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Residual Stresses In Composite Materials

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Residual Stresses in Composite Materials

Residual Stresses in Composite Materials Book
Author : Mahmood M. Shokrieh
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2014-02-14
ISBN : 0857098594
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Residual stresses are a common phenomenon in composite materials. They can either add to or significantly reduce material strength. Because of the increasing demand for high-strength, light-weight materials such as composites and their wide range of applications in the aerospace and automotive industries, in civil infrastructure and in sporting applications, it is critical that the residual stresses of composite materials are understood and measured correctly. The first part of this important book reviews destructive and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques for measuring residual stresses. Various mathematical (analytical and numerical) methods for calculation of residual stresses in composite materials are also presented. Chapters in the first section of the book discuss the simulated hole drilling method, the slitting/crack compliance method, measuring residual stresses in homogeneous and composite glass materials using photoelastic techniques, and modeling residual stresses in composite materials. The second part of the book discusses residual stresses in polymer matrix, metal-matrix and a range of other types of composites. Moreover, the addition of nanoparticles to the matrix of polymeric composites as a new technique for reduction of residual stresses is discussed. Residual stresses in composite materials provides a comprehensive overview of this important topic, and is an invaluable reference text for both academics and professionals working in the mechanical engineering, civil engineering, aerospace, automotive, marine and sporting industries. Reviews destructive and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques for measuring residual stresses Discusses residual stresses in polymer matrix, metal-matrix and other types of composite Considers the addition of nanoparticles to the matrix of polymeric composites as a new technique for reduction of residual stresses

Residual Stresses in Composite Materials

Residual Stresses in Composite Materials Book
Author : Mahmood M. Shokrieh
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2021-03-15
ISBN : 9780128188170
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Residual stresses are a common phenomenon in composite materials. They can either add to or significantly reduce material strength. Because of the increasing demand for high-strength, lightweight materials such as composites and their wide range of applications; it is critical that the residual stresses of composite materials are understood and measured correctly. The first edition of this book consists of thirteen chapters divided over two parts. Part One reviews destructive and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques for measuring residual stresses. There are also additional chapters on using mathematical (analytical and numerical) methods for calculation of residual stresses in composite materials too. These include the simulated hole drilling method, the slitting/crack compliance method, measuring residual stresses in homogeneous and composite glass materials using photoelastic techniques, and modeling residual stresses in composite materials. The second part of the book discusses measuring residual stresses in different types of composites including polymer and metal matrix composites. The addition of nanoparticles to the matrix of polymeric composites as a new technique for reduction of residual stresses is also discussed. Each of these original chapters have been brought fully up-to-date taking into account latest research and new developments. There are also five brand new chapters on the theoretical and experimental study of residual stress in the composite Integrated circuits; measurement of residual stresses in laminated polymer composites using Slitting Method Based on Eigen Strains; determination of residual stresses using Eigen Strains; measurement of residual stresses in polymer matrix composites using Digital Image Correlation and finally the estimation of the residual stresses in metals and composites based on the concept of Eigen-Strain. Residual Stresses in Composite Materials, Second Edition, provides a comprehensive overview of this important topic, and is an invaluable reference text for both academics and professionals working in the mechanical engineering, civil engineering, aerospace, automotive, marine and sporting industries. Reviews destructive and non-destructive testing (NDT) techniques for measuring residual stresses Discusses residual stresses in polymer matrix, metal-matrix and other types of composites Presents latest developments on theoretical and experimental study of residual stress in composites Considers the addition of nanoparticles to the matrix as a new technique for reduction of residual stresses

Residual Stresses in Composites

Residual Stresses in Composites Book
Author : E. V. Barrera,I. Dutta
Publisher : Tms
Release : 1993
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume contains the proceedings of a conference on the residual stresses in composites. It offers three interrelated objectives: present developments in the measurement of residuals composites; present analytical predictions of residual stresses and their impact on composite properties; and documents the role of the residual stresses during thermo-mechanical excursions of the composites.

Residual Stresses

Residual Stresses Book
Author : A. Niku-Lari
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-05-17
ISBN : 1483191001
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Residual Stresses presents a collection of articles that provides information regarding the use of surface treatment systems. It discusses the developments in the technology and application of surface treatment. It addresses the influence of minor stresses on the performance of materials. Some of the topics covered in the book are the introduction to self-equilibrating stresses existing in materials, the stresses that form as a consequence of welding, the stresses made by machining, and the mechanical generation of self-stresses. The analysis of the stresses caused by thermal and thermochemical surface treatments is covered. The minor stresses in composite materials are discussed. The text describes the stresses in uranium and uranium alloys. The Trepan or ring core method, centre-hole method, and Sach's method are presented. A chapter of the volume is devoted to the measurement of residual stresses. Another section of the book focuses on the application of shot peened plates to residual stress distribution. The book will provide useful information to mechanics, engineers, students, and researchers.

Analysis of process induced distortions and residual stresses of composite structures

Analysis of process induced distortions and residual stresses of composite structures Book
Author : Christian Brauner
Publisher : Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH
Release : 2013-10-29
ISBN : 3832535284
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The increased application of composite materials in lightweight structures leads to new integral design of structural parts, using the example of, an integral composite landing flap of an Airbus A320 aircraft. This offers possibilities to simplify the process chain, to decrease manufacturing costs and to have fibre fair structural design. The critical disadvantage of large integral designs is that process-induced deformations are a risk factor during the design phase of the manufacturing process, because rework is not always possible. Especially, the aircraft industry with its demands on high qualities / tolerances and the application of hot curing resin systems, requires knowledge-based methods for virtual process design to avoid time- and effort-consuming iterations. This thesis contributes to the understanding of the mechanism behind process-induced distortions and stresses related to the Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) manufacturing process. The aim is to comprehend the phenomena, to identify related parameters and to present compensation strategies.

Composite Materials

Composite Materials Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : ASTM International
Release : 1972
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advanced Topics in Characterization of Composites

Advanced Topics in Characterization of Composites Book
Author : Michael R. Kessler
Publisher : Trafford Publishing
Release : 2004
ISBN : 1412036399
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advanced Topics in Characterization of Composites is a product of the ''Characterization of Composite Materials" graduate course in the Department of Mechanical Engineering at The University of Tulsa. It contains a series of chapters describing characterization techniques for polymer-matrix composite materials. Topics covered include: -thermal analysis using DSC, -residual stresses, -single-fiber fragmentation testing, -creep and creep nature, -impact testing, -infrared thermography, -air-coupled ultrasonics, -structural health monitoring, and -fractography. The chapters include comprehensive literature reviews, background information, and best practices in experimental composites evaluation.

Residual Stresses IX

Residual Stresses IX Book
Author : M. Francois,Guillaume Montay,Benoit Panicaud,Delphine Retraint,Emmanuelle Rouhaud
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 2014-08-11
ISBN : 3038265365
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Collection of selected, peer reviewed papers from the 9th European Conference on Residual Stresses, ECRS-9, July 7-10, 2014, Troyes, France. Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS). The 157 papers are grouped as follows: Chapter I. Measurement Methods, I.1. Local Scale Measurements, I.2. Diffraction at Grain Scale and Multiscale Diffraction, I.3. Diffraction: Gradients and Instrumental Developments, I.4. Mechanical Relaxation Methods, I.5. Acoustics and Electromagnetics Methods, Chapter II. Manufacturing and Materials Processing, II.1. Welding, II.2. Heat Treatment and Phase Transformation, II.3. Machining and Cold Work, Chapter III. Materials and Structures, III.1. Fatigue and Fracture, III.2. Films, Coatings and Oxides, III.3. Composites and Nano/Micro Structures

Introduction to the Dimensional Stability of Composite Materials

Introduction to the Dimensional Stability of Composite Materials Book
Author : Ernest G. Wolff
Publisher : DEStech Publications, Inc
Release : 2004
ISBN : 9781932078220
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Comprehensive numerical presentation of dimensional instability in composites Quantitative analyses for predicting deformations in all types of composite materials Evaluation of mechanical, thermophysical, environmental stresses over time Unique aid in design of composites for specific application conditions--------------------------------------------------------------------------------This book is a comprehensive introduction to the quantitative analysis of dimensional instability in composite materials. It will aid in predicting deformations in a wide range of composite materials products and parts, under mechanical, thermophysical, and environmental stresses over time. Written by an internationally known expert on the analysis of composites, this new work brings together the best quantitative methods and currently known data for understanding how composites become unstable over time. The technical insights and information in this book offer a practical foundation for engineering composite materials with better stability and increased performance. From The Author''s Preface "Dimensional stability predictions [in composites] require knowledge of not only mechanical behavior but also thermophysical properties and the response to environmental conditions and time. This book attempts to aid in the numerical prediction of dimensional stability properties. It is necessary to quantify the behavior of composites for many reasons. Composites compete with plastics, metals, and ceramics in numerous applications, and designers must be able to justify increase in cost or complexity in terms of precisely defined performance benefits...Only a quantitative understanding of potential deformations [in composites] will lead to confidence in their use...This book combines a judicious use of experimental data, together with current theoretical models. It summarizes the scope of potential sources of instability in composites to help the engineer estimate the magnitude of possible deformations. The book also contributes to outlining methods for dealing with deformations. Experimental methods are offered and reviewed for those who (wisely) do not rely solely on existing data and theory." --------------------------------------------------------------------------------TABLE OF CONTENTS PrefaceAcknowledgments Chapter I: INTRODUCTION· What is Dimensional Stability? · Historical Notes· Magnitude: Units, Range, Engineering vs. True Strain, Dependence on Measurement Chapter II: DIMENSIONALLY STABLE MATERIALS· Introduction · Metals and Alloys · Glasses and Ceramics· Polymers· General Composites · Composite Constituents· Metal Matrix Composites· Ceramic Matrix Composites· Polymer Matrix Composites· Carbon Matrix Composites· Natural Composites· Hybrid Composites· Shape Memory Materials · Functionally Graded Materials· Nanomaterials· "In situ" Composites Chapter III: MECHANICAL EFFECTS· Introduction · Composite Notation· Micromechanics· Macromechanics of Laminates· Orthotropic Materials· Curvature · Thickness Effects· Poisson''s Ratio· Edge/End Effects· Residual Stresses· Plastic Deformation · Microyield Stress· References Chapter IV: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS-TEMPERATURE· Introduction · CTE of Constituents · Micromechanics· Macromechanics· Volumetric Expansion· Resin Matrix Composites · Metal Matrix Composites· Ceramic Matrix Composites· Uniformity of CTE· Structural Forms· References Chapter V: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS-MASS ABSORPTION· Introduction· Moisture Content· Moisture Distribution· Moisture Induced Strain · Coatings · CME Data Chapter VI: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS-RADIATION · Introduction· Space Radiation· Radiation Effects on Micromechanical Properties· Radiation Effects on Thermophysical Properties· Nuclear Radiation · UV and Miscellaneous Radiation Chapter VII: ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS-TIME · Introduction · Temporal Stability · Relaxation of Residual Stresses· Physical Aging· Chemical Aging · Thermal Aging· Post Curing Chapter VIII: CREEP· Introduction· General Creep Behavior· Creep of Composite Constituents· Microstructure· Loading Conditions· Creep Mechanisms· Recovery and Relaxation· Damage Development· Prediction of Creep Strains Chapter IX: INTERNAL DAMAGE· Introduction· Thermally Induced Microcracking in FRPL· Mechanical (Stress) Cycling in PMC· Dimensional Changes due to Microcracking· Effects of Microcracking on Dimensional Stability, Effect on CTE, Thermal Cycling of PMC, Effects on Micromechanical Properties · Methods to Minimize Microcracking· Thermal Spikes· Reverse Thermal Effect· Thermal Cycling of MMC· Thermal Cycling of CMC· Microcracking and Moisture· Role of Fiber/Matrix Interface· Surface Damage Chapter X: COMBINED EFFECTS· Introduction · Thermoelasticity· Effect of Stress on Thermal Expansion· Hygrothermoelasticity · Effects of Stress on Mass Diffusivity· Stress and Moisture Effects· The Mechanosorptive Effect· Moisture Cycling· Combined Stress-Moisture-Damage Chapter XI: MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUES · Introduction· General Metrology· Microyield Strength (MYS)· Thermal Expansion (CTE)· Moisture Expansion (CME)· Temporal Stability· Creep· Damage Induced Dimensional Changes· Techniques for Combined Effects· Related Techniques Chapter XII: APPLICATIONS· Introduction · Dimensionally Stable Requirements· Selected Applications: Aircraft, Antenna Structures, Automotive, Biomedical, Cryogenics, Electronics, Fabrication, Flywheels, High Temperature, Instrument Components, Large Space Structures, Metering Functions, Microwave Components, Mirrors, Optical Support Structures, Radiation Environments, Radomes, Smart Materials Technology, Spacecraft Components, Structural/Infrastructure, Wind Turbines, General Design Methodology Index

Residual Stress Alleviation of Aircraft Metal Structures Reinforced with Filamentary Composites

Residual Stress Alleviation of Aircraft Metal Structures Reinforced with Filamentary Composites Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 1973
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Residual stresses occur in composite-reinforced metal structures as a result of the elevated temperatures employed to cure various structural adhesives and the differing coefficients of thermal expansion of the materials being bonded. Methods to eliminate or reduce residual stresses were explored during this program. Residual stress level reductions were achieved in this program by modifying the manufacturing procedures used during adhesive bonding. The residual stress alleviation techniques involved various forms of mechanical constraint which were applied to the components during bonding. Nine methods were evaluated, covering a wide range in complexity. Some specimens were assembled with no tooling, while others employed complex tooling capable of generating preloads. All methods investigated during this program affected the residual stress level. In general, residual stresses were reduced by 70% or more from the stress level produced by conventional adhesive bonding procedures. The most effective method used during this study employed a steel tool capable of loading the metal component in compression prior to the bonding cycle. The other methods were slightly less effective due to the presence of elastic deformations in the vicinity of mechanical fasteners. The bonded load transfer region between the fibers and the stepped titanium load transfer fittings experiences creep deformation which can lead to delamination at the higher bonding temperatures (450 deg K, 350 deg F) and high shear stress levels produced by some assembly techniques.

Introduction to Composite Materials

Introduction to Composite Materials Book
Author : Hong T. Hahn,Stephen W. Tsai
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1980-01-01
ISBN : 9780877622888
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A widely used basic text by two recognized authorities. A unified and disciplined approach; advanced concepts reduced to easy-to-use charts, formulas and numerical examples.

Residual Stresses VII ICRS7

Residual Stresses VII  ICRS7 Book
Author : Sabine Denis,Takao Hanabusa,Bob Baoping He,Eric Mittemeijer,Jun Ma Nan,Ismail Cevdet Noyan,Berthold Scholtes,Keisuke Tanaka,Ke Wei Xu
Publisher : Trans Tech Publications Ltd
Release : 2005-07-15
ISBN : 3038130079
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The field of Residual Stresses is surprisingly large, and also highly interdisciplinary in nature, both with regard to its applications and to its scientific and technological fundamentals. Volume is indexed by Thomson Reuters CPCI-S (WoS).

Hole Drilling Method for Measuring Residual Stresses

Hole Drilling Method for Measuring Residual Stresses Book
Author : Gary S. Schajer,Philip S. Whitehead
Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release : 2018-01-22
ISBN : 168173267X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes the theory and practice of the Hole-Drilling Method for measuring residual stresses in engineering components. Such measurements are important because residual stresses have a "hidden" character because they exist locked-in within a material, independent of any external load. These stresses are typically created during component manufacture, for example, during welding, casting, or forming. Because of their hidden nature, residual stresses are difficult to measure and consequently are often ignored. However, they directly add to loading stresses and can cause catastrophic failure if not properly included during engineering design. Thus, there is an urgent need to be able to identify and measure residual stresses conveniently and reliably. The Hole-Drilling Method provides an adaptable and well-proven method for measuring residual stresses in a wide range of materials and component types. It is convenient to use and gives reliable results. Because of the hidden nature of residual stresses, the measurement method must necessarily be indirect, thus, additional care and conceptual understanding are necessary to achieve successful results. This book provides a practical introduction to the Hole-Drilling Method, starting from its historical roots and going on to focus on its modern practice. The various chapters describe the nature of residual stresses, the principle of hole-drilling measurements, procedures and guidance on how to make successful measurements, and effective mathematical procedures for stress computation and analysis. The book is intended for practitioners who need to make residual stress measurements either occasionally or routinely, for practicing engineers, for researchers, and for graduate engineering and science students.