well as to scientists and clinicians interested in how genes are regulated in health and disease.

Human Retrotransposons in Health and Disease

Human Retrotransposons in Health and Disease Book
Author : Gael Cristofari
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-01-06
ISBN : 3319483447
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This unique book explores the role of retrotransposons in human health and disease. The ability of retrotransposons to affect the structure of human genes is recognized since the late 80’s. However, the advances of deep-sequencing technologies have shed new light on the extent of retrotransposon-mediated genome variations. These progresses have also led to the discovery that retrotransposon activity is not restricted to the germline - resulting in inheritable genetic variations - but can also mobilize in somatic tissues, such as embryonic stem cells, neuronal progenitor cells, or in many cancers. This book covers topics related to the effects of retrotransposon insertions, and their consequences on germline and somatic genome dynamics, but also discuss the role and impact of retrotransposons sequences in a broader context, including a number of novel topics that emerged recently (long non-coding RNA, neuronal disorders, exaptation) with unexpected connections between retrotransposons, stem cell maintenance, placentation, circadian cycles or aging.

AGO Driven Non Coding RNAs

AGO Driven Non Coding RNAs Book
Author : Bibekanand Mallick
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-01-20
ISBN : 0128156708
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The ‘RNA world’ hypothesis that proposed RNA molecules as the first form of genetic material was put forwarded in the late 1980s but got impetus only recently when high-throughput sequencing technologies began unearthing new types of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) transcripts in higher eukaryotes. Till then, research on ncRNAs were primarily confined to transfer RNAs and, ribosomal RNAs, which act as the messengers of the protein synthesis and allow translation of genetic information encoded by DNA into proteins. In recent years, the integration of high-throughput genomic technologies with molecular biology and omics sciences have revolutionized the fields of ncRNA research by identifying the hidden treasures of several new types of ncRNAs encoded in the genomes of several organisms and decrypting their versatile roles in gene expression and epigenetics. Among these, two small endogenous ncRNAs, namely microRNAs (miRNAs) and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) that drive argonaute (AGO) family of proteins namely Ago and Piwi respectively and silence the expression of genes have geared up molecular and disease biology research in recent years. Both miRNAs and piRNAs are expressed in higher eukaryotes, including human and act as cellular rheostats by regulating the expression of significant fraction of genes encoded in the genomes. The aberrant expressions of these small ncRNAs within the cells cause various abnormalities and diseases including cancer. Manipulating their aberrant expression or function can serve as potential novel diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers and bring in new therapeutic strategies for multiple human diseases. This can be further translated from bench-side to clinic for improving human health. This book captures the essence of the pioneering work of some of the world’s leading researchers showcasing the scientific excitements surrounding the evolving regulatory roles of miRNAs and piRNAs highlighting their potential towards the diagnosis and therapeutics of various diseases. The book is geared towards scientists, students, and will particularly appeal to active investigators in RNA biology, molecular biology, cancer research as well as clinicians and will provide them a comprehensive view of recent discoveries and research progresses to utilize miRNAs, piRNAs and their interacting proteins, Ago and Piwi for diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutics of diseases. Provides a unified cutting-edge resource for both miRNAs and piRNAs, two promising AGO-clade small ncRNAs, their functions and potential applications Showcase high-throughput technologies and other approaches for discovery of these small ncRNAs and their targets Unveils the diverse molecular mechanisms by which miRNAs and piRNAs regulate gene expression in animal cells Showcase recent discoveries on involvement of Argonaute and Piwi proteins in different biological processes and diseases as well as their possible use in diagnosis Report breakthroughs in the use of small ncRNAs for diagnosis and personalized therapy

The mRNA Metabolism in Human Disease

The mRNA Metabolism in Human Disease Book
Author : Luísa Romão
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-07-24
ISBN : 3030199665
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The eukaryotic gene expression pathway involves a number of interlinked steps, with messenger RNA (mRNA) being the key intermediate. The precursor mRNA is transcribed from DNA, processed by removal of introns and addition of the cap structure and the poly(A) tail. The mature mRNA is then exported to the cytoplasm where it is translated into protein and finally degraded. In this process, mRNA is associated with RNA-binding proteins forming ribonucleoprotein complexes, whose protein content evolves throughout the lifetime of the mRNA. While the complexity of eukaryotic gene expression allows the production of proteins to be controlled at many levels, it also makes the process vulnerable to errors. Although eukaryotic cells have evolved elaborate mRNA quality control mechanisms that ensure the fidelity of gene expression, some defects are not detected, thus affecting mRNA metabolism. This condition plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of several disease processes, such as neurodegeneration and oncogenesis. Besides, exciting recent data have shown that cellular RNAs can be modified post-transcriptionally via dynamic and reversible chemical modifications, the so-called epitranscriptome. These modifications can alter mRNA structure, being able to modulate different steps of the mRNA metabolism that can be associated with various human diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and cancer. This book provides a collection of novel studies and hypotheses aimed to define the pathophysiological consequences of altered mRNA metabolism events in human cells, and is written for a wide spectrum of readers in the field of gene expression regulation. The last chapter highlights how the discovery of disease-causing defects (or modifications) in mRNA can provide a variety of therapeutic targets that can be used for the development of new RNA-based therapeutics. Hopefully, it may also contribute to inspire the drug-developing scientific community.

The Human Genome in Health and Disease

The Human Genome in Health and Disease Book
Author : Tore Samuelsson
Publisher : Garland Science
Release : 2019-02-07
ISBN : 0429667019
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The human genome is a linear sequence of roughly 3 billion bases and information regarding this genome is accumulating at an astonishing rate. Inspired by these advances, The Human Genome in Health and Disease: A Story of Four Letters explores the intimate link between sequence information and biological function. A range of sequence-based functional units of the genome are discussed and illustrated with inherited disorders and cancer. In addition, the book considers valuable medical applications related to human genome sequencing, such as gene therapy methods and the identification of causative mutations in rare genetic disorders. The primary audiences of the book are students of genetics, biology, medicine, molecular biology and bioinformatics. Richly illustrated with review questions provided for each chapter, the book helps students without previous studies of genetics and molecular biology. It may also be of benefit for advanced non-academics, which in the era of personal genomics, want to learn more about their genome. Key selling features: Molecular sequence perspective, explaining the relationship between DNA sequence motifs and biological function Aids in understanding the functional impact of mutations and genetic variants Material presented at basic level, making it accessible to students without previous studies of genetics and molecular biology Richly illustrated with questions provided to each chapter

Transcriptomics and Gene Regulation

Transcriptomics and Gene Regulation Book
Author : Jiaqian Wu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-11-17
ISBN : 9401774501
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume focuses on modern computational and statistical tools for translational gene expression and regulation research to improve prognosis, diagnostics, prediction of severity, and therapies for human diseases. It introduces some of state of the art technologies as well as computational and statistical tools for translational bioinformatics in the areas of gene transcription and regulation, including the tools for next generation sequencing analyses, alternative spicing, the modeling of signaling pathways, network analyses in predicting disease genes, as well as protein and gene expression data integration in complex human diseases etc. The book is particularly useful for researchers and students in the field of molecular biology, clinical biology and bioinformatics, as well as physicians etc. Dr. Jiaqian Wu is assistant professor in the Vivian L. Smith Department of Neurosurgery and Center for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine, University of Texas Health Science Centre, Houston, TX, USA.​

Human Epigenetics How Science Works

Human Epigenetics  How Science Works Book
Author : Carsten Carlberg,Ferdinand Molnár
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-09-24
ISBN : 3030229076
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The view “It’s all in our genes and we cannot change it” developed in the past 150 years since Gregor Mendel’s experiments with flowering pea plants. However, there is a special form of genetics, referred to as epigenetics, which does not involve any change of our genes but regulates how and when they are used. In the cell nucleus our genes are packed into chromatin, which is a complex of histone proteins and genomic DNA, representing the molecular basis of epigenetics. Our environment and lifestyle decisions influence the epigenetics of our cells and organs, i.e. epigenetics changes dynamically throughout our whole life. Thus, we have the chance to change our epigenetics in a positive as well as negative way and present the onset of diseases, such a type 2 diabetes or cancer. This textbook provides a molecular explanation how our genome is connected with environmental signals. It outlines that epigenetic programming is a learning process that results in epigenetic memory in each of the cells of our body. The central importance of epigenetics during embryogenesis and cellular differentiation as well as in the process of aging and the risk for the development of cancer are discussed. Moreover, the role of the epigenome as a molecular storage of cellular events not only in the brain but also in metabolic organs and in the immune system is described. The book represents an updated but simplified version of our textbook “Human Epigenomics” (ISBN 978-981-10-7614-8). The first five chapters explain the molecular basis of epigenetics, while the following seven chapters provide examples for the impact of epigenetics in human health and disease.

Centromeres and Kinetochores

Centromeres and Kinetochores Book
Author : Ben E. Black
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-08-23
ISBN : 3319585924
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the latest advances concerning the regulation of chromosome segregation during cell division by means of centromeres and kinetochores. The authors cover both state-of-the-art techniques and a range of species and model systems, shedding new light on the molecular mechanisms controlling the transmission of genetic material between cell divisions and from parent to offspring. The chapters cover five major areas related to the current study of centromeres and kinetochores: 1) their genetic and epigenetic features, 2) key breakthroughs at the molecular, proteomic, imaging and biochemical level, 3) the constitutive centromere proteins, 4) the role of centromere proteins in the physical process of chromosome segregation and its careful orchestration through elaborate regulation, and 5) intersections with reproductive biology, human health and disease, as well as chromosome evolution. The book offers an informative and provocative guide for newcomers as well as those already acquainted with the field.