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Reprocessing And Recycling Of Spent Nuclear Fuel

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Reprocessing and Recycling of Spent Nuclear Fuel

Reprocessing and Recycling of Spent Nuclear Fuel Book
Author : Robin Taylor
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-04-18
ISBN : 178242217X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reprocessing and Recycling of Spent Nuclear Fuel presents an authoritative overview of spent fuel reprocessing, considering future prospects for advanced closed fuel cycles. Part One introduces the recycling and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel, reviewing past and current technologies, the possible implications of Generation IV nuclear reactors, and associated safely and security issues. Parts Two and Three focus on aqueous-based reprocessing methods and pyrochemical methods, while final chapters consider the cross-cutting aspects of engineering and process chemistry and the potential for implementation of advanced closed fuel cycles in different parts of the world. Expert introduction to the recycling and reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel Detailed overview of past and current technologies, the possible implications of Generation IV nuclear reactors, and associated safely and security issues A lucid exploration of aqueous-based reprocessing methods and pyrochemical methods

Available Reprocessing and Recycling Services for Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel

Available Reprocessing and Recycling Services for Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Book
Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018-01-30
ISBN : 9789201032164
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The high enriched uranium (HEU) take back programmes will soon have achieved their goals. When there are no longer HEU inventories at research reactors and no commerce in HEU for research reactors, the primary driver for the take back programmes will cease. However, research reactors will continue to operate in order to meet their various mission objectives. As a result, inventories of low enriched uranium spent nuclear fuel (LEU SNF) will continue to be created during the research reactors lifetime and, therefore, there is a need to develop national final disposition routes. This publication is designed to address the issues of available reprocessing and recycling services for research reactor spent fuel and discusses the various back end management aspects of the research reactor fuel cycle.

Bangor Symposium on Communications 3

Bangor Symposium on Communications   3 Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1991
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Bangor Symposium on Communications 3 book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

An Assessment of Spent Fuel Reprocessing for Actinide Destruction and Resource Sustainability

An Assessment of Spent Fuel Reprocessing for Actinide Destruction and Resource Sustainability Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The reprocessing and recycling of spent nuclear fuel can benefit the nuclear fuel cycle by destroying actinides or extending fissionable resources if uranium supplies become limited. The purpose of this study was to assess reprocessing and recycling in both fast and thermal reactors to determine the effectiveness for actinide destruction and resource utilization. Fast reactor recycling will reduce both the mass and heat load of actinides by a factor of 2, but only after 3 recycles and many decades. Thermal reactor recycling is similarly effective for reducing actinide mass, but the heat load will increase by a factor of 2. Economically recoverable reserves of uranium are estimated to sustain the current global fleet for the next 100 years, and undiscovered reserves and lower quality ores are estimated to contain twice the amount of economically recoverable reserves--which delays the concern of resource utilization for many decades. Economic analysis reveals that reprocessed plutonium will become competitive only when uranium prices rise to about %24360 per kg. Alternative uranium sources are estimated to be competitive well below that price. Decisions regarding the development of a near term commercial-scale reprocessing fuel cycle must partially take into account the effectiveness of reactors for actnides destruction and the time scale for when uranium supplies may become limited. Long-term research and development is recommended in order to make more dramatic improvements in actinide destruction and cost reductions for advanced fuel cycle technologies. The original scope of this work was to optimize an advanced fuel cycle using a tool that couples a reprocessing plant simulation model with a depletion analysis code. Due to funding and time constraints of the late start LDRD process and a lack of support for follow-on work, the project focused instead on a comparison of different reprocessing and recycling options. This optimization study led to new insight into the fuel cycle. AcknowledgementThe authors would like to acknowledge the support of Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project 125862 for funding this research.

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Waste Management

Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Waste Management Book
Author : Zhang Jinsuo
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2018-08-07
ISBN : 9813271388
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The question of how to effectively, efficiently, and responsibly manage used nuclear fuels is a concern of major impediment in the light of today's increasing usage of nuclear power and development of advanced nuclear reactors. This book focuses on two significant areas of (used) nuclear fuel: the reprocessing technology, and waste disposal and management. The book covers the fundamental knowledge, the current state-of-the-art, and future research activities for each topic. This book provides readers with the fundamental knowledge behind of nuclear used fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management, and their technical applications, and their requirements and practices; to make the readers aware of social, economic, and environmental concerns as well as technical research needs. The book covers two well-known and well-developed reprocessing technologies: aqueous reprocessing technology, and electrochemical pyroprocessing. On the subject of waste management, it covers the dry storage of used nuclear fuel, novel waste form design, and nuclear waste disposal. This book is a good guide for readers who want to understand, apply, or develop the technologies.

The Economics of Reprocessing Vs Direct Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel

The Economics of Reprocessing Vs  Direct Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel Book
Author : Matthew Bunn,Project on Managing the Atom (Harvard University),Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2003
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report assesses the economics of reprocessing versus direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The breakeven uranium price at which reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and recycling the resulting plutonium and uranium in LWRs would become economic is assessed, using central estimates of the costs of different elements of the nuclear fuel cycle (and other fuel cycle input parameters), for a wide range of potential reprocessing prices. Sensitivity analysis is performed, showing that the conclusions reached are robust across a wide range of input parameters. The contribution of direct disposal or reprocessing and recycling to electricity cost is also assessed. The choice of particular central estimates and ranges for the input parameters of the fuel cycle model is justified through a review of the relevant literature. The impact of different fuel cycle approaches on the volume needed for geologic repositories is briefly discussed, as are the issues surrounding the possibility of performing separations and transmutation on spent nuclear fuel to reduce the need for additional repositories. A similar analysis is then performed of the breakeven uranium price at which deploying fast neutron breeder reactors would become competitive compared with a once-through fuel cycle in LWRs, for a range of possible differences in capital cost between LWRs and fast neutron reactors. Sensitivity analysis is again provided, as are an analysis of the contribution to electricity cost, and a justification of the choices of central estimates and ranges for the input parameters. The equations used in the economic model are derived and explained in an appendix. Another appendix assesses the quantities of uranium likely to be recoverable worldwide in the future at a range of different possible future prices.

Decommissioned Submarines in the Russian Northwest

Decommissioned Submarines in the Russian Northwest Book
Author : E.J. Kirk
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401156182
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Until the late 1970s, most commercial power plant operators outside the United States adopted a spent fuel management policy of immediate reprocessing and recycling of recovered products. In response to rising reprocessing prices, decreasing values of re covered products, concerns over proliferation risks, and a belief in the favorable eco nomics of direct disposal, many utilities have since opted to store spent fuel on an in terim basis pending the availability of direct disposal facilities or a change in the eco nomic and/or political climate for reprocessing and recycling uranium and plutonium. Spent fuel has traditionally been stored in water-filled pools located in the reactor building or fuel handling buildings, on reactor sites, or as part of large centralized fa cilities (e.g. Sellafield, La Hague, CLAB). Because the economics of pool storage are dependent on the size of the facility, the construction of additional separate pools on reactor sites has only been pursued in a few countries, such as Finland and Bulgaria.

Global Nuclear Energy Partnership

Global Nuclear Energy Partnership Book
Author : Gene Aloise
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release : 2008-10
ISBN : 1437905935
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Dept. of Energy (DoE) proposes under the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) to build facilities to begin recycling the nation's commercial spent nuclear fuel. GNEP¿s objectives include reducing radioactive waste disposed of in a geologic repository and mitigating the nuclear proliferation risks of existing recycling technologies. The current GNEP plan favors working with industry to demonstrate the latest commercially available technology in full-scale facilities and to do so in a way that will attract industry investment. This report evaluates the extent to which DoE would address GNEP¿s objectives under: (1) its original engineering-scale approach; and (2) the accelerated approach to building full-scale facilities. Includes recommend. Ill.

3 R s of Nuclear Power

3 R s of Nuclear Power Book
Author : Jan Forsythe
Publisher : AuthorHouse
Release : 2009
ISBN : 1438967314
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download 3 R s of Nuclear Power book written by Jan Forsythe, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Nuclear Reactor Spent Fuel Valuation

Nuclear Reactor Spent Fuel Valuation Book
Author : Kenneth A. Solomon
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1978
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Nuclear Reactor Spent Fuel Valuation book written by Kenneth A. Solomon, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuels in OECD Countries January 1977

Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuels in OECD Countries  January 1977 Book
Author : OECD Nuclear Energy Agency,OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Expert Group on Oxide Fuel Reprocessing,Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Nuclear Energy Agency. Expert Group on Oxide Fuel Reprocessing
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1977
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Reprocessing of Spent Nuclear Fuels in OECD Countries January 1977 book written by OECD Nuclear Energy Agency,OECD Nuclear Energy Agency. Expert Group on Oxide Fuel Reprocessing,Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Nuclear Energy Agency. Expert Group on Oxide Fuel Reprocessing, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX 3c Process

Systems Analysis of an Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycle Based on a Modified UREX 3c Process Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The research described in this report was performed under a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to describe and compare the merits of two advanced alternative nuclear fuel cycles -- named by this study as the "UREX+3c fuel cycle" and the "Alternative Fuel Cycle" (AFC). Both fuel cycles were assumed to support 100 1,000 MWe light water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants operating over the period 2020 through 2100, and the fast reactors (FRs) necessary to burn the plutonium and minor actinides generated by the LWRs. Reprocessing in both fuel cycles is assumed to be based on the UREX+3c process reported in earlier work by the DOE. Conceptually, the UREX+3c process provides nearly complete separation of the various components of spent nuclear fuel in order to enable recycle of reusable nuclear materials, and the storage, conversion, transmutation and/or disposal of other recovered components. Output of the process contains substantially all of the plutonium, which is recovered as a 5:1 uranium/plutonium mixture, in order to discourage plutonium diversion. Mixed oxide (MOX) fuel for recycle in LWRs is made using this 5:1 U/Pu mixture plus appropriate makeup uranium. A second process output contains all of the recovered uranium except the uranium in the 5:1 U/Pu mixture. The several other process outputs are various waste streams, including a stream of minor actinides that are stored until they are consumed in future FRs. For this study, the UREX+3c fuel cycle is assumed to recycle only the 5:1 U/Pu mixture to be used in LWR MOX fuel and to use depleted uranium (tails) for the makeup uranium. This fuel cycle is assumed not to use the recovered uranium output stream but to discard it instead. On the other hand, the AFC is assumed to recycle both the 5:1 U/Pu mixture and all of the recovered uranium. In this case, the recovered uranium is reenriched with the level of enrichment being determined by the amount of recovered plutonium and the combined amount of the resulting MOX. The study considered two sub-cases within each of the two fuel cycles in which the uranium and plutonium from the first generation of MOX spent fuel (i) would not be recycled to produce a second generation of MOX for use in LWRs or (ii) would be recycled to produce a second generation of MOX fuel for use in LWRs. The study also investigated the effects of recycling MOX spent fuel multiple times in LWRs. The study assumed that both fuel cycles would store and then reprocess spent MOX fuel that is not recycled to produce a next generation of LWR MOX fuel and would use the recovered products to produce FR fuel. The study further assumed that FRs would begin to be brought on-line in 2043, eleven years after recycle begins in LWRs, when products from 5-year cooled spent MOX fuel would be available. Fuel for the FRs would be made using the uranium, plutonium, and minor actinides recovered from MOX. For the cases where LWR fuel was assumed to be recycled one time, the 1st generation of MOX spent fuel was used to provide nuclear materials for production of FR fuel. For the cases where the LWR fuel was assumed to be recycled two times, the 2nd generation of MOX spent fuel was used to provide nuclear materials for production of FR fuel. The number of FRs in operation was assumed to increase in successive years until the rate that actinides were recovered from permanently discharged spent MOX fuel equaled the rate the actinides were consumed by the operating fleet of FRs. To compare the two fuel cycles, the study analyzed recycle of nuclear fuel in LWRs and FRs and determined the radiological characteristics of irradiated nuclear fuel, nuclear waste products, and recycle nuclear fuels. It also developed a model to simulate the flows of nuclear materials that could occur in the two advanced nuclear fuel cycles over 81 years beginning in 2020 and ending in 2100. Simulations projected the flows of uranium, plutonium, and minor actinides as these nuclear fuel materials were produced and consumed in a fleet of 100 1,000 MWe LWRs and in FRs. The model also included recycle and reuse of extant inventories of spent LWR fuel. The results of the simulations allowed comparisons of the two fuel cycles from the standpoints of cost, non-proliferation, radiological health, wastes generated, and sustainability. Results of the research also provide insights regarding (i) multiple recycling of uranium and plutonium from spent MOX fuel in LWRs, (ii) costs and benefits of reenriching and reusing uranium from spent LWR fuel; (iii) effects of using uranium, plutonium, and minor actinides from LWR spent fuels to produce fuel for FRs; (iv) net rates of consumption (burning) in FRs of actinide elements produced in LWRs, and (v) ependencies of and interactions among the different systems of an advanced nuclear fuel cycle -- and the flows of nuclear materials between these systems.

Advanced Separation Techniques for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Radioactive Waste Treatment

Advanced Separation Techniques for Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing and Radioactive Waste Treatment Book
Author : Kenneth L Nash,Gregg J Lumetta
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-03-15
ISBN : 0857092278
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advanced separations technology is key to closing the nuclear fuel cycle and relieving future generations from the burden of radioactive waste produced by the nuclear power industry. Nuclear fuel reprocessing techniques not only allow for recycling of useful fuel components for further power generation, but by also separating out the actinides, lanthanides and other fission products produced by the nuclear reaction, the residual radioactive waste can be minimised. Indeed, the future of the industry relies on the advancement of separation and transmutation technology to ensure environmental protection, criticality-safety and non-proliferation (i.e., security) of radioactive materials by reducing their long-term radiological hazard. Advanced separation techniques for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment provides a comprehensive and timely reference on nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment. Part one covers the fundamental chemistry, engineering and safety of radioactive materials separations processes in the nuclear fuel cycle, including coverage of advanced aqueous separations engineering, as well as on-line monitoring for process control and safeguards technology. Part two critically reviews the development and application of separation and extraction processes for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment. The section includes discussions of advanced PUREX processes, the UREX+ concept, fission product separations, and combined systems for simultaneous radionuclide extraction. Part three details emerging and innovative treatment techniques, initially reviewing pyrochemical processes and engineering, highly selective compounds for solvent extraction, and developments in partitioning and transmutation processes that aim to close the nuclear fuel cycle. The book concludes with other advanced techniques such as solid phase extraction, supercritical fluid and ionic liquid extraction, and biological treatment processes. With its distinguished international team of contributors, Advanced separation techniques for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment is a standard reference for all nuclear waste management and nuclear safety professionals, radiochemists, academics and researchers in this field. A comprehensive and timely reference on nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment Details emerging and innovative treatment techniques, reviewing pyrochemical processes and engineering, as well as highly selective compounds for solvent extraction Discusses the development and application of separation and extraction processes for nuclear fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste treatment

Background Status and Issues Related to the Regulation of Advanced Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycle Facilities

Background  Status  and Issues Related to the Regulation of Advanced Spent Nuclear Fuel Recycle Facilities Book
Author : U.s. Nuclear Reglatory Commission
Publisher : CreateSpace
Release : 2014-06-09
ISBN : 9781500141103
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In February 2006, the Commission directed the Advisory Committee on Nuclear Waste and Materials (ACNW&M) to remain abreast of developments in the area of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing, and to be ready to provide advice should the need arise. A white paper was prepared in response to that direction and focuses on three major areas: (1) historical approaches to development, design, and operation of spent nuclear fuel recycle facilities, (2) recent advances in spent nuclear fuel recycle technologies, and (3) technical and regulatory issues that will need to be addressed if advanced spent nuclear fuel recycle is to be implemented. This white paper was sent to the Commission by the ACNW&M as an attachment to a letter dated October 11, 2007 (ML072840119). In addition to being useful to the ACNW&M in advising the Commission, the authors believe that the white paper could be useful to a broad audience, including the NRC staff, the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors, and other organizations interested in understanding the nuclear fuel cycle.

Waste Management Planned for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility

Waste Management Planned for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) program has been proposed to develop and employ advanced technologies to increase the proliferation resistance of spent nuclear fuels, recover and reuse nuclear fuel resources, and reduce the amount of wastes requiring permanent geological disposal. In the initial GNEP fuel cycle concept, spent nuclear fuel is to be reprocessed to separate re-useable transuranic elements and uranium from waste fission products, for fabricating new fuel for fast reactors. The separated wastes would be converted to robust waste forms for disposal. The Advanced Fuel Cycle Facility (AFCF) is proposed by DOE for developing and demonstrating spent nuclear fuel recycling technologies and systems. The AFCF will include capabilities for receiving and reprocessing spent fuel and fabricating new nuclear fuel from the reprocessed spent fuel. Reprocessing and fuel fabrication activities will generate a variety of radioactive and mixed waste streams. Some of these waste streams are unique and unprecedented. The GNEP vision challenges traditional U.S. radioactive waste policies and regulations. Product and waste streams have been identified during conceptual design. Waste treatment technologies have been proposed based on the characteristics of the waste streams and the expected requirements for the final waste forms. Results of AFCF operations will advance new technologies that will contribute to safe and economical commercial spent fuel reprocessing facilities needed to meet the GNEP vision. As conceptual design work and research and design continues, the waste management strategies for the AFCF are expected to also evolve.

Transmutation of Transuranic Elements in Advanced MOX and IMF Fuel Assemblies Utilizing Multi recycling Strategies

Transmutation of Transuranic Elements in Advanced MOX and IMF Fuel Assemblies Utilizing Multi recycling Strategies Book
Author : Yunhuang Zhang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The accumulation of spent nuclear fuel may be hindering the expansion of nuclear electricity production. However, the reprocessing and recycling of spent fuel may reduce its volume and environmental burden. Although fast spectrum reactors are the preferred modality for transuranic element transmutation, such fast spectrum systems are in very short supply. It is therefore legitimate to investigate the recycling potential of thermal spectrum systems, which constitute the overwhelming majority of nuclear power plants worldwide. To do so efficiently, several new fuel assembly designs are proposed in this Thesis: these include (1) Mixed Oxide Fuel (MOX), (2) MOX fuel with Americium coating, (3) Inert-Matrix Fuel (IMF) with UOX as inner zone, and (4) IMF with MOX as inner zone. All these designs are investigated in a multi-recycling strategy, whereby the spent fuel from a given generation is re-used for the next generation. Computer simulations in terms of in-reactor fuel depletion and long-term isotopic decay are carried out. Results are summarized and measured in terms of Transuranics mass, long-term radiotoxicity and decay heat after irradiation in reactor. All the results are normalized to per 1TWh-electricity produced.

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options Book
Author : U.s. Government Accountability Office
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017-08-14
ISBN : 9781974549528
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"More demand for electricity and concerns about greenhouse gas emissions have increased interest in nuclear power, which does not rely on fossil fuels. However, concerns remain about the radioactive spent fuel that nuclear reactors generate. The Department of Energy (DOE) issued a research and development (R&D) plan to select nuclear fuel cycles and technologies, some of which reprocess spent fuel and recycle some nuclear material, such as plutonium. These fuel cycles may help reduce the generation of spent fuel and risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. GAO was asked to review (1) DOE's approach to selecting nuclear fuel cycles and technologies, (2) DOE's efforts to reduce proliferation and terrorism risks, and (3) selected countries' experiences in reprocessing and recycling spent fuel. GAO reviewed DOE's plan and met with officials from DOE, the nuclear industry, and France and the United Kingdom. "

Reprocessing of Nuclear Fuel and Plutonium Breeder Commercialization

Reprocessing of Nuclear Fuel and Plutonium Breeder Commercialization Book
Author : Wayne DeRoyce Perry
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1978
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Reprocessing of Nuclear Fuel and Plutonium Breeder Commercialization book written by Wayne DeRoyce Perry, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Nuclear Waste Disposal

Nuclear Waste Disposal Book
Author : Mark Holt
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release : 2010-02
ISBN : 1437923275
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Contents: (1) Proposals for a New Direction; (2) Baseline: Current Waste Program Projections; (3) Options for Halting or Delaying Yucca Mountain: Withdraw License Application; Reduce Appropriations; Key Policy Appointments; Waste Program Review; (4) Consequences of a Yucca Mountain Policy Shift: Federal Liabilities for Disposal Delays; Licensing Complications for New Power Reactors; Environmental Cleanup Penalties; Long-Term Risk; (5) Nuclear Waste Policy: Options; Institutional Changes; Extended On-Site Storage; Federal Central Interim Storage; Private Central Storage; Spent Fuel Reprocessing and Recycling; Non-Repository Options; New Repository Site; (6) Concluding Discussion.

Nuclear Reprocessing

Nuclear Reprocessing Book
Author : Source Wikipedia
Publisher : University-Press.org
Release : 2013-09
ISBN : 9781230579665
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Pages: 44. Chapters: Behavior of nuclear fuel during a reactor accident, Bismuth phosphate process, CANFLEX, Clab, Fluoride volatility, Geomelting, International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation, MOX fuel, Novouralsk, Nuclear fuel cycle, Nuclear fuel cycle information system, Post Irradiation Examination, PUREX, Reprocessed uranium, Spent nuclear fuel, Spent nuclear fuel shipping cask, Thorium fuel cycle. Excerpt: Nuclear reprocessing technology was developed to chemically separate and recover fissionable plutonium from irradiated nuclear fuel. Reprocessing serves multiple purposes, whose relative importance has changed over time. Originally reprocessing was used solely to extract plutonium for producing nuclear weapons. With the commercialization of nuclear power, the reprocessed plutonium was recycled back into MOX nuclear fuel for thermal reactors. The reprocessed uranium, which constitutes the bulk of the spent fuel material, can in principle also be re-used as fuel, but that is only economic when uranium prices are high. Finally, a breeder reactor can employ not only the recycled plutonium and uranium in spent fuel, but all the actinides, closing the nuclear fuel cycle and potentially multiplying the energy extracted from natural uranium by about 60 times. Nuclear reprocessing reduces the volume of high-level waste, but by itself does not reduce radioactivity or heat generation and therefore does not eliminate the need for a geological waste repository. Reprocessing has been politically controversial because of the potential to contribute to nuclear proliferation, the potential vulnerability to nuclear terrorism, the political challenges of repository siting (a problem that applies equally to direct disposal of spent fuel), and because of its high cost compared to the once-through fuel cycle. In the United States, the...