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Retinal Computation

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Retinal Computation

Retinal Computation Book
Author : Greg Schwartz
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-08-07
ISBN : 0128231777
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Retinal Computation summarizes current progress in defining the computations performed by the retina, also including the synaptic and circuit mechanisms by which they are implemented. Each chapter focuses on a single retinal computation that includes the definition of the computation and its neuroethological purpose, along with the available information on its known and unknown neuronal mechanisms. All chapters contain end-of-chapter questions associated with a landmark paper, as well as programming exercises. This book is written for advanced graduate students, researchers and ophthalmologists interested in vision science or computational neuroscience of sensory systems. While the typical textbook's description of the retina is akin to a biological video camera, the real retina is actually the world’s most complex image processing machine. As part of the central nervous system, the retina converts patterns of light at the input into a rich palette of representations at the output. The parallel streams of information in the optic nerve encode features like color, contrast, orientation of edges, and direction of motion. Image processing in the retina is undeniably complex, but as one of the most accessible parts of the central nervous system, the tools to study retinal circuits with unprecedented precision are up to the task. This book provides a practical guide and resource about the current state of the field of retinal computation. Provides a practical guide on the field of retinal computation Summarizes and clearly explains important topics such as luminance, contrast, spatial features, motion and other computations Contains discussion questions, a landmark paper, and programming exercises within each chapter

New Trends in Neural Computation

New Trends in Neural Computation Book
Author : International Workshop on Artificial Neural Networks$ (1993 : Sitges, Espagne),Jose Mira,Joan Cabestany,Alberto Prieto
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1993-05-27
ISBN : 9783540567981
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neural computation arises from the capacity of nervous tissue to process information and accumulate knowledge in an intelligent manner. Conventional computational machines have encountered enormous difficulties in duplicatingsuch functionalities. This has given rise to the development of Artificial Neural Networks where computation is distributed over a great number of local processing elements with a high degree of connectivityand in which external programming is replaced with supervised and unsupervised learning. The papers presented in this volume are carefully reviewed versions of the talks delivered at the International Workshop on Artificial Neural Networks (IWANN '93) organized by the Universities of Catalonia and the Spanish Open University at Madrid and held at Barcelona, Spain, in June 1993. The 111 papers are organized in seven sections: biological perspectives, mathematical models, learning, self-organizing networks, neural software, hardware implementation, and applications (in five subsections: signal processing and pattern recognition, communications, artificial vision, control and robotics, and other applications).

Computational Retinal Image Analysis

Computational Retinal Image Analysis Book
Author : Emanuele Trucco,Tom MacGillivray,Yanwu Xu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-06-29
ISBN : 0081028164
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Computational Retinal Image Analysis: Tools, Applications and Perspectives gives an overview of contemporary retinal image analysis (RIA) in the context of healthcare informatics and artificial intelligence. Specifically, it provides a history of the field, the clinical motivation for RIA, technical foundations (image acquisition modalities, instruments), computational techniques for essential operations, lesion detection (e.g. optic disc in glaucoma, microaneurysms in diabetes) and validation, as well as insights into current investigations drawing from artificial intelligence and big data. This comprehensive reference is ideal for researchers and graduate students in retinal image analysis, computational ophthalmology, artificial intelligence, biomedical engineering, health informatics, and more. Provides a unique, well-structured and integrated overview of retinal image analysis Gives insights into future areas, such as large-scale screening programs, precision medicine, and computer-assisted eye care Includes plans and aspirations of companies and professional bodies

On Modeling the Spatiotemporal Processing Characteristics of the Retina

On Modeling the Spatiotemporal Processing Characteristics of the Retina Book
Author : Matthias Wulf
Publisher : IOS Press
Release : 2002
ISBN : 9783898382540
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download On Modeling the Spatiotemporal Processing Characteristics of the Retina book written by Matthias Wulf, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Brain and the Gaze

Brain and the Gaze Book
Author : Jan Lauwereyns
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2012-09-07
ISBN : 0262304619
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A radically integrative account of visual perception, grounded in neuroscience but drawing on insights from philosophy and psychology. How do we gain access to things as they are? Although we routinely take our self-made pictures to be veridical representations of reality, in actuality we choose (albeit unwittingly) or construct what we see. By movements of the eyes, the direction of our gaze, we create meaning. In Brain and the Gaze, Jan Lauwereyns offers a novel reformulation of perception and its neural underpinnings, focusing on the active nature of perception. In his investigation of active perception and its brain mechanisms, Lauwereyns offers the gaze as the principal paradigm for perception. In a radically integrative account, grounded in neuroscience but drawing on insights from philosophy and psychology, he discusses the dynamic and constrained nature of perception; the complex information processing at the level of the retina; the active nature of vision; the intensive nature of representations; the gaze of others as visual stimulus; and the intentionality of vision and consciousness. An engaging point of entry to the cognitive neuroscience of perception, written for neuroscientists but illuminated by insights from thinkers ranging from William James to Slavoj Žižek, Brain and the Gaze will give new impetus to research and theory in the field.

Retinal Degenerative Diseases

Retinal Degenerative Diseases Book
Author : John D. Ash,Robert E. Anderson,Matthew M. LaVail,Catherine Bowes Rickman,Joe G. Hollyfield,Christian Grimm
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-05-02
ISBN : 3319754025
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The blinding diseases of inherited retinal degenerations have no treatments, and age-related macular degeneration has no cures, despite the fact that it is an epidemic among the elderly, with 1 in 3-4 affected by the age of 70. The RD Symposium will focus on the exciting new developments aimed at understanding these diseases and providing therapies for them. Since most major scientists in the field of retinal degenerations attend the biennial RD Symposia, they are known by most as the “best” and “most important” meetings in the field. The volume will present representative state-of-the-art research in almost all areas of retinal degenerations, ranging from cytopathologic, physiologic, diagnostic and clinical aspects; animal models; mechanisms of cell death; candidate genes, cloning, mapping and other aspects of molecular genetics; and developing potential therapeutic measures such as gene therapy and neuroprotective agents for potential pharmaceutical therapy. While advances in these areas of retinal degenerations will be described, there will be many new topics that either were in their infancy or did not exist at the time of the last RD Symposium, RD2014. These include the role of inflammation and immunity, as well as other basic mechanisms, in age-related macular degeneration, several new aspects of gene therapy, and revolutionary new imaging and functional testing that will have a huge impact on the diagnosis and following the course of retinal degenerations, as well as to provide new quantitative endpoints for clinical trials. The retina is an approachable part of the central nervous system (CNS), and there is a major interest in neuroprotective and gene therapy for CNS diseases and neurodegenerations, in general. It should be noted that with successful and exciting initial clinical trials in neuroprotective and gene therapy, including the restoration of sight in blind children, the retinal degeneration therapies are leading the way towards new therapeutic measures for neurodegenerations of the CNS. Many of the successes recently reported in these areas of retinal degeneration sprang from collaborations established at previous RD Symposia, and many of those will be reported at the RD2018 meeting and included in the proposed volume. We anticipate the excitement of those working in the field and those afflicted with retinal degenerations will be reflected in the volume.

Visual Prosthesis and Ophthalmic Devices

Visual Prosthesis and Ophthalmic Devices Book
Author : Joyce Tombran-Tink,Colin J. Barnstable,Joseph F. Rizzo
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-08
ISBN : 1597454494
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume details the latest technology in treating eye injuries and infections. It provides insight into the most up-to-date and established treatment options. The volume focuses on what can currently be achieved with a variety of ocular prostheses as well as what the future holds. Coverage reviews issues such as intraocular lens implants, biocompatibility of materials, retinal implants, testing models, and software designs.

Natural and Artificial Models in Computation and Biology

Natural and Artificial Models in Computation and Biology Book
Author : Jose Manuel Ferrandez Vicente,Jose Ramon Alvarez Sanchez,Felix de la Paz Lopez,Fco. Javier Toledo Moreo
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-06-03
ISBN : 3642386377
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The two volume-set, LNCS 7930 and LNCS 7931, constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Work-Conference on the Interplay between Natural and Artificial Computation, IWINAC 2013, held in Mallorca, Spain, in June 2013. The 92 revised full papers presented in LNCS 7930 and LNCS 7931 were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The first part, LNCS 7930, entitled "Natural and Artificial Models in Computation and Biology”, includes all the contributions mainly related to the methodological, conceptual, formal, and experimental developments in the fields of neurophysiology and cognitive science. The second part, LNCS 7931, entitled “Natural and Artificial Computation in Engineering and Medical Applications”, contains the papers related to bioinspired programming strategies and all the contributions related to the computational solutions to engineering problems in different application domains, specially Health applications, including the CYTED “Artificial and Natural Computation for Health” (CANS) research network papers. In addition, this two volume-set reflects six interesting areas: cognitive robotics; natural computing; wetware computation; quality of life technologies; biomedical and industrial perception applications; and Web intelligence and neuroscience.

From the Retina to the Neocortex

From the Retina to the Neocortex Book
Author : VAINA
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1468467751
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

David Courtnay Marr was born on January 19, 1945 in Essex, England. He went to the English public school, Rugby, on scholarship and between 1963 and 1966 studied mathematics at Trinity College, Cambridge University where he obtained his B.S. and M.S. degrees. Rather than pursue a Ph. D. in math ematics he preferred to switch to neurophysiology under Giles Brindley. His education involved training in neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology. Marr's Ph. D. work resulted in a theory of the cerebel lar cortex, the essence of which became "A Theory of the Cerebellar Cortex," reproduced in Chapter 1 of this volume with a commentary by Thomas Thach. He wrote a short paper subsequently with Stephen Blomfield, "How the Cere bellum May Be Used," (Chapter 2 in this volume with commentary by Jack Cowan). After obtaining his Ph. D., David Marr accepted an appointment to the scientific staff of the MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology in Cambridge in the division of Cell Biology under Sydney Brenner and Francis Crick. Two other major studies, "Simple Memory: A Theory of the Archicortex" (Chapter 3 in this volume, commented on by Bruce McNaughton and David Willshaw) and "A Theory for Cerebral Neocortex" (Chapter 4 in this volume and commented on by Jack Cowan) followed the cerebellum study.

Computational Vision and Medical Image Processing V

Computational Vision and Medical Image Processing V Book
Author : Joao Tavares,R.M. Natal Jorge
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2015-10-14
ISBN : 1315642794
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

VipIMAGE 2015 contains invited lectures and full papers presented at VIPIMAGE 2015 - V ECCOMAS Thematic Conference on Computational Vision and Medical Image Processing (Tenerife, Canary Islands, Spain, 19-21 October, 2015). International contributions from 19 countries provide a comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in the fields o

Linking the Computational Structure of Variance Adaptation to Biophysical Mechanisms

Linking the Computational Structure of Variance Adaptation to Biophysical Mechanisms Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Stanford University
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neurons have a limited dynamic range. To more efficiently encode the large range of natural inputs, neural circuits adapt by dynamically changing their output range as a function of the input statistics. Variance adaptation provides an informative example of this process, whereby neurons change their response characteristics as a function of variance of their input. When their input distribution changes, sensory systems shift and scale their response curves to efficiently cover the new range of input values and they focus on different segments of the frequency spectrum, for example by choosing to average out the noise in a low signal-to-noise ratio environment by low-pass filtering their input and sacrificing resolution. In multiple sensory systems, adaptation to the variance of a sensory input changes the sensitivity, kinetics and average response over timescales ranging from

Computational Intelligence in Pattern Recognition

Computational Intelligence in Pattern Recognition Book
Author : Asit Kumar Das,Janmenjoy Nayak,Bighnaraj Naik,Soumen Kumar Pati,Danilo Pelusi
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-08-17
ISBN : 9811390428
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents practical development experiences in different areas of data analysis and pattern recognition, focusing on soft computing technologies, clustering and classification algorithms, rough set and fuzzy set theory, evolutionary computations, neural science and neural network systems, image processing, combinatorial pattern matching, social network analysis, audio and video data analysis, data mining in dynamic environments, bioinformatics, hybrid computing, big data analytics and deep learning. It also provides innovative solutions to the challenges in these areas and discusses recent developments.

Computational Analysis of the Human Eye with Applications

Computational Analysis of the Human Eye with Applications Book
Author : Sumeet Dua
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9814340308
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in semi-automated high-throughput image data collection routines, coupled with a decline in storage costs and an increase in high-performance computing solutions have led to an exponential surge in data collected by biomedical scientists and medical practitioners. Interpreting this raw data is a challenging task, and nowhere is this more evident than in the field of opthalmology. The sheer speed at which data on cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and other eye disorders are collected, makes it impossible for the human observer to directly monitor subtle, yet critical details. This book is a novel and well-timed endeavor to present, in an amalgamated format, computational image modeling methods as applied to various extrinsic scientific problems in ophthalmology. It is self-contained and presents a highly comprehensive array of image modeling algorithms and methodologies relevant to ophthalmologic problems. The book is the first of its kind, bringing eye imaging and multi-dimensional hyperspectral imaging and data fusion of the human eye, into focus. The editors are at the top of their fields and bring a strong multidisciplinary synergy to this visionary volume. Their "inverted-pyramid" approach in presenting the content and their focus on core applications will appeal to students and practitioners in the field.

Smart Innovations in Communication and Computational Sciences

Smart Innovations in Communication and Computational Sciences Book
Author : Bijaya Ketan Panigrahi,Munesh C. Trivedi,Krishn K. Mishra,Shailesh Tiwari,Pradeep Kumar Singh
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-07-11
ISBN : 981108971X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book provides insights into International Conference on Smart Innovations in Communications and Computational Sciences (ICSICCS 2017) held at North West Group of Institutions, Punjab, India. It presents new advances and research results in the fields of computer and communication written by leading researchers, engineers and scientists in the domain of interest from around the world. The book includes research work in all the areas of smart innovation, systems and technologies, embedded knowledge and intelligence, innovation and sustainability, advance computing, networking and informatics. It also focuses on the knowledge-transfer methodologies and innovation strategies employed to make this happen effectively. The combination of intelligent systems tools and a broad range of applications introduce a need for a synergy of disciplines from science and technology. Sample areas include, but are not limited to smart hardware, software design, smart computing technologies, intelligent communications and networking, web and informatics and computational sciences.

Neuro vision Systems

Neuro vision Systems Book
Author : Madan M. Gupta,George K. Knopf
Publisher : New York : IEEE Press
Release : 1994
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Neuro vision Systems book written by Madan M. Gupta,George K. Knopf, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Integrating Visual System Mechanisms Computational Models and Algorithms Technologies

Integrating Visual System Mechanisms  Computational Models and Algorithms Technologies Book
Author : Hedva Spitzer,Xavier Otazu,Hagit Hel-Or
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-05-26
ISBN : 2889635104
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Integrating Visual System Mechanisms Computational Models and Algorithms Technologies book written by Hedva Spitzer,Xavier Otazu,Hagit Hel-Or, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Perception First Form of Mind

Perception  First Form of Mind Book
Author : Tyler Burge
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2022-02-23
ISBN : 0198871007
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Tyler Burge offers an agenda-setting, scientifically rigorous account of the most primitive form of representational mind: perception. He explains how perception works and how it relates to other mental capacities--conation, attention, memory, anticipation, affect, learning, imagining--and clarifies the distinction between perceiving and thinking.

Computational Retinal Image Analysis

Computational Retinal Image Analysis Book
Author : Emanuele Trucco,Tom MacGillivray,Yanwu Xu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-11-25
ISBN : 0081028172
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Computational Retinal Image Analysis: Tools, Applications and Perspectives gives an overview of contemporary retinal image analysis (RIA) in the context of healthcare informatics and artificial intelligence. Specifically, it provides a history of the field, the clinical motivation for RIA, technical foundations (image acquisition modalities, instruments), computational techniques for essential operations, lesion detection (e.g. optic disc in glaucoma, microaneurysms in diabetes) and validation, as well as insights into current investigations drawing from artificial intelligence and big data. This comprehensive reference is ideal for researchers and graduate students in retinal image analysis, computational ophthalmology, artificial intelligence, biomedical engineering, health informatics, and more. Provides a unique, well-structured and integrated overview of retinal image analysis Gives insights into future areas, such as large-scale screening programs, precision medicine, and computer-assisted eye care Includes plans and aspirations of companies and professional bodies

Computational Systems Neurobiology

Computational Systems Neurobiology Book
Author : N. Le Novère
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-07-20
ISBN : 9400738587
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Computational neurosciences and systems biology are among the main domains of life science research where mathematical modeling made a difference. This book introduces the many different types of computational studies one can develop to study neuronal systems. It is aimed at undergraduate students starting their research in computational neurobiology or more senior researchers who would like, or need, to move towards computational approaches. Based on their specific project, the readers would then move to one of the more specialized excellent textbooks available in the field. The first part of the book deals with molecular systems biology. Functional genomics is introduced through examples of transcriptomics and proteomics studies of neurobiological interest. Quantitative modelling of biochemical systems is presented in homogeneous compartments and using spatial descriptions. A second part deals with the various approaches to model single neuron physiology, and naturally moves to neuronal networks. A division is focused on the development of neurons and neuronal systems and the book closes on a series of methodological chapters. From the molecules to the organ, thinking at the level of systems is transforming biology and its impact on society. This book will help the reader to hop on the train directly in the tank engine.

Computational Methods to Study the Structure and Dynamics of Biomolecules and Biomolecular Processes

Computational Methods to Study the Structure and Dynamics of Biomolecules and Biomolecular Processes Book
Author : Adam Liwo
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-07-17
ISBN : 3642285546
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the second half of the 20th century machine computations have played a critical role in science and engineering. Computer-based techniques have become especially important in molecular biology, since they often represent the only viable way to gain insights into the behavior of a biological system as a whole. The complexity of biological systems, which usually needs to be analyzed on different time- and size-scales and with different levels of accuracy, requires the application of different approaches, ranging from comparative analysis of sequences and structural databases, to the analysis of networks of interdependence between cell components and processes, through coarse-grained modeling to atomically detailed simulations, and finally to molecular quantum mechanics. This book provides a comprehensive overview of modern computer-based techniques for computing the structure, properties and dynamics of biomolecules and biomolecular processes. The twenty-two chapters, written by scientists from all over the world, address the theory and practice of computer simulation techniques in the study of biological phenomena. The chapters are grouped into four thematic sections dealing with the following topics: the methodology of molecular simulations; applications of molecular simulations; bioinformatics methods and use of experimental information in molecular simulations; and selected applications of molecular quantum mechanics. The book includes an introductory chapter written by Harold A. Scheraga, one of the true pioneers in simulation studies of biomacromolecules.