Skip to main content

Resident Stem Cells And Regenerative Therapy

In Order to Read Online or Download Resident Stem Cells And Regenerative Therapy Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, Tuebl and Mobi you need to create a Free account. Get any books you like and read everywhere you want. Fast Download Speed ~ Commercial & Ad Free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library!

Resident Stem Cells and Regenerative Therapy

Resident Stem Cells and Regenerative Therapy Book
Author : Regina Coeli dos Santos Goldenberg,Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0124160123
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

In the last 3 decades, stem cells have greatly impacted the scientific and lay communities, providing huge advances in the treatment of devastating human diseases, including myocardial infarction, diabetes, muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and osteoporosis. Alongside debates of induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells has been the discovery of adult stem cells in many different tissues. While these organ resident or progenitor stem cells offer prospects to contribute to tissue regeneration, they also present challenges because of the complexity of organ structures. This book will present the main findings to date and the important factors to be considered when considering resident stem cells in regenerative therapies. Chapters on cardiac, brain, neural, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, bone, pancreatic, skin, and lung resident stem cells will assist in defining the level of success that has been achieved and the direction for the road ahead. With contributions from leading laboratories, open questions related to resident stem cells and regenerative therapies will also be presented for debate. Highlights basic research in tissue specific stem cells, experiments with animal models and clinical trials that are transforming the field of regeneration Provides a clear understanding of endogenous stem cells, their role in current regenerative therapies, and prospects for future research Reports on the main-stream clinical approaches and in vivo experiments published in primary literature to help categorizes the advances in various aspects of regenerative therapy and illustrate opportunities for clinical applications

Extracellular Matrix Enhances Therapeutic Effects of Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

Extracellular Matrix Enhances Therapeutic Effects of Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Yan Nie
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Stem cell therapy is a promising option for regenerative of injured or diseased tissues. However, the extremely low survival and engraftment of transplanted cells and the obviously inadequate recruitment and activation of the endogenous resident stem cells are the major challenges for stem cell therapy. Fortunately, recent progresses show that extracellular matrix (ECM) could not only act as a spatial and mechanical scaffold to enhance cell viability but also provide a supportive niche for engraftment or accelerating stem cell differentiation. These findings provide a new approach for increasing the efficiency of stem cell therapy and may lead to substantial changes in cell administration. In order to take a giant stride forward in stem cell therapy, we need to know much more about how the ECM affects cell behaviours. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the influence of ECM on regulating stem cell maintenance and differentiation. Moreover, the enhancement of supportive microenvironment function of natural or synthetic ECMs in stem cell therapy is discussed.

Adult Stem Cells

Adult Stem Cells Book
Author : Donald G. Phinney
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-02-11
ISBN : 9781617790027
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This is comprehensive overview of a vital area of scientific enquiry, which covers a broad spectrum of issues. With contributions from some of the key researchers in the field, Adult Stem Cells: Biology and Methods of Analysis offers readers a historical perspective as well as unique insights into cutting-edge thoughts. The volume contextualizes the recent discovery of stem/progenitor cell populations resident in many adult tissues and organs. It confronts the complexities scientists face in trying to validate these cells, while it also describes and critically evaluates the methods currently used to assess stem cell self-renewal. The chapters also seek to distinguish this process from other aspects of cell survival, such as the regulation of life span, senescence, and immortalization at a molecular level. The monograph begins with a section that examine the basic biology of adult stem cells, including chapters on the emerging role of microRNAs in regulating their fate and the molecular mechanisms that govern their self-renewal, the book moves on to analyze the varying methodologies employed in characterizing these elusive elements of our genetic make-up. The second section details in-vivo lineage tracing of tissue-specific stem cells, explores the neural stem cell paradigm, and considers the function of ABC transporters and aldehyde dehydrogenase in adult stem-cell biology. The final section shifts the focus to the life-span regulation and immortalization and features a chapter on the cancer stem cell paradigm. This is an authoritative volume on one of the frontiers of genetic research, and will serve as a valuable resource, not just for established scientists but also for those now entering the field of stem cell biology.

The Promises and Challenges of Regenerative Medicine

The Promises and Challenges of Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : John Morser,S. -I. Nishikawa
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-11-28
ISBN : 9783642421389
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Download The Promises and Challenges of Regenerative Medicine book written by John Morser,S. -I. Nishikawa, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine in Ophthalmology

Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine in Ophthalmology Book
Author : Stephen Tsang
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-09
ISBN : 146145493X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Patient specific and disease specific stem cell lines have already introduced groundbreaking advances into the research and practice of ophthalmology. This volume provides a comprehensive and engaging overview of the latest innovations in the field. Twelve chapters discuss the fastest growing areas in ophthalmological stem cell research, from disease modelling, drug screening and gene targeting to clinical genetics and regenerative treatments. Innovative results from stem cell research of the past decade are pointing the way toward practicable treatments for retinitis pigmentosa, age related macular degeneration, and Stargardt disease. What future directions will stem cell research take? Researchers, graduate students, and fellows alike will find food for thought in this insightful guide tapping into the collective knowledge of leaders in the field. Stem Cells in Ophthalmology is part of the Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine series dedicated to discussing current challenges and future directions in stem cell research.

Gene Therapy and Cell Fusion Enhances Stem Cell Mediated Cardiac Repair

Gene Therapy and Cell Fusion Enhances Stem Cell Mediated Cardiac Repair Book
Author : Pearl Jennine Quijada
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 9781321741278
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Myocardial infarction (MI) induces massive cellular death and leads to a decline in cardiac function. Cardiomyocytes have limited proliferative capacity sparking interests in molecular and cellular strategies to promote stem cell conversion into new cardiomyocytes. Cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) are tissue resident stem cells that give rise to cardiomyogenic structures. Although, CPCs introduced into the heart confer improvements in cardiac function after MI, these effects are not sufficient to support complete heart regeneration and prevent heart failure. Studying molecular pathways that contribute to CPC survival and commitment is essential in advancing CPC based therapeutic approaches. Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II[Delta]B (CaMKII[Delta]B) regulates survival and growth in cardiomyocytes. However, the role of CaMKII[Delta] in CPCs has not been previously explored. CPCs increase nuclear CaMKII after MI and in vitro differentiation suggesting that CaMKII[Delta]B contributes to the regulation of CPC commitment. Overexpression of CaMKII[Delta]B in CPCs reduces proliferation, enhances resistance to death and increases cardiac specific differentiation. CaMKII[Delta]B may serve as a novel modulatory kinase to promote CPC survival and commitment. Despite increasing use of stem cells for regenerative-based cardiac therapy, the optimal stem cell population(s) remains uncertain. In the past decade there has been increasing interest and characterization of stem cell populations reported to directly and/or indirectly contributes to cardiac regeneration through processes of cardiomyogenic commitment and / or release of cardioprotective paracrine factors. Future therapies require development of unprecedented concepts to enhance myocardial healing. Combinatorial cell therapy utilizing CPCs and bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) promote enhanced reparative functions in vivo. However, identifying cell specific mechanisms of cardiac repair are difficult using dual cell systems. Here, we performed cell fusion between CPCs and MSCs to obtain hybrids with combined cell characteristics called CardioChimeras. Our ideal cell therapy is to combine the beneficial properties of CPCs to undergo cardiac specific commitment as well as MSCs that foster an improved microenvironment with protective paracrine secretion.

Resident Stem Cells and Regenerative Therapy

Resident Stem Cells and Regenerative Therapy Book
Author : Regina Coeli dos Santos Goldenberg,Antonio Carlos Campos de Carvalho
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-12-31
ISBN : 0123914418
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

In the last 3 decades, stem cells have greatly impacted the scientific and lay communities, providing huge advances in the treatment of devastating human diseases, including myocardial infarction, diabetes, muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and osteoporosis. Alongside debates of induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells has been the discovery of adult stem cells in many different tissues. While these organ resident or progenitor stem cells offer prospects to contribute to tissue regeneration, they also present challenges because of the complexity of organ structures. This book will present the main findings to date and the important factors to be considered when considering resident stem cells in regenerative therapies. Chapters on cardiac, brain, neural, liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, bone, pancreatic, skin, and lung resident stem cells will assist in defining the level of success that has been achieved and the direction for the road ahead. With contributions from leading laboratories, open questions related to resident stem cells and regenerative therapies will also be presented for debate. Highlights basic research in tissue specific stem cells, experiments with animal models and clinical trials that are transforming the field of regeneration Provides a clear understanding of endogenous stem cells, their role in current regenerative therapies, and prospects for future research Reports on the main-stream clinical approaches and in vivo experiments published in primary literature to help categorizes the advances in various aspects of regenerative therapy and illustrate opportunities for clinical applications

Stem Cell Assays

Stem Cell Assays Book
Author : Nagarajan Kannan,Philip Beer
Publisher : Humana
Release : 2022-01-13
ISBN : 9781071619780
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This volume explores the fields of stem cell biology, regenerative medicine, and cancer biology. The chapters in this book cover topics such as embryonic stem cells (ES) and induced pluripotent cells (iPS); ES/iPSC derived tissue stem cells; tissue resident stem cells; assays for primitive malignant cells; and CRISPR/Cas9 engineering and transgenic model development. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Cutting-edge and thorough, Stem Cell Assays: Methods and Protocols is a valuable laboratory manual that allows researchers and scientists to learn about new techniques and approaches in this developing field.

Muse Cells

Muse Cells Book
Author : Mari Dezawa
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-01-05
ISBN : 9784431568452
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book provides the first comprehensive account of multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells, a pluripotent and non-tumorigenic subpopulation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that have the ability to detect damage signals, migrate to damaged sites, and spontaneously differentiate into cells compatible with the affected tissue, thereby enabling repair of all tissue types. The coverage encompasses everything from the basic properties of Muse cells to their tissue repair effects and potential clinical applications—for example, in acute myocardial infarction, stroke, skin injuries and ulcers, renal failure, and liver disease. An important technical chapter provides a practical and precise protocol for the isolation of Muse cells, which will enable readers to use Muse cells in their own research. In offering fascinating insights into the strategic organization of the body’s reparative function and explaining how full utilization of Muse cells may significantly enhance the effectiveness of MSC treatment, the book will be of high value for Ph.D. students, postdocs, basic researchers, clinical doctors, and industrial developers.

Stem Cell and Biologic Scaffold Engineering

Stem Cell and Biologic Scaffold Engineering Book
Author : Panagiotis Mallis
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2019-10-04
ISBN : 3039214977
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving research field which effectively combines stem cells and biologic scaffolds in order to replace damaged tissues. Biologic scaffolds can be produced through the removal of resident cellular populations using several tissue engineering approaches, such as the decellularization method. Indeed, the decellularization method aims to develop a cell-free biologic scaffold while keeping the extracellular matrix (ECM) intact. Furthermore, biologic scaffolds have been investigated for their in vitro potential for whole organ development. Currently, clinical products composed of decellularized matrices, such as pericardium, urinary bladder, small intestine, heart valves, nerve conduits, trachea, and vessels, are being evaluated for use in human clinical trials. Tissue engineering strategies require the interaction of biologic scaffolds with cellular populations. Among them, stem cells are characterized by unlimited cell division, self-renewal, and differentiation potential, distinguishing themselves as a frontline source for the repopulation of decellularized matrices and scaffolds. Under this scheme, stem cells can be isolated from patients, expanded under good manufacturing practices (GMPs), used for the repopulation of biologic scaffolds and, finally, returned to the patient. The interaction between scaffolds and stem cells is thought to be crucial for their infiltration, adhesion, and differentiation into specific cell types. In addition, biomedical devices such as bioreactors contribute to the uniform repopulation of scaffolds. Until now, remarkable efforts have been made by the scientific society in order to establish the proper repopulation conditions of decellularized matrices and scaffolds. However, parameters such as stem cell number, in vitro cultivation conditions, and specific growth media composition need further evaluation. The ultimate goal is the development of “artificial” tissues similar to native ones, which is achieved by properly combining stem cells and biologic scaffolds and thus bringing them one step closer to personalized medicine. The original research articles and comprehensive reviews in this Special Issue deal with the use of stem cells and biologic scaffolds that utilize state-of-the-art tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches.

Multimodal Nanoparticles for Image guided Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Myocardial Infarction

Multimodal Nanoparticles for Image guided Delivery of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Treatment of Myocardial Infarction Book
Author : Sean Sweeney
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

One of the leading causes of death and hospital stays in the United States, myocardial infarction (MI) occurs when coronary blockages lead to downstream ischemia in the myocardium. Following the MI, the heart activates a number of pathways to repair or remodel the infarcted zone. Endothelial cells respond to ischemia by de-differentiating to form neovasculature and myofibroblasts. The resident cardiac differentiable stem cells (CDCs) are recruited via local cytokines and chemokines to the infarct zone where they too differentiate into myofibroblasts. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of the bone marrow respond to circulating factors by immobilizing to the heart and differentiating down cardiac lineages. In regenerative medicine approaches, these processes are exploited to augment the resident supply of reparative cells. Clinical trials to transplant cardiac stem cells into MI zones have been met with mixed results. When CDCs are harvested from autologous or type-matched donors, the cells are prepared with a minimum of manipulations, but the yield is quite small. Conversely, MSCs from bone marrow are highly proliferative, but the manipulations in culture required to trigger cardiac differentiation have been found to transform the cell into a more immunogenic phenotype. In addition, there is a dearth of in vivo evidence for the fate of transplanted cells. Currently, intracardiac echocardiographs are used to assess the infarcted area and to guide delivery of stem cell transplants. However, this modality is invasive, short-term, and does not image the transplanted cells directly. In this project, I addressed these shortcomings with a regenerative medicine and bioimaging approach.

Role of Stem Cells and Extracellular Matrix in the Regeneration of Skeletal Muscle

Role of Stem Cells and Extracellular Matrix in the Regeneration of Skeletal Muscle Book
Author : Andrew Dunn
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Adult skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity to initiate a rapid and extensive repair process after damage due to injury or degenerative disease. Although satellite cells are the primary skeletal muscle stem cells, there are many reports of non-satellite cell populations with myogenic capacity resident within skeletal muscle. The activity of muscle-resident stem cells during the regeneration process is tightly controlled through the dynamic interactions between intrinsic factors within the cells and extrinsic factors constituting the muscle stem cell niche. The extracellular matrix (ECM) in skeletal muscle plays an integral role in force transmission, structural maintenance, and regulation of stem cell niche. ECM interacts with stem cells either directly by binding cell surface receptors or indirectly through growth factor presentation, and maintains a balance between their quiescence, self-renewal, and differentiation. These interactions are reciprocal since the stem cells can remodel the niche and secrete or degrade ECM components. Natural ECM scaffolds, derived from decellularized tissues can influence stem cell activity both in vitro and in vivo and are widely being investigated for skeletal muscle repair. In this chapter, we discuss the regenerative potential of stem cell populations and ECM bioscaffolds in the treatment of skeletal muscle injury and disease.

Stem Cell Research on Cardiology

Stem Cell Research on Cardiology Book
Author : Robert David
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020-10
ISBN : 9783039431922
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Even today, cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of death worldwide, and therapeutic approaches are very restricted. Due to the limited regenerative capabilities of terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes post injury, new strategies to treat cardiac patients are urgently needed. Post myocardial injury, resident fibroblasts begin to generate the extracellular matrix, resulting in fibrosis, and finally, cardiac failure. Recently, preclinical investigations and clinical trials raised hope in stem cell-based approaches, to be an effective therapy option for these diseases. So far, several types of stem cells have been identified to be promising candidates to be applied for treatment: cardiac progenitor cells, bone marrow derived stem cells, embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells, as well as their descendants. Furthermore, the innovative techniques of direct cardiac reprogramming of cells offered promising options for cardiovascular research, in vitro and in vivo. Hereby, the investigation of underlying and associated mechanisms triggering the therapeutic effects of stem cell application is of particular importance to improve approaches for heart patients. This Special Issue of Cells provides the latest update in the rapidly developing field of regenerative medicine in cardiology.

Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine

Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Herman S. Cheung
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release : 2010-12-10
ISBN : 1608050084
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

"The potential use of stem cells in transplantation for the purpose of tissue regeneration is an exciting area of research currently undergoing rapid development. Implantation of human embryonic or autologous, ex vivo-expanded adult stem cells, particularl"

Stem Cell and Biologic Scaffold Engineering

Stem Cell and Biologic Scaffold Engineering Book
Author : Panagiotis Mallis
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 9783039214983
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is a rapidly evolving research field which effectively combines stem cells and biologic scaffolds in order to replace damaged tissues. Biologic scaffolds can be produced through the removal of resident cellular populations using several tissue engineering approaches, such as the decellularization method. Indeed, the decellularization method aims to develop a cell-free biologic scaffold while keeping the extracellular matrix (ECM) intact. Furthermore, biologic scaffolds have been investigated for their in vitro potential for whole organ development. Currently, clinical products composed of decellularized matrices, such as pericardium, urinary bladder, small intestine, heart valves, nerve conduits, trachea, and vessels, are being evaluated for use in human clinical trials. Tissue engineering strategies require the interaction of biologic scaffolds with cellular populations. Among them, stem cells are characterized by unlimited cell division, self-renewal, and differentiation potential, distinguishing themselves as a frontline source for the repopulation of decellularized matrices and scaffolds. Under this scheme, stem cells can be isolated from patients, expanded under good manufacturing practices (GMPs), used for the repopulation of biologic scaffolds and, finally, returned to the patient. The interaction between scaffolds and stem cells is thought to be crucial for their infiltration, adhesion, and differentiation into specific cell types. In addition, biomedical devices such as bioreactors contribute to the uniform repopulation of scaffolds. Until now, remarkable efforts have been made by the scientific society in order to establish the proper repopulation conditions of decellularized matrices and scaffolds. However, parameters such as stem cell number, in vitro cultivation conditions, and specific growth media composition need further evaluation. The ultimate goal is the development of "artificial" tissues similar to native ones, which is achieved by properly combining stem cells and biologic scaffolds and thus bringing them one step closer to personalized medicine. The original research articles and comprehensive reviews in this Special Issue deal with the use of stem cells and biologic scaffolds that utilize state-of-the-art tissue engineering and regenerative medicine approaches.

Human Pluripotent Stem Cell derived Mesothelium Functions in Regenerative Medicine as a Multipotent Vascular Progenitor

Human Pluripotent Stem Cell derived Mesothelium Functions in Regenerative Medicine as a Multipotent Vascular Progenitor Book
Author : Thomas Anthony Colunga
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The human body contains two major coelomic cavities, thoracic and abdominal, that are lined with an epithelial cell called mesothelium. Mesothelium also forms the outer layer of internal organs within these cavities and an additional protective pouch surrounding the heart called the pericardium. Mesothelium contributes to the development of the coelomic organs including the vasculature by acting as a multipotent vascular progenitor. During development and upon reactivation after injury, the mesothelium of the outer layer of organs loses its polarity and migrates to the underlying tissue in a process called epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). After undergoing EMT, mesothelium can differentiate to vascular lineages required for the growth of new blood vessels that play an important role in organ repair and regeneration processes. For these reasons, mesothelium constitutes a resident vascular progenitor cell type found in all coelomic organs including the heart, lung, liver and gut and may have utility in regenerative medicine. Utilizing human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), we have developed an in vitro-derived mesothelial cell (MesoT) that can give rise to all the required vascular lineages. When using MesoT as a cellular therapeutic for a mechanically injured neonatal mouse model we uncovered its ability to incorporate into newly formed blood vessels. MesoT cells were also used to reseed the vascular network of a decellularized biological scaffold. Subsequent in vivo implantation of the newly vascularized graft displayed patency, did not thrombose and was able to perfuse blood down to the capillary bed which confirmed its utility in tissue engineering and possible corrective surgery. This work constitutes one of the first reports of a true vascular progenitor that can give rise to all required cell types of the vasculature and highlights the utility of MesoT cells in regenerative medicine.

Biomaterials and Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine

Biomaterials and Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Murugan Ramalingam,Seeram Ramakrishna,Serena Best
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2012-07-03
ISBN : 1439879265
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Work in the area of biomaterials and stem cell therapy has revealed great potential for many applications, from the treatment of localized defects and diseases to the repair and replacement of whole organs. Researchers have also begun to develop a better understanding of the cellular environment needed for optimal tissue repair and regeneration. Biomaterials and Stem Cells in Regenerative Medicine explores a range of applications for biomaterials and stem cell therapy and describes recent research on suitable cell scaffolds and substrates for tissue repair and reconstruction. Featuring contributions by experts in the field, the book explores important scientific and clinical aspects. It covers the basic science involved in structure and properties, techniques and technological innovations in processing and characterization, and applications of biomaterials and stem cells. Topics include: Polymeric systems for stem cell delivery The potential of membranes and porous scaffolds in tissue repair, including myocardial, periodontal, ophthalmic, and bone tissues The optimization of the interaction between stem cells and biomaterial substrates The source and nature of stem cells for tissue engineering applications The clinical translation of stem cell–based tissue engineering for regenerative medicine From fundamental principles to recent advances at the macro, micro, nano, and molecular scales, the book brings together current knowledge on biomaterials and stem cells in the context of regenerative medicine. It also stimulates discussion about future research directions. This unique book offers a valuable benchmark for the current status of clinically relevant research and development in stem cells and regenerative medicine. It bridges the gaps in experimental approaches and understanding among the materials science and engineering, biological sciences, and biomedical science and engineering communities, making it a valuable reference for graduate students, researchers, and practitioners working in the multidisciplinary field of biomedical research.

Molecular Regulation of Muscle resident Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Molecular Regulation of Muscle resident Mesenchymal Stem Cells Book
Author : Alisa Anne Mueller
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFR [alpha]) exhibits divergent effects in skeletal muscle. At physiological levels, signaling through this receptor promotes muscle development in growing embryos and proper angiogenesis in regenerating adult muscle. However, increased PDGF ligands and enhanced PDGFR [alpha] pathway cause pathological fibrosis. This excessive collagen deposition, which is seen in aged and diseased muscle, interferes with proper muscle contraction and limits the effectiveness of gene- and cell- based therapies for muscle disorders. Although compelling evidence exists for the role of PDGFR [alpha] in fibrosis, little is known about the cells through which this pathway acts. Here we show that PDGFR [alpha] signaling regulates a population of muscle-resident mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) that play a supportive role in muscle regeneration but may also cause fibrotic buildup when aberrantly regulated. Unexpectedly, our investigation revealed that changes in alternative polyadenylation of PDGFR [alpha] control MSC activation and consequently tissue regenerative potential. MSCs produce multiple transcriptional variants of PDGFR alpha] with different polyadenylation sites including an intronic variant of PDGFR [alpha] that codes for a protein isoform containing a truncated kinase domain. This variant, upregulated during regeneration, inhibits PDGF signaling and prevents MSC over-activation. Increasing expression of this isoform through administration of specified morpholinos limits fibrosis in vivo. Furthermore, in our global analysis of polyadenylation patterns in MSCs, we show that intronic polyadenylation is not limited to PDGFR [alpha]. Rather, it is a widespread phenomenon, and the levels of intronic polyadenylation variants compared to their full-length counterparts increases with cell activation on a global level. Overall, our findings suggest both biological relevance and therapeutic potential of modulating polyadenylation patterns in stem cell populations.

Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine

Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine Book
Author : Vahid Serpooshan,Sean M. Wu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-06-29
ISBN : 3030200477
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book is a comprehensive and up-to-date resource on the use of regenerative medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. It provides a much-needed review of the rapid development and evolution of bio-fabrication techniques to engineer cardiovascular tissues as well as their use in clinical settings. The book incorporates recent advances in the biology, biomaterial design, and manufacturing of bioengineered cardiovascular tissue with their clinical applications to bridge the basic sciences to current and future cardiovascular treatment. The book begins with an examination of state-of-the-art cellular, biomaterial, and macromolecular technologies for the repair and regeneration of diseased heart tissue. It discusses advances in nanotechnology and bioengineering of cardiac microtissues using acoustic assembly. Subsequent chapters explore the clinical applications and translational potential of current technologies such as cardiac patch-based treatments, cell-based regenerative therapies, and injectable hydrogels. The book examines how these methodologies are used to treat a variety of cardiovascular diseases including myocardial infarction, congenital heart disease, and ischemic heart injuries. Finally, the volume concludes with a summary of the most prominent challenges and perspectives on the field of cardiovascular tissue engineering and clinical cardiovascular regenerative medicine. Cardiovascular Regenerative Medicine is an essential resource for physicians, residents, fellows, and medical students in cardiology and cardiovascular regeneration as well as clinical and basic researchers in bioengineering, nanomaterial and technology, and cardiovascular biology.

The Vascular Niche in Tissue Repair A Therapeutic Target for Regeneration

The Vascular Niche in Tissue Repair  A Therapeutic Target for Regeneration Book
Author : Francisco J. Rivera,Ludwig Aigner
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2018-03-13
ISBN : 288945410X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Tissues and organs have, although sometimes limited, the capacity for endogenous repair, which is aimed to re-establish integrity and homeostasis. Tissue repair involves pro- and anti-inflammatory processes, new tissue formation and remodelling. Depending on the local microenvironment, tissue repair results either in scar tissue formation or in regeneration. The latter aims to recapitulate the original tissue structure and architecture with the proper functionality. Although some organisms (such as planarians) have a high regenerative capacity throughout the body, in humans this property is more restricted to a few organs and tissues. Regeneration in the adult is possible in particular through the existence of tissue-resident pools of stem/progenitor cells. In response to tissue damage, these cells are activated, they proliferate and migrate, and differentiate into mature cells. Angiogenesis and neovascularization play a crucial role in tissue repair. Besides providing with oxygen and nutrients, angiogenesis generates a vascular niche (VN) consisting of different blood-derived elements and endothelial cells surrounded by basement membrane as well as perivascular cells. The newly generated VN communicates with the local stem/progenitor cells and contributes to tissue repair. For example, platelets, macrophages, neutrophils, perivascular cells and other VN components actively participate in the repair of skin, bone, muscle, tendon, brain, spinal cord, etc. Despite these observations, the exact role of the VN in tissue repair and the underlying mechanisms are still unclear and are awaiting further evidence that, indeed, will be required for the development of regenerative therapies for the treatment of traumatic injuries as well as degenerative diseases.