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Retinal Computation

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Retinal Computation

Retinal Computation Book
Author : Greg Schwartz
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-09-03
ISBN : 9780128198964
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Retinal Computation summarizes current progress in defining the computations performed by the retina, also including the synaptic and circuit mechanisms by which they are implemented. Each chapter focuses on a single retinal computation that includes the definition of the computation and its neuroethological purpose, along with the available information on its known and unknown neuronal mechanisms. All chapters contain end-of-chapter questions associated with a landmark paper, as well as programming exercises. This book is written for advanced graduate students, researchers and ophthalmologists interested in vision science or computational neuroscience of sensory systems. While the typical textbook's description of the retina is akin to a biological video camera, the real retina is actually the world's most complex image processing machine. As part of the central nervous system, the retina converts patterns of light at the input into a rich palette of representations at the output. The parallel streams of information in the optic nerve encode features like color, contrast, orientation of edges, and direction of motion. Image processing in the retina is undeniably complex, but as one of the most accessible parts of the central nervous system, the tools to study retinal circuits with unprecedented precision are up to the task. This book provides a practical guide and resource about the current state of the field of retinal computation. Provides a practical guide on the field of retinal computation Summarizes and clearly explains important topics such as luminance, contrast, spatial features, motion and other computations Contains discussion questions, a landmark paper, and programming exercises within each chapter

New Trends in Neural Computation

New Trends in Neural Computation Book
Author : International Workshop on Artificial Neural Networks$ (1993 : Sitges, Espagne),Anonimo,Jose Mira,Joan Cabestany,Alberto Prieto
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1993-05-27
ISBN : 9783540567981
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neural computation arises from the capacity of nervous tissue to process information and accumulate knowledge in an intelligent manner. Conventional computational machines have encountered enormous difficulties in duplicatingsuch functionalities. This has given rise to the development of Artificial Neural Networks where computation is distributed over a great number of local processing elements with a high degree of connectivityand in which external programming is replaced with supervised and unsupervised learning. The papers presented in this volume are carefully reviewed versions of the talks delivered at the International Workshop on Artificial Neural Networks (IWANN '93) organized by the Universities of Catalonia and the Spanish Open University at Madrid and held at Barcelona, Spain, in June 1993. The 111 papers are organized in seven sections: biological perspectives, mathematical models, learning, self-organizing networks, neural software, hardware implementation, and applications (in five subsections: signal processing and pattern recognition, communications, artificial vision, control and robotics, and other applications).

Contrast Sensitization

Contrast Sensitization Book
Author : David B. Kastner
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Adaptation provides a ubiquitous strategy for neural circuits to encode their inputs using their limited dynamic range within the variety of sensory environments that they encounter. However, because of the inherent timescale necessary to optimize the response properties of a cell to its environment, any form of adaptive plasticity can cause a neuron to fail to encode the stimulus when the environment changes. Many ganglion cells, the output neurons of the retina, adapt so as to lower their sensitivity in an environment of high contrast, but if the contrast subsequently decreases the cell will fall below threshold and fail to signal. I have found a distinct form of plasticity within the retina that acts in coordination with the process of adaptation. Cells using this new form of plasticity elevate their sensitivity after a transition to low contrast. This process, called sensitization, occurs in retinas from multiple species. Multielectrode recordings from sensitizing and adapting cells indicate that both populations encode the same visual signals. The complementary action of the two populations helps the retina encode its input over a broader range of signals and environmental changes, with one population continuing to respond when the other fails. The threshold placement of these two cell types further enhances their coordination because sensitizing cells maintain lower thresholds, while adapting cells maintain higher thresholds. Using a theoretical model, I was able to show that this behavior maximized the amount of information that the two populations can provide about their input. I have further studied the spatiotemporal region that controlled the sensitivity of a cell--the adaptive field. Just as retinal circuitry uses excitation and inhibition to form biphasic center-surround receptive fields, the retina can also use adaptation and sensitization to form biphasic adaptive fields in both the spatial and temporal domains. Since visual statistics are correlated across time and space, center-surround biphasic receptive fields more efficiently encode the input by subtracting a prediction of the stimulus so as to just encode the deviation from that prediction. Biphasic adaptive fields appear to perform an opposite function, transmitting a prediction of the stimulus at the transition of a stimulus environment to weaker signals. This assists in the encoding of an uncertain environment by storing features of a predictable input. A model indicates that sensitization within the adaptive field can be produced by adapting inhibition, a form of plasticity whose function was previously unknown. Using pharmacology, I confirmed this prediction, showing that GABAergic inhibition is necessary for sensitization. Using simultaneous intracellular recording from inhibitory amacrine cells and multielectrode recording from ganglion cells, I show that transmission from a single amacrine cell is sucient to cause sensitization. Using a novel approach to analyze a circuit, I quantitatively describe the changes in amacrine cell transmission that underlie sensitization thus elucidating how the retina performs this sophisticated computation.

Computational Retinal Image Analysis

Computational Retinal Image Analysis Book
Author : Emanuele Trucco,Tom MacGillivray,Yanwu Xu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-06-29
ISBN : 0081028164
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Computational Retinal Image Analysis: Tools, Applications and Perspectives gives an overview of contemporary retinal image analysis (RIA) in the context of healthcare informatics and artificial intelligence. Specifically, it provides a history of the field, the clinical motivation for RIA, technical foundations (image acquisition modalities, instruments), computational techniques for essential operations, lesion detection (e.g. optic disc in glaucoma, microaneurysms in diabetes) and validation, as well as insights into current investigations drawing from artificial intelligence and big data. This comprehensive reference is ideal for researchers and graduate students in retinal image analysis, computational ophthalmology, artificial intelligence, biomedical engineering, health informatics, and more. Provides a unique, well-structured and integrated overview of retinal image analysis Gives insights into future areas, such as large-scale screening programs, precision medicine, and computer-assisted eye care Includes plans and aspirations of companies and professional bodies

Neuro vision Systems

Neuro vision Systems Book
Author : Madan M. Gupta,George K. Knopf
Publisher : New York : IEEE Press
Release : 1994
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Neuro vision Systems book written by Madan M. Gupta,George K. Knopf, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Neural Computation

Neural Computation Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

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Circuitry Mechanisms Underlying Noise Resilience of Retinal Motion Computation

Circuitry Mechanisms Underlying Noise Resilience of Retinal Motion Computation Book
Author : Qiang Chen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 9780438756236
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

We rely on visual information to navigate through the natural environment. The extraction of visual features by the nervous system first arises in the retina. The retina sends processed visual information to cortical and sub-cortical brain regions through 20-40 types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), each encodes specific aspect of the visual scene. One of the most prominent visual processing in the retina is the computation of motion direction, implemented by retinal direction selective circuit. While our notions about retinal direction circuit have come from the usage of simple parametric stimuli, natural scenes are rarely homogeneous but full of competing signals. This thesis focuses on understanding the underlying mechanisms of noise resilience of retinal direction computation. In chapter 1, we review the recent understanding of the dynamic engagement of circuitry and synaptic mechanisms for robust retinal directional selectivity under various visual conditions. Chapter 2 described the protocol we developed for recording and functional imaging of retinal neurons under two-photon microscopy in the laboratory. In chapter 3, we used synapse-specific genetic manipulation to dissect the role of distinct sets of inhibitory motifs for motion processing. We found that the functional circuitries that process bright versus dark moving objects are not mirrored symmetric. Furthermore, Lateral inhibitory motifs in retinal direction selective circuit are only recruited in the noisy visual condition in On pathway. Based upon findings in chapter 3, chapter 4 further investigated the mechanistic implementation of noise resilience by lateral inhibition motif. We found that one particular form of lateral inhibition, the mutual inhibition of lateral inhibition, prevents use-dependent synaptic suppression triggered by competing signals, thus maintains the strength and fidelity of synaptic transmission in the circuitry. Since feature selectivity, including direction selectivity, relies on the veto of spiking activities to "null" stimuli. This silencing of neuronal spiking requires timely cancellation of excitation by inhibition. In chapter 5, we investigated how retinal direction selective circuit maintains the ms time-scale covariation of inhibition and excitation for robust direction selectivity.

Visual Prosthesis and Ophthalmic Devices

Visual Prosthesis and Ophthalmic Devices Book
Author : Joyce Tombran-Tink,Colin J. Barnstable,Joseph F. Rizzo
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-08
ISBN : 1597454494
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume details the latest technology in treating eye injuries and infections. It provides insight into the most up-to-date and established treatment options. The volume focuses on what can currently be achieved with a variety of ocular prostheses as well as what the future holds. Coverage reviews issues such as intraocular lens implants, biocompatibility of materials, retinal implants, testing models, and software designs.

Computational Analysis of the Human Eye with Applications

Computational Analysis of the Human Eye with Applications Book
Author : Sumeet Dua
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9814340308
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in semi-automated high-throughput image data collection routines, coupled with a decline in storage costs and an increase in high-performance computing solutions have led to an exponential surge in data collected by biomedical scientists and medical practitioners. Interpreting this raw data is a challenging task, and nowhere is this more evident than in the field of opthalmology. The sheer speed at which data on cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma and other eye disorders are collected, makes it impossible for the human observer to directly monitor subtle, yet critical details. This book is a novel and well-timed endeavor to present, in an amalgamated format, computational image modeling methods as applied to various extrinsic scientific problems in ophthalmology. It is self-contained and presents a highly comprehensive array of image modeling algorithms and methodologies relevant to ophthalmologic problems. The book is the first of its kind, bringing eye imaging and multi-dimensional hyperspectral imaging and data fusion of the human eye, into focus. The editors are at the top of their fields and bring a strong multidisciplinary synergy to this visionary volume. Their "inverted-pyramid" approach in presenting the content and their focus on core applications will appeal to students and practitioners in the field.

Computational Neuroengineering for Artificial Retina

Computational Neuroengineering for Artificial Retina Book
Author : Nishal Pradeepbhai Shah
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A major goal of neuroengineering is to control spiking activity at cellular resolution in a way that replicates neural code. Our context is the artificial retina, a neural interface that aims to treat blindness due to retinal degeneration by interfacing with remaining retinal ganglion cells. Using primate retina recordings from a large-scale multielectrode array as a lab prototype of the device, we study three important problems : (1) How does the retina normally respond to visual stimuli? (2) How do we use healthy retinas to predict responses in a blind retina, in spite of individual variability? (3) How can we replicate this response pattern by electrical stimulation? First, we build a model for visual encoding that incorporates non-linear spatial integration, a prevalent computational motif in neural circuits. We identify subunits that hierarchically partition the receptive field into localized components. For prosthesis application, we extend the method to find shared nonlinear substrates in cell populations and describe their role in explaining responses to natural stimulus. Second, for translating these models to restoring visual function in a blind retina, we study the variation in visual encoding across a hundred recordings from different animals. We learn a low dimensional manifold to separate individual variability from shared computations. Using the manifold, we study the covariation of response properties of different cell-types and observe surprising differences in neural encoding between males and females. The low dimensional manifold also helps in efficiently identifying the neural code in a previously unseen retina, and calibrating device function for a bilnd retina. Finally, we present an approach to replicate neural responses as accurately as possible when the interface has imperfect selectivity. By temporally multiplexing a collection of non-selective patterns, we show improved performance compared to the algorithms used by existing devices. Under simplifying assumptions, a greedy algorithm for identifying the sequence of stimulation is surprisingly close to optimal. This framework allows us to use experimental data to derive insights on the hardware design.

Computational Methods to Study the Structure and Dynamics of Biomolecules and Biomolecular Processes

Computational Methods to Study the Structure and Dynamics of Biomolecules and Biomolecular Processes Book
Author : Adam Liwo
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-07-17
ISBN : 3642285546
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the second half of the 20th century machine computations have played a critical role in science and engineering. Computer-based techniques have become especially important in molecular biology, since they often represent the only viable way to gain insights into the behavior of a biological system as a whole. The complexity of biological systems, which usually needs to be analyzed on different time- and size-scales and with different levels of accuracy, requires the application of different approaches, ranging from comparative analysis of sequences and structural databases, to the analysis of networks of interdependence between cell components and processes, through coarse-grained modeling to atomically detailed simulations, and finally to molecular quantum mechanics. This book provides a comprehensive overview of modern computer-based techniques for computing the structure, properties and dynamics of biomolecules and biomolecular processes. The twenty-two chapters, written by scientists from all over the world, address the theory and practice of computer simulation techniques in the study of biological phenomena. The chapters are grouped into four thematic sections dealing with the following topics: the methodology of molecular simulations; applications of molecular simulations; bioinformatics methods and use of experimental information in molecular simulations; and selected applications of molecular quantum mechanics. The book includes an introductory chapter written by Harold A. Scheraga, one of the true pioneers in simulation studies of biomacromolecules.

Calculation of Retinal Dose Due to Visible Radiation from Nuclear Explosions

Calculation of Retinal Dose Due to Visible Radiation from Nuclear Explosions Book
Author : Robert Duane Cowan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1965
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Calculation of Retinal Dose Due to Visible Radiation from Nuclear Explosions book written by Robert Duane Cowan, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Infinite Retina

The Infinite Retina Book
Author : Irena Cronin,Robert Scoble
Publisher : Packt Publishing Ltd
Release : 2020-05-08
ISBN : 1838823832
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A compelling and insightful look at the future of Spatial Computing, and how this cutting-edge technology is changing the way we do business across seven primary industries, and what it means for humanity as a whole. Key Features Discover how Spatial Computing is changing the face of technology Get a roadmap for the disruptions caused by Spatial Computing and how it will affect seven major industries Gain insights about the past, present, and future of technology from the world’s leading experts and innovators Book Description What is Spatial Computing and why is everyone from Tesla, Apple, and Facebook investing heavily in it? In The Infinite Retina, authors Irena Cronin and Robert Scoble attempt to answer that question by helping you understand where Spatial Computing―an augmented reality where humans and machines can interact in a physical space―came from, where it's going, and why it's so fundamentally different from the computers or mobile phones that came before. They present seven visions of the future and the industry verticals in which Spatial Computing has the most influence―Transportation; Technology, Media, and Telecommunications; Manufacturing; Retail; Healthcare; Finance; and Education. The book also shares insights about the past, present, and future from leading experts an other industry veterans and innovators, including Sebastian Thrun, Ken Bretschneider, and Hugo Swart. They dive into what they think will happen in Spatial Computing in the near and medium term, and also explore what it could mean for humanity in the long term. The Infinite Retina then leaves it up to you to decide whether Spatial Computing is truly where the future of technology is heading or whether it's just an exciting, but passing, phase. What you will learn Look back at historical paradigms that changed the face of technology Consider how Spatial Computing could be the new technology that changes our lives See how Virtual and Augmented Reality will change the way we do healthcare Learn how Spatial Computing technology will lead to fully automated transportation Think about how Spatial Computing will change the manufacturing industry Explore how finance and retail are going to be impacted through Spatial Computing devices Hear accounts from industry experts on what they expect Spatial Computing to bring to their sectors Who this book is for The Infinite Retina is for anyone interested in the future of technology and how Augmented Reality and Spatial Computing (among other developments) will affect both businesses and the individual.

The Infinite Retina

The Infinite Retina Book
Author : Irena Cronin,Robert Scoble
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020-05-08
ISBN : 9781838824044
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In The Infinite Retina, authors Irena Cronin and Robert Scoble attempt to answer the question of what Spatial Computing is, and help you to understand where Spatial Computing - an augmented reality where humans and machines can interact in a physical space - came from and where it's going.

Natural and Artificial Models in Computation and Biology

Natural and Artificial Models in Computation and Biology Book
Author : Jose Manuel Ferrandez Vicente,Jose Ramon Alvarez Sanchez,Felix de la Paz Lopez,Fco. Javier Toledo Moreo
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2013-06-03
ISBN : 3642386377
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The two volume-set, LNCS 7930 and LNCS 7931, constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Work-Conference on the Interplay between Natural and Artificial Computation, IWINAC 2013, held in Mallorca, Spain, in June 2013. The 92 revised full papers presented in LNCS 7930 and LNCS 7931 were carefully reviewed and selected from numerous submissions. The first part, LNCS 7930, entitled "Natural and Artificial Models in Computation and Biology”, includes all the contributions mainly related to the methodological, conceptual, formal, and experimental developments in the fields of neurophysiology and cognitive science. The second part, LNCS 7931, entitled “Natural and Artificial Computation in Engineering and Medical Applications”, contains the papers related to bioinspired programming strategies and all the contributions related to the computational solutions to engineering problems in different application domains, specially Health applications, including the CYTED “Artificial and Natural Computation for Health” (CANS) research network papers. In addition, this two volume-set reflects six interesting areas: cognitive robotics; natural computing; wetware computation; quality of life technologies; biomedical and industrial perception applications; and Web intelligence and neuroscience.

Proceedings of International Conference on Internet Computing and Information Communications

Proceedings of International Conference on Internet Computing and Information Communications Book
Author : Swamidoss Sathiakumar,Lalit Kumar Awasthi,M. Roberts Masillamani,S S Sridhar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-09-24
ISBN : 8132212991
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book presents high quality research papers presented by experts in the International Conference on Internet Computing and Information Communications 2012, organized by ICICIC Global organizing committee (on behalf of The CARD Atlanta, Georgia, CREATE Conferences Inc). The objective of this book is to present the latest work done in the field of Internet computing by researchers and industrial professionals across the globe. A step to reduce the research divide between developed and under developed countries.

Computational Intelligence

Computational Intelligence Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1985
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Computational Intelligence book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Constraints on the Computation of Rigid Motion Parameters from Retinal Displacements

Constraints on the Computation of Rigid Motion Parameters from Retinal Displacements Book
Author : Amit Bandopadhay,ROCHESTER UNIV NY DEPT OF COMPUTER SCIENCE.
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1985
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A mathematical formulation of the Rigid Motion Perception problem is described. The constraints on the parameters of rigid motion (i.e., three-dimensional velocities) obtained from image motion data (two-dimensional projected velocities) are analyzed. A brief survey of related work shows the lacunae in the existing body of research in this area. Uniqueness results and computational algorithms are presented to compute the rigid motion parameters from retinal velocities. The approximations involved in the velocity representation are stated. Algorithms and constraints to permit cooperative computation of motion and shape are described.

Handbook of Infant Perception From sensation to perception

Handbook of Infant Perception  From sensation to perception Book
Author : Philip Salapatek,Leslie B. Cohen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1987
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Handbook of Infant Perception From sensation to perception book written by Philip Salapatek,Leslie B. Cohen, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Network

Network Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Network book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.