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Rhinovirus Infections

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Rhinovirus Infections

Rhinovirus Infections Book
Author : Nathan Bartlett,Peter Wark,Darryl Knight
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-06-12
ISBN : 0128164182
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rhinovirus Infections: Rethinking the Impact on Human Health and Disease provides a timely review of the impact of rhinovirus infections on human health. It identifies disease mechanisms relating to the virus, human host and environmental factors. This viewpoint allows us to look forward to the development of treatments for a virus for which treatment options are currently non-existent. By providing detailed insights into this virus, its host and the environmental factors that play into rhinovirus induced diseases, this book explains disease mechanisms and summarizes existing and developing therapeutic approaches for better research, diagnosis and potential treatments. Provides insight into viral diversity and identification of virulence factors, showing how the subtype of rhinovirus affects susceptibility to diseases Explores host and environmental factors, explaining how age, health status, genotype, lifestyle and environment influence the outcome of a rhinovirus infection Covers vaccines and treatments, discussing the health burden associated with rhinovirus infections and the driving development of an increasing array of treatment approaches

Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Human Rhinovirus Infections Among Patients with Hematologic Malignancy

Clinical and Molecular Epidemiology of Human Rhinovirus Infections Among Patients with Hematologic Malignancy Book
Author : Samantha E. Jacobs,Cornell University. Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Background. Human rhinoviruses (HRVs) are a common cause of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in patients with hematologic malignancy (HM). Predictors of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) including the impact of HRV species and serotypes are poorly understood. Methods. From April 2012 - March 2013, HRV-positive respiratory specimens from symptomatic HM patients were molecularly characterized by analysis of partial viral protein (VP) 1 or VP4 gene sequence. HRV LRTI risk-factors and outcomes were analyzed using multivariable logistic regression and the Kaplan-Meier method, respectively. Results. One hundred and ten HM patients presented with HRV URTI (N=78) and HRV LRTI (N=32) during the study period. Hypoalbuminemia (OR 3.0; 95% CI, 1.0 - 9.2; p=0.05) was independently associated with LRTI, but other clinical and laboratory markers of host immunity did not differ significantly between patients with URTI versus LRTI. Co-detection of bacterial pathogens was common in LRTI cases (25%). Among 92 typeable respiratory specimens, there were 58 (64%) HRV-A, 12 (13%) HRV-B, and 21 (23%) HRV-C infections, and one Enterovirus 68 infection. Rates of LRTI among HRV-A (29%), HRV-B (17%), and HRV-C (29%) were similar. HRV-A infections occurred year-round while HRV-B and HRV-C infections clustered in the late fall and winter. Conclusions. HRVs cause LRTI in HM patients. Illness severity is not attributable to HRV species or type. The frequent detection of bacterial co-pathogens in HRV LRTIs further substantiates the hypothesis that HRVs predispose to bacterial superinfection of the lower airways, similar to that of other community-acquired respiratory viruses including influenza and respiratory syncytial virus.

Common Cold

Common Cold Book
Author : Ronald Eccles,Olaf Weber
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-11-16
ISBN : 9783764399122
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The common cold is unlike any other human disease because of two f- tors: firstly, it is arguably the most common human disease and, secondly, it is one of the most complex diseases because of the number of viruses that cause the familiar syndrome of sneezing, sore throat, runny nose and nasal congestion. These two factors have made a ‘cure’ for the common cold one of the most difficult scientific and clinical endeavours (a topic often d- cussed in the popular media, where comparisons are made with the ease of putting a man on the moon). The present book brings together a wide range of experts from epidemiologists to virologists and pharmacologists to look at recent advances in our knowledge of the common cold. In some respects the book is unique, as it focuses on the common cold, a syndrome so familiar to the layperson but one that receives little attention from the scientist and clinician. The common cold can be viewed from many different aspects as illustrated in Figure 1. The core knowledge for understanding the common cold must first come from virology and this is discussed in several chapters of the book. There have been major advances in this field because of the use of new methods of detecting viruses such as polymerase chain reaction techniques that have greatly aided our understanding of the epidemiology of viruses associated with common cold.

The Role of IL 15 in Response to Rhinovirus Infections

The Role of IL 15 in Response to Rhinovirus Infections Book
Author : Annabelle Tan Jayaraman
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

(RV) cause the common cold and are major precipitants of asthma exacerbations. The underlying mechanisms of RV-induced airways disease are unclear. IL-15 is a proinflammatory cytokine produced during viral infections and plays a key role in the regulation of NK cells. Using mouse models of RV infection and RV-induced asthma exacerbation we examined the role of IL-15 and its importance for NK cell responses during RV infections in allergic and non-allergic airways. We demonstrate RV-induced IL-15 upregulation in the airway and lungs of BALB/c mice at day 1 after infection and accumulation of NK cells in the airway and lungs at days 1-2 and 2-4 respectively. The NK cells exhibited an activated phenotype characterised by upregulated (069, IFN-y and GranzymeB expression. Blocking IL-15 upon intranasal administration of an IL-15 neutralising antibody inhibited the NK cell response to RV infection, which was associated with deficient IFN-y production and increased expression of Th2 mediators. IL-15Ra knockout mice lack NK cells and also demonstrated deficient IFN-y and increased Th2 responses to RV infection; these mice also exhibited deficient (08+ T cell responses and an increased viral load. Similar results were observed in RV infected IFNAR1 ko mice, which was associated with deficient IL- lS upregulation. We suggest that RV-induced IL-15 is mediated by type I interferon signalling, and is necessary for NK cell responses and early IFN-y production during RV-1B infection, which drives development of appropriate Th1 antiviral responses. In the absence of this pathway, Th2 responses result and are associated with impaired antiviral immunity. To examine the interaction between allergen driven Th2 immunity and RV infection, we employed a RV-induced asthma exacerbation model. Unexpectedly, RV infected allergen challenged mice, despite having increased viral load, demonstrated increased IL-15 expression and NK cell responses, revealing a novel interaction between allergic responses and antiviral immunity.

The Role of B Cells During Rhinovirus Infections

The Role of B Cells During Rhinovirus Infections Book
Author : Oliver Fabian Wirz
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Role of B Cells During Rhinovirus Infections book written by Oliver Fabian Wirz, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Patterns of Illness in Rhinovirus Infections of Military Personnel

Patterns of Illness in Rhinovirus Infections of Military Personnel Book
Author : B. R. Forsyth,H. H. Bloom,K. M. Johnson,R. M. Chanock,United States. Naval Medical Field Research Laboratory
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1963
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Patterns of Illness in Rhinovirus Infections of Military Personnel book written by B. R. Forsyth,H. H. Bloom,K. M. Johnson,R. M. Chanock,United States. Naval Medical Field Research Laboratory, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Human Rhinovirus New Insights for the Healthcare Professional 2012 Edition

Human Rhinovirus  New Insights for the Healthcare Professional  2012 Edition Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
Release : 2012-12-10
ISBN : 146498719X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Human Rhinovirus: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyPaper™ that delivers timely, authoritative, and intensively focused information about Human Rhinovirus in a compact format. The editors have built Human Rhinovirus: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Human Rhinovirus in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Human Rhinovirus: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

The Incubation Period of Experimental Rhinovirus Infections

The Incubation Period of Experimental Rhinovirus Infections Book
Author : James Mitchell Harris
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1995
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Incubation Period of Experimental Rhinovirus Infections book written by James Mitchell Harris, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Rhinovirus New Insights for the Healthcare Professional 2012 Edition

Rhinovirus  New Insights for the Healthcare Professional  2012 Edition Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
Release : 2012-12-10
ISBN : 146498574X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rhinovirus: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition is a ScholarlyPaper™ that delivers timely, authoritative, and intensively focused information about Rhinovirus in a compact format. The editors have built Rhinovirus: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Rhinovirus in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Rhinovirus: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional / 2012 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Rhinovirus Infections in an Isolated Antarctic Station

Rhinovirus Infections in an Isolated Antarctic Station Book
Author : David M. Warshauer,Elliot C. Dick,Adrian D. Mandel,Timothy C. Flynn,Richard S. Jerde
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1989
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Tested the belief that living in polar isolation causes high susceptibility to respiratory illness at McMurdo Station in 1976.

SARS MERS and other Viral Lung Infections

SARS  MERS and other Viral Lung Infections Book
Author : David S. Hui,Giovanni A. Rossi,Sebastian L. Johnston
Publisher : European Respiratory Society
Release : 2016-06-01
ISBN : 1849840709
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Viral respiratory tract infections are important and common causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. In the past two decades, several novel viral respiratory infections have emerged with epidemic potential that threaten global health security. This Monograph aims to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of severe acute respiratory syndrome, Middle East respiratory syndrome and other viral respiratory infections, including seasonal influenza, avian influenza, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus, through six chapters written by authoritative experts from around the globe.

Translational Control in Eukaryotes

Translational Control in Eukaryotes Book
Author : Alessandra Gradi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"In contrast to cellular mRNAs, entero- and rhinovirus RNAs do not possess a cap structure, and their translation is mediated by ribosome binding to an internal ribosome entry site present within the 5' untranslated region. The cleavage of eIF4G induced by the viral protease 2A is thought to be responsible for the shutoff of host protein synthesis in entero- and rhinovirus-infected cells. Nonetheless, in virus-infected cells, a lack of correlation between eIF4GI cleavage and inhibition of host translation is observed. eIF4GII, like eIF4GI, is also cleaved upon viral infection. Here, I present data showing that the kinetics of cleavage of eIF4GII perfectly coincide with the inhibition of cellular protein synthesis observed after entero- and rhinovirus infection. Thus, proteolysis of both eIF4GI and eIF4GII appears to be required for the shutoff of host protein synthesis after entero- and rhinovirus infections." --

Viral and Other Infections of the Human Respiratory Tract

Viral and Other Infections of the Human Respiratory Tract Book
Author : S. Myint,David Taylor-Robinson
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401179301
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is a festschrift to mark the career of ogy, immunology and clinical aspects of each Dr David Tyrrell, eminent virologist and group. There are also more general chapters physician. Almost all of the contributors have overviewing the clinical manifestations, treat been colleagues or students at some time ment and pathophysiology of respiratory during his career. Unlike most festschrifts, virus infections. In addition, chapters in however, the essays have been integrated to which psychological aspects and the ethical produce a comprehensive book that covers use of human volunteers are discussed will be the entire field of non-bacterial infections of of interest to all those involved with respira the human respiratory tract. This is a measure tory infectious agents. of the breadth of interest of the research We hope also that this book serves as a undertaken by David, spanning a period of fitting tribute to a man who is a true poly over 40 years. math: a physician, researcher, teacher, We hope that this book will be of interest mentor, linguist and ambassador for science, to microbiologists, virologists and in particu among other things. To those of us who have lar, to physicians. All the major virus groups contributed to this book, he is even more: a are covered, as well as chlamydial and friend.

Viral Infections in Asthma An Issue of Immunology and Allergy Clinics

Viral Infections in Asthma  An Issue of Immunology and Allergy Clinics Book
Author : Shyam Mohapatra,Gary Hellermann
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2010-11-28
ISBN : 1455700371
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This issue, Guest Edited by Drs. Shyam Mohapatra and Gary Hellermann, will include topics such as: Virus-induced airway injury and asthma inception; Pediatric infectious diseases and asthma; Rhinoviruses and inception or exacerbation of asthma; Respiratory syncytial virus infections in the adult asthmatic—role of viral subversion and host susceptibility in RSV infection; New rhinovirus clades and their significance in asthma exacerbation and airway remodeling; Metapneumovirus and asthma.

The Effects of Functional P2X7 on Asthma and Rhinovirus Infection

The Effects of Functional P2X7 on Asthma and Rhinovirus Infection Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Asthma is a disease of the airways characterized by airflow limitations and shortness of breath. A history of wheezing in early childhood with human rhinovirus (HRV), the cause of the common cold, is strongly associated with asthma. The presence of allergic sensitization to multiple allergens has also been implicated in asthma inception. The interactions between an individual's genotype and these extrinsic exposures have helped frame the interdependency and variability of the causes of asthma. Sudden worsening of asthma symptoms, or exacerbations, are triggered by viral infections or other environmental exposures, including allergens or smoke. However, the understanding of the mechanisms linking infection to exacerbations is incomplete and only some asthmatics will exacerbate from the same exposure or infection. Both asthma inception and exacerbations demonstrate associations with HRV infections and subsequent inflammatory responses. During infection, cellular damage occurs, releasing intracellular contents of cells into the extracellular space. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a prominent danger molecule that signals through a variety of purinergic receptors. Specific investigation of purinergic receptor P2X7 has revealed associations with production of interleukin (IL)-1 family cytokines and control of various pathogens. These findings strengthen the possibility of a role for P2X7 in asthma inception and exacerbations by altering the host response during inflammation. In the following chapters, I present studies on the role of P2X7 in asthma inception and response to HRV infection. I utilize a functional assay identifying P2X7 loss-of-function alleles to demonstrate a protective association between low P2X7 function and asthma inception in childhood (CHAPTER TWO). The functional assay is well adapted to analysis of subjects in multi-center clinical trials (APPENDIX A). I then show that although responses to symptomatic viral infections are similar between asthmatic and non-asthmatic adults, elevated nasal cytokines among asthmatics - including those regulated by P2X7 - are associated with exacerbations (CHAPTER THREE). Finally, I present evidence for functional P2X7 in human respiratory epithelium (CHAPTER FOUR). The sum of this work strengthens the foundation of a role for P2X7 in asthma and in response to infection and directs future studies on alternative cell populations including dendritic cells (CHAPTER FIVE).

How Pathogenic Viruses Work

How Pathogenic Viruses Work Book
Author : Lauren Sompayrac
Publisher : Jones & Bartlett Learning
Release : 2002
ISBN : 9780763720827
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A clever, accessible overview that uses a survey of 12 of the most common viral infections, to teach the fundamental principles of human virology.

Viral Infections of Humans

Viral Infections of Humans Book
Author : Alfred S. Evans,Richard A. Kaslow
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1997-06-30
ISBN : 9780306448553
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An exhaustive reference on epidemiological aspects of viral infections in humans, with section on concepts and methods, acute viral infections, viral infections and malignant diseases, and chronic diseases. Chapters on specific viruses offer a common framework of material on methods of epidemiologic

The Microbe Host Interface in Respiratory Tract Infections

The Microbe Host Interface in Respiratory Tract Infections Book
Author : Jan L. L. Kimpen,Octavio Ramilo
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2004-12-22
ISBN : 9780849336461
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The molecular pathogenesis of microbial agents responsible for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) has been the focus of much research in recent years. The emphasis has been on developing new treatments such as novel antimicrobials and more effective vaccines. Significant attention has also been paid to improving molecular diagnostic methods to identify RTI-causing microbes, as well as understanding the host response to them. The Microbe-Host Interface in Respiratory Tract Infections presents an overview of the current knowledge in this area. It provides us with the first coherent picture of emerging strategies for controlling the microbes responsible for RTIs. This comprehensive volume is divided into three sections: the first reviews topics of general interest; the second focuses on bacterial and atypical RTIs; while the final section covers viral RTIs. Each of the chapters is the work of two or more of the top scientists in the field writing about their own pioneering research. Various chapters comment on vaccines, antibiotics, and molecular diagnostic methods. This cutting-edge work is essential reading for research microbiologists and other scientists involved in the investigation and treatment of RTIs.

Dynamics of Positive strand RNA Viruses

Dynamics of Positive strand RNA Viruses Book
Author : Huicheng Shi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A major impact of viruses on humans is that they cause a variety of diseases including AIDS, flu, cancer, the common cold, and most recently, COVID-19. For many of the diseases, there are no vaccines or treatments. To develop the therapeutics, it is necessary to understand the growth of viruses in their native environment, host cells. The complexity of this environment adds difficulties to the comprehension of the viruses. Most research efforts focus on the molecular mechanisms behind the virus-host cell interactions and organ or the clinical level response of infected subjects, but relatively less attention has been paid to the middle of the spectrum, the spread of virus infection over multiple infection cycles, especially in a manner that is both dynamic and quantitative. To help mitigate the gap in our knowledge, we develop here experimental and computational methods to research the viral dynamics of two positive-strand RNA viruses within and beyond the single cycle.First, viral protein expression dynamics were measured utilizing a recombinant reporter strain of human rhinovirus A16 (RV-A16) infecting HeLa cells as an example. Rhinovirus is a positive-strand RNA virus, and its infection causes the common cold, which is frequent in both adults and children. No antiviral has been approved to treat rhinovirus infection, so researchers are interested in host factors involved in rhinovirus infection as potential therapeutic targets. In our study, infected cells were automatically imaged over time to detect the fluorescence level from the reporter virus, which is a measurement of viral protein expression. A set of parameters were defined to describe the timing and magnitude of the viral protein expression dynamics. The numbers of fluorescent positive cells detected in the same frames over differently treated cells depict the susceptibility under different conditions. Cells treated with a translation inhibitor had a lower susceptibility and those that were infected were slower in the timing of viral protein expression. Cells in different stages of the cell cycle were similarly susceptible to infection and displayed similar viral protein dynamics. Serum starvation reduced the susceptibility but did not change the viral protein expression in the first cycle of infection. However, for the second cycle, the infection in serum-starved cells was earlier. If the mechanisms behind the serum related phenomena can be identified, drugs to promote resistance to or slow the spread of rhinovirus might be discovered. The discovery of the phenomena would not be possible without the study of the multi-cycle dynamics of the rhinovirus with this reporter strain. The second example was the single-cycle and multi-cycle virus growth dynamics of another positive-strand RNA virus, the Zika virus. We are concerned about the Zika virus because its infection in pregnant women increases the risk of defects in newborns. Two strains of the Zika virus that belong to different lineages were used to infect the Vero cells respectively. Their infection dynamics not only characterize the distinction between the two lineages but also help identify optimization strategies for vaccine production. In single-cycle infections, the infection of African strain resulted in slower virus production till 20 hours post-infection (h.p.i.) but higher final virus titer. These agree with the viral protein expression measured by immunocytochemical staining and fluorescent microscopy that cells infected by the African strain had a lower fluorescent positive rate and a lower mean intensity at the early stage. For multi-cycle infections, both strains had similar dynamics, but the African strain had a higher titer. The African strain had a lower extracellular degradation rate in comparison to the Asian strain. Finally, the growth curves of the Zika virus were fitted by ordinary differential equation (ODE) models using three models of delay: fixed, exponential-distributed, and gamma-distributed. For single-cycle growth, the fixed delay model recapitulated the growth of both strains without contradicting cell death curves. The models did not perform ideally for multi-cycle growth. The fixed and exponential-distributed delay models worked the best for the African and the Asian strains, respectively. Sensitivity analysis revealed that changing the degradation of the virus has the largest effect on the titer, which is worth noticing in vaccine production. The models promote our comprehension of the growth kinetics of the Zika virus and can be applied to understand the effect of antivirals and optimize vaccine production processes. Overall, the methods here demonstrated the potential of image-based quantitative measurements and mathematical models in analyzing single-cycle and multi-cycle positive-strand RNA virus infection. This work also provides a basis for further quantitative studies of virus-host interaction at the tissue level.