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Remote Sensing of Aerosols Clouds and Precipitation

Remote Sensing of Aerosols  Clouds  and Precipitation Book
Author : Tanvir Islam,Yongxiang Hu,Alexander A. Kokhanovsky,Jun Wang
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-10-31
ISBN : 0128104384
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Remote Sensing of Aerosols, Clouds, and Precipitation compiles recent advances in aerosol, cloud, and precipitation remote sensing from new satellite observations. The book examines a wide range of measurements from microwave (both active and passive), visible, and infrared portions of the spectrum. Contributors are experts conducting state-of-the-art research in atmospheric remote sensing using space, airborne, and ground-based datasets, focusing on supporting earth observation satellite missions for aerosol, cloud, and precipitation studies. A handy reference for scientists working in remote sensing, earth science, electromagnetics, climate physics, and space engineering. Valuable for operational forecasters, meteorologists, geospatial experts, modelers, and policymakers alike. Presents new approaches in the field, along with further research opportunities, based on the latest satellite data Focuses on how remote sensing systems can be designed/developed to solve outstanding problems in earth and atmospheric sciences Edited by a dynamic team of editors with a mixture of highly skilled and qualified authors offering world-leading expertise in the field

Remote Sensing of Clouds and Precipitation

Remote Sensing of Clouds and Precipitation Book
Author : Constantin Andronache
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-02-21
ISBN : 3319725831
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents current applications of remote sensing techniques for clouds and precipitation for the benefit of students, educators, and scientists. It covers ground-based systems such as weather radars and spaceborne instruments on satellites. Measurements and modeling of precipitation are at the core of weather forecasting, and long-term observations of the cloud system are vital to improving atmospheric models and climate projections. The first section of the book focuses on the use of ground-based weather radars to observe and measure precipitation and to detect and forecast storms, thunderstorms, and tornadoes. It also discusses the observation of clouds using ground-based millimeter radar. The second part of the book concentrates on spaceborne remote sensing of clouds and precipitation. It includes cases from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission, using satellite radars to observe precipitation systems. Then, the focus is on global cloud observations from the ClaudSat, Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), including a perspective on the Earth Clouds, Aerosols, and Radiation Explorer (EarthCARE) satellite. It also addresses global atmospheric water vapor profiling for clear and cloudy conditions using microwave observations. The final part of this volume provides a perspective into advances in cloud modeling using remote sensing observations.

High Resolution Active Optical Remote Sensing Observations of Aerosols Clouds and Aerosol Cloud Interactions and Their Implication to Climate

High Resolution Active Optical Remote Sensing Observations of Aerosols  Clouds and Aerosol Cloud Interactions and Their Implication to Climate Book
Author : Simone Lolli,Kai Qin,James Campbell,Sheng-Hsiang (Carlo) Wang
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2020-12-03
ISBN : 3039436015
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Remote Sensing is of paramount importance for Earth Observation to monitor and analyze the Earth’s vital signs. In this Special Issue are reported the latest research results involving active optical remote sensing instruments, both from ground-based to satellite platforms, that are involved in analyzing the vertical and horizontal aerosol and cloud distribution, other than their geometrical, optical and microphysical properties. Those active optical remote sensing techniques are also very useful in determining pollutant dispersion and the dynamics inside the boundary layer. The published studies put in evidence the hidden mechanisms on how pollution from the source is advected transnationally in other countries and the interaction with local meteorology.

Mixed Phase Clouds

Mixed Phase Clouds Book
Author : Constantin Andronache
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-09-28
ISBN : 012810550X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Mixed-Phase Clouds: Observations and Modeling presents advanced research topics on mixed-phase clouds. As the societal impacts of extreme weather and its forecasting grow, there is a continuous need to refine atmospheric observations, techniques and numerical models. Understanding the role of clouds in the atmosphere is increasingly vital for current applications, such as prediction and prevention of aircraft icing, weather modification, and the assessment of the effects of cloud phase partition in climate models. This book provides the essential information needed to address these problems with a focus on current observations, simulations and applications. Provides in-depth knowledge and simulation of mixed-phase clouds over many regions of Earth, explaining their role in weather and climate Features current research examples and case studies, including those on advanced research methods from authors with experience in both academia and the industry Discusses the latest advances in this subject area, providing the reader with access to best practices for remote sensing and numerical modeling

Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation

Aerosol Pollution Impact on Precipitation Book
Author : Zev Levin,William R. Cotton
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-09-30
ISBN : 9781402086908
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Life on Earth is critically dependent upon the continuous cycling of water between oceans, continents and the atmosphere. Precipitation (including rain, snow, and hail) is the primary mechanism for transporting water from the atmosphere back to the Earth’s surface. It is also the key physical process that links aspects of climate, weather, and the global hydrological cycle. Changes in precipitation regimes and the frequency of extreme weather events, such as floods, droughts, severe ice/snow storms, monsoon fluctuations and hurricanes are of great potential importance to life on the planet. One of the factors that could contribute to precipitation modification is aerosol pollution from various sources such as urban air pollution and biomass burning. Natural and anthropogenic changes in atmospheric aerosols might have important implications for precipitation by influencing the hydrological cycle, which in turn could feed back to climate changes. From an Earth Science perspective, a key question is how changes expected in climate will translate into changes in the hydrological cycle, and what trends may be expected in the future. We require a much better understanding and hence predictive capability of the moisture and energy storages and exchanges among the Earth’s atmosphere, oceans, continents and biological systems. This book is a review of our knowledge of the relationship between aerosols and precipitation reaching the Earth's surface and it includes a list of recommendations that could help to advance our knowledge in this area.

Climate and Radiation

Climate and Radiation Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1997
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides information on aerosols, clouds, rainfall, modeling, remote sensing.

Aerosol cloud precipitation Interaction in Ultraclean Layers and Optically Thin Veil Cloud System in the Stratocumulus to Cumulus Transition

Aerosol cloud precipitation Interaction in Ultraclean Layers and Optically Thin Veil Cloud System in the Stratocumulus to Cumulus Transition Book
Author : Kuan-Ting O
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent observational studies have shown that ultraclean layers (UCLs) and optically thin veil clouds associated with precipitating deep cumulus are common features of the marine boundary layer in the stratocumulus to cumulus transition. The very low number concentration of cloud droplet and cloud condensation nuclei in UCLs, strong precipitation in the associated cumulus, together with the low optical thickness of optically thin veil clouds, make such a system particularly appealing for the study of aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions. More importantly, low cloud radiative properties biases (i.e., too few, too bright low cloud bias) in the current generation of global climate models (GCMs) seems strongly associated with the uncertainty in representing optically thin veil clouds, and these clouds may serve as an important constraint on the too few, too bright problem. However, systematic investigation of (1) global contribution and seasonal variability of optically thin veil clouds and (2) aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in UCLs and optically thin veil clouds is still lacking. We aim to investigate these problems with aircraft remote sensing, satellite measurements and a cloud resolving model. The dissertation is organized into the following three sections: • Using high resolution aircraft remote sensing measurement to characterize optically thin veil clouds in the stratocumulus to cumulus transition (SCT): Aircraft remote sensing measurements (i.e., lidar and radar) taken abroad NSF/NCAR GV-HIAPER research flights flown during the Cloud System Evolution in the Trades field campaign (CSET) sampled marine air masses between Sacramento, California (38.68N, 121.58W), and Kona (19.68N, 156.08W) are used in our study. Optically thin veil clouds, defined as the subset of low clouds with cloud bases > 1 km that do not fully attenuate high-spectral-resolution lidar signal (HSRL) (i.e., indicating optical depths 3), comprise considerable cover of low clouds (~ 40 %) over the SCT. It is found that optically thin veil clouds are also geometrically thin with cloud thickness ~ 200 m, and commonly reside in the upper boundary layer with average cloud base 1.5 km. • Investigating deeper, precipitating PBLs associated with optically thin veil clouds in the Sc-Cu Transition using spaceborne satellite measurements: Variability and vertical structure of optically thin veil clouds over SCT regions around the globe are investigated using both passive and active satellite observations. These observations reveal pronounced relationships between optically thin veil clouds, strong precipitation, deep planetary boundary layer (PBL) height and low cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC). The results are in agreement with the hypothesis that the low optical thickness of veil clouds over the SCT is contingent on the low CDNC caused by strong precipitation scavenging occurring in active cumuli, a process whose efficiency is strongly dependent on maximum condensate amount in updrafts and thus is highly constrained by PBL height. • Exploring aerosol-cloud-precipitation processes in UCLs and optically thin veil clouds system using a cloud resolving model: Characteristics of UCLs and optically thin veil clouds are investigated in the cloud resolving model (CRM). The domain mean cloud and aerosol properties in UCLs and optically thin veil clouds from CRM simulations agree with recent observational studies in general. The simulation results show that the detrainment from active precipitating cumulus produces the stratiform veil clouds, which are strongly depleted in particle concentration due to very efficient coalescence-scavenging process in ascending parcels passing through cumulus towers. The simulation shows a median CDNC in thin veil clouds of 5.8 cm−3, implying that majority of thin veil clouds are UCLs as well and confirming the strong connection between veil clouds and UCLs. In addition, there is a strong correlation between surface precipitation and the fraction of low clouds that are UCLs, and such correlation implies the importance of precipitation scavenging for the formation of UCLs. A cloud resolving model coupled with a prognostic aerosol scheme is used in our study, enabling characterization of the spatiotemporal variability of aerosol in the boundary layer. The results show that depletion of aerosol concentration starts first in the upper boundary layer that is associated with in-cloud coalescence scavenging process. The evaporation of veil clouds leaves very low CCN number concentration (Na

From the Satellite to the Earth s Surface Studies Relevant to NASA s Plankton Aerosol Cloud Ocean Ecosystems PACE Mission

From the Satellite to the Earth s Surface  Studies Relevant to NASA   s Plankton  Aerosol  Cloud  Ocean Ecosystems  PACE  Mission Book
Author : David Antoine,Oleg Dubovik
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-03-04
ISBN : 2889635007
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Earth’s atmosphere and oceans play individual and interconnected roles in regulating climate and the hydrological system, supporting organisms and ecosystems, and contributing to the well-being of human communities and economies. Recognizing the importance of these two geophysical fluids, NASA designed the Plankton, Aerosol, Cloud and ocean Ecosystems (PACE) mission to bring cutting edge technology to space borne measurements of the atmosphere and ocean. PACE will carry the Ocean Color Instrument (OCI), a radiometer with hyperspectral capability from the ultraviolet through the near-infrared, plus eight discreet shortwave infrared bands. Thus, OCI will measure the broadest solar spectrum of any NASA instrument, to date. PACE’s second instrument will be a Multi-Angle Polarimeter (MAP). MAP will be NASA’s first imaging polarimeter on board a comprehensive Earth science mission. These instruments bring new capability to the science community, but also new challenges. Fundamentals, such as basic radiative transfer models, require review, enhancements and benchmarking in order to meet the needs of the atmosphereocean communities in the PACE era. Both OCI and MAP will bring opportunities to continue heritage climate data records of aerosols and clouds and to advance characterization of these atmospheric constituents with new macrophysical and microphysical parameters. The ability to better characterize atmospheric constituents is a necessity to better separate ocean and atmosphere signals in order to fully realize the potential of PACE measurements for oceanic observations. Atmospheric correction in the PACE era must address the expanded wavelength range and resolution of OCI images, requiring new approaches that go beyond heritage algorithms. This Research Topic encompasses fundamental radiative transfer studies, with application to the atmosphere, ocean or coupled atmosphere-ocean system. It includes remote sensing of aerosols, clouds and trace gases, over ocean or over land, but with particular focus on algorithms that take advantage of OCI’s new capabilities or multi-angle polarimetry. The Research Topic embraces studies of atmospheric correction over ocean including addressing issues of aerosols, cloud masking, foam, bubbles, ice etc., as well as ocean bio-optics and biogeochemical studies taking advantage of the PACE and polarization spectral capabilities.

An Airborne Remote Sensing Perspective on Cloud and Precipitation Properties from Southeast Atlantic Stratocumulus Clouds

An Airborne Remote Sensing Perspective on Cloud and Precipitation Properties from Southeast Atlantic Stratocumulus Clouds Book
Author : Andrew Michael Dzambo
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Stratocumulus (StCu) clouds cover a majority of the Earth's subtropical oceanic basins, and play an important role in the global energy balance. Cloud and precipitation processes in StCu are complex, and aerosol effects add further complexity to the cloud-precipitation-climate paradigm, where these interactions are among the most widely uncertain processes in present-day climate models. The NASA ObseRvations of Aerosols above CLouds and their intEractionS (ORACLES) field campaign between 2016-18 observed cloud-aerosol-precipitation interactions over the Southeast Atlantic Ocean. One of the 20+ instruments deployed during ORACLES was the Airborne Precipitation Radar - 3rd Generation (APR-3). The APR-3 collected over 18 million profiles during the three deployments. A precipitation retrieval algorithm (called 2C-RAIN) was adapted from the CloudSat 2C-RAIN-PROFILE precipitation retrieval algorithm to meet ORACLES science objectives. The majority of 2C-RAIN precipitation rates were under 0.01 mm/hr (0.25 mm/day). The sampling environments were considerably different in 2016 compared to 2017 and 2018, necessitating further investigation accounting for environmental controls. Cloud water path (CWP) retrievals were added to the 2C-RAIN algorithm. This retrieval expanded the utility of APR-3 measurements by collocating cloud and precipitation properties (namely CWP and RWP) for the investigation of aerosol indirect effects. This work find typical CWP to RWP ratios on the order of 50:1 to 200:1, implying CWP dominates the total liquid water path (LWP) signal. When partitioning rain rates with CWP and RWP for aerosol contact and non-contact cases, statistically significant differences are found in stable environments for CWP/RWP but not for retrieved rain rates, likely owing to the 100% and larger uncertainties associated with precipitation rate retrievals. Finally, evaporation processes are investigated between drizzling virga and surface precipitation. Evaporation rates/fluxes and corresponding latent cooling rates, between surface precipitation and virga, are on the order of 2:1 implying that surface precipitation contributes the most latent cooling to the local environment. Evaporating virga, regardless, cannot be ignored when studying latent heating and cooling. The development of the 2C-RAIN database for ORACLES, and analyses presented here, pave the way for additional observation-based studies in an area where satellite measurements have limited viability.

Springer Series in Light Scattering

Springer Series in Light Scattering Book
Author : Alexander Kokhanovsky
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-06-29
ISBN : 3030205878
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes recent advances in radiative transfer, atmospheric remote sensing, polarization optics of random media, and light scattering. It is a valuable resource for anyone involved in light scattering research. Providing numerous step-by-step tutorials, it allows readers to quickly learn about various aspects of theoretical and experimental light scattering media optics. The book features among others a chapter on aerosol remote sensing that helps readers to define and solve various aerosol remote sensing problems.

Re envisioning Remote Sensing Applications

Re envisioning Remote Sensing Applications Book
Author : Ripudaman Singh
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2021-03-05
ISBN : 1000347184
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Re-envisioning Remote Sensing Applications: Perspectives from Developing Countries aims at discussing varied applications of remote sensing, with respect to upcoming technologies with diverse themes. Organized into four sections of overlapping areas of research, the book covers chapters with themes related to agriculture, soil and land degradation studies; hydrology, microclimates and climate change impacts; land use/land cover analysis applications; resource analysis and bibliometric studies, culminating with future research agenda. All the topics are supported via case studies and spatial data analysis. Features: Provides the applications of remote sensing in all fields through varied case studies and spatial data analysis Includes soil and land degradation, microclimates, and climate change impacts Covers remote sensing applications in broad areas of agriculture, hydrology, land use/land cover change and resource analysis Discusses usage of GPS-enabled smartphones and digital gadgets used for mapping and spatial analysis Explores future research agenda for applications of remote sensing in post-COVID scenario This book is of interest to researchers and graduate students in environmental sciences, remote sensing, GIS, agricultural scientists and managers, forestry scientists and managers, and water resources scientists and managers.

Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles

Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles Book
Author : Michael I. Mishchenko,Joachim W. Hovenier,Larry D. Travis
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1999-09-22
ISBN : 9780080510200
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There is hardly a field of science or engineering that does not have some interest in light scattering by small particles. For example, this subject is important to climatology because the energy budget for the Earth's atmosphere is strongly affected by scattering of solar radiation by cloud and aerosol particles, and the whole discipline of remote sensing relies largely on analyzing the parameters of radiation scattered by aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The scattering of light by spherical particles can be easily computed using the conventional Mie theory. However, most small solid particles encountered in natural and laboratory conditions have nonspherical shapes. Examples are soot and mineral aerosols, cirrus cloud particles, snow and frost crystals, ocean hydrosols, interplanetary and cometary dust grains, and microorganisms. It is now well known that scattering properties of nonspherical particles can differ dramatically from those of "equivalent" (e.g., equal-volume or equal-surface-area) spheres. Therefore, the ability to accurately compute or measure light scattering by nonspherical particles in order to clearly understand the effects of particle nonsphericity on light scattering is very important. The rapid improvement of computers and experimental techniques over the past 20 years and the development of efficient numerical approaches have resulted in major advances in this field which have not been systematically summarized. Because of the universal importance of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles, papers on different aspects of this subject are scattered over dozens of diverse research and engineering journals. Often experts in one discipline (e.g., biology) are unaware of potentially useful results obtained in another discipline (e.g., antennas and propagation). This leads to an inefficient use of the accumulated knowledge and unnecessary redundancy in research activities. This book offers the first systematic and unified discussion of light scattering by nonspherical particles and its practical applications and represents the state-of-the-art of this important research field. Individual chapters are written by leading experts in respective areas and cover three major disciplines: theoretical and numerical techniques, laboratory measurements, and practical applications. An overview chapter provides a concise general introduction to the subject of nonspherical scattering and should be especially useful to beginners and those interested in fast practical applications. The audience for this book will include graduate students, scientists, and engineers working on specific aspects of electromagnetic scattering by small particles and its applications in remote sensing, geophysics, astrophysics, biomedical optics, and optical engineering. The first systematic and comprehensive treatment of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles and its applications Individual chapters are written by leading experts in respective areas Includes a survey of all the relevant literature scattered over dozens of basic and applied research journals Consistent use of unified definitions and notation makes the book a coherent volume An overview chapter provides a concise general introduction to the subject of light scattering by nonspherical particles Theoretical chapters describe specific easy-to-use computer codes publicly available on the World Wide Web Extensively illustrated with over 200 figures, 4 in color

Biomass Burning in Amazonia

Biomass Burning in Amazonia Book
Author : John Edward Ten Hoeve (#suffix.)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomass burning is the largest source of anthropogenic aerosols in the Southern Hemisphere. In the Amazon Basin, burning is used to clear forests, remove crop residue, and mobilize nutrients. Over the last decade, trends in biomass burning over forest and savanna/agricultural lands in the Amazon have changed dramatically. We find that between the early 2000s and the late 2000s, the ratio of forest to savanna/agricultural fires more than halved over South America, in turn changing the optical properties of aerosols in the region. This change from forest to savanna burning is attributed in part to better forest fire management, changing agricultural practices along the Amazon frontier, and reduced deforestation rates. Interannual precipitation variability over forest and savanna lands is also shown to play an important role. Biomass burning aerosols over the Amazon have a substantial effect on cloud properties and the regional radiative balance. Remote sensing observations of aerosols and clouds over Brazil illustrate that meteorological variability and aerosol-cloud overlap, ignored in previous studies, must be accounted for to correctly determine aerosol-cloud interactions from satellite observations. When accounting for these confounding variables, we find that microphysical aerosol effects, which serve to increase cloud cover and optical thickness, dominate for low levels of aerosol loading (aerosol optical depth (AOD) 0.3-0.5), whereas radiative effects, which serve to decrease cloud cover and optical thickness, dominate for higher levels of aerosol loading (AOD 0.3-0.5). We find a similar result using high-resolution nested model simulations over the Amazon Basin, which include physical representations of direct, indirect, semi-direct, and cloud absorption effects. Simulations including and excluding biomass burning emissions are used to establish causation of the remotely sensed correlations. A two-regime relationship, defined by dominance of microphysical aerosol effects at low AODs and dominance of radiative effects at high AODs, is modeled for a variety of cloud variables including cloud optical thickness, cloud liquid droplet number, cloud fraction, and precipitation. These competing effects also exhibit a strong diurnal signal -- microphysical effects dominate in the early morning whereas radiative effects dominate in the late afternoon and night. By finding consistent relationships between remotely sensed observations and modeling results, we conclude that remotely sensed correlations between aerosols and clouds are not largely dominated by retrieval artifacts such as the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles near clouds, brightening of aerosols near clouds, darkening of clouds below absorbing aerosols, and cloud contamination of aerosol retrievals over the Amazon, and that the complex aerosol-cloud relationships determined in this and previous studies over the Amazon can be attributed to genuine physical interactions between aerosols and clouds. In the Appendix, the same 3-D modeling tools used in the Amazon biomass burning study are applied to assess the health effect from the Fukushima nuclear disaster on March 11th, 2011. Radioactive emissions for the month following the accident are determined from worldwide observations by the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty Organization. Modeled worldwide airborne concentrations are used to determine inhalation and external atmospheric exposure, modeled deposition rates are used to determine external ground-level exposure, and ingestion exposure from contaminated food and water is extrapolated from previous Chernobyl studies all assuming a linear no-threshold model of human exposure. We estimate an additional 280 (30--2400) cancer-related mortalities and 390 (50--3800) cancer-related morbidities incorporating uncertainties associated with the exposure-dose and dose-response models used in the study. A hypothetical accident at the Diablo Canyon Power Plant in California, USA, with identical emissions to Fukushima, is studied to analyze the influence of location and seasonality on the impact of a nuclear accident. This hypothetical accident may cause up to ~45% more mortalities than Fukushima despite a lower local population density due to differing meteorological conditions.

Fundamentals of Satellite Remote Sensing

Fundamentals of Satellite Remote Sensing Book
Author : Emilio Chuvieco
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-01-22
ISBN : 0429014457
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fundamentals of Satellite Remote Sensing: An Environmental Approach, Third Edition, is a definitive guide to remote sensing systems that focuses on satellite-based remote sensing tools and methods for space-based Earth observation (EO). It presents the advantages of using remote sensing data for studying and monitoring the planet, and emphasizes concepts that make the best use of satellite data. The book begins with an introduction to the basic processes that ensure the acquisition of space-borne imagery, and provides an overview of the main satellite observation systems. It then describes visual and digital image analysis, highlights various interpretation techniques, and outlines their applications to science and management. The latter part of the book covers the integration of remote sensing with Geographic Information System (GIS) for environmental analysis. This latest edition has been written to reflect a global audience and covers the most recent advances incorporated since the publication of the previous book, relating to the acquisition and interpretation of remotely sensed data. New in the Third Edition: Includes additional illustrations in full color. Uses sample images acquired from different ecosystems at different spatial resolutions to illustrate different interpretation techniques. Includes updated EO missions, such as the third generations of geostationary meteorological satellites, the new polar orbiting platforms (Suomi), the ESA Sentinels program, and high-resolution commercial systems. Includes extended coverage of radar and LIDAR processing methods. Includes all new information on near-ground missions, including unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Covers new ground sensors, as well as machine-learning approaches to classification. Adds more focus on land surface characterization, time series, change detection, and ecosystem processes. Extends the interactions of EO data and GIS that cover different environmental problems, with particular relevance to global observation. Fundamentals of Satellite Remote Sensing: An Environmental Approach, Third Edition, details the tools that provide global, recurrent, and comprehensive views of the processes affecting the Earth. As one of CRC’s Essential titles, this book and stands out as one of the best in its field and is a must-have for researchers, academics, students, and professionals involved in the field of environmental science, as well as for libraries developing collections on the forefront of this industry.

Air Pollution and Its Complications

Air Pollution and Its Complications Book
Author : Shani Tiwari
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-07-25
ISBN : 3030705099
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Air Pollution and Its Complications book written by Shani Tiwari, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Measuring Precipitation from Space

Measuring Precipitation from Space Book
Author : V. Levizzani,P. Bauer,F. Joseph Turk
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-05-11
ISBN : 1402058357
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

No other book can offer such a powerful tool to understand the basics of remote sensing for precipitation, to make use of existing products and to have a glimpse of the near future missions and instruments. This book features state-of-the-art rainfall estimation algorithms, validation strategies, and precipitation modeling. More than 20 years after the last book on the subject the worldwide precipitation community has produced a comprehensive overview of its activities, achievements, ongoing research and future plans.

A Numerical Study of the Cloud Microphysical Properties in the East China Sea Region by a Bin type Cloud Resolving Model

A Numerical Study of the Cloud Microphysical Properties in the East China Sea Region by a Bin type Cloud Resolving Model Book
Author : Takamichi Iguchi,Tōkyō Daigaku. Kikō Shisutemu Kenkyū Sentā
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A system of regional cloud resolving models have been developed by combining a three-dimensional non-hydrostic dynamic model and particle microphysical models that can treat cloud, aerosol and radiation processes to simulate cloud and aerosol stratifications in an area around the East China Sea. Simulations were performed with a nesting algorithm applied to the distribution of aerosol concentration, which is given from a global simulation of an aerosol transport model coupled with a general circulation model, for reproducing the horizontal and vertical distributions of tropospheric aerosols and/or cloud condensation nuclei in this area. The models can compute characteristic parameters that reflect the size distributions of hydrometers represented in the particle microphysical model. These simulated parameters have been compared from those obtained by remote sensing observations with latest satellite sensors. It was found that obtained simulation results well [will] reflect the general feature of the aerosol and cloud distributions observed by Terra/MODIS remote sensing of aerosol and cloud microphysics and Radar-AMeDAS precipitation analysis. Problems in the simulation were a systematic bias in the simulated effective particle radius of water clouds and an overestimation of the total frequency of 1-hr precipitation amount. The particle radius bias was reduced by an adjustment of input cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration based on the comparison with data by aircraft measurements. This result indicates that the CCN concentration affects the cloud microphysical properties and must be given suitably to bring the simulation result to comparable values to the satellite-observed values. On the other hand, the adjusted CCN concentration did not reduce the overestimation in the frequency of accumulated precipitation. The CCN sensitivity test indicated that the CCN amount did not significantly affect the precipitation amount in our cases, where a synoptic-scale forcing such as baroclinic instability was dominant to determine the development of clouds. That was due to a compensation of two competing processes, i.e., a reduction in the precipitation efficiency and an increase in the cloud liquid water amount due to increased CCN amount. A bulk-type cloud scheme can be used to reproduce accurate distribution of the precipitation amount in the short-term simulation for cases in which a background forcing in synoptic-scale is dominant and/or the cloud microphysical properties is not important to determine the development of the field, as in the situation of the weather forecast with enough initialization by observed fields. A bin-type cloud scheme, on the other hand, seems to be more useful for a short-term simulation for specific cases, in which there is no background forcing, and longer-term simulation than a bulk-type scheme. An accurate cloud microphysical property calculated by the bin-model has potentiality to improve the effect of the cloud field to slowly responding processes, such as radiative heating and cooling, SST change and so on.

Atmospheric Aerosols

Atmospheric Aerosols Book
Author : Olivier Boucher
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-05-18
ISBN : 9401796491
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This textbook aims to be a one stop shop for those interested in aerosols and their impact on the climate system. It starts with some fundamentals on atmospheric aerosols, atmospheric radiation and cloud physics, then goes into techniques used for in-situ and remote sensing measurements of aerosols, data assimilation, and discusses aerosol-radiation interactions, aerosol-cloud interactions and the multiple impacts of aerosols on the climate system. The book aims to engage those interested in aerosols and their impacts on the climate system: graduate and PhD students, but also post-doctorate fellows who are new to the field or would like to broaden their knowledge. The book includes exercises at the end of most chapters. Atmospheric aerosols are small (microscopic) particles in suspension in the atmosphere, which play multiple roles in the climate system. They interact with the energy budget through scattering and absorption of solar and terrestrial radiation. They also serve as cloud condensation and ice nuclei with impacts on the formation, evolution and properties of clouds. Finally aerosols also interact with some biogeochemical cycles. Anthropogenic emissions of aerosols are responsible for a cooling effect that has masked part of the warming due to the increased greenhouse effect since pre-industrial time. Natural aerosols also respond to climate changes as shown by observations of past climates and modelling of the future climate.

Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles

Light Scattering by Nonspherical Particles Book
Author : Michael I. Mishchenko,Joop W. Hovenier,Larry D. Travis
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2000
ISBN : 9780124986602
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There is hardly a field of science or engineering that does not have some interest in light scattering by small particles. For example, this subject is important to climatology because the energy budget for the Earth's atmosphere is strongly affected by scattering of solar radiation by cloud and aerosol particles, and the whole discipline of remote sensing relies largely on analyzing the parameters of radiation scattered by aerosols, clouds, and precipitation. The scattering of light by spherical particles can be easily computed using the conventional Mie theory. However, most small solid particles encountered in natural and laboratory conditions have nonspherical shapes. Examples are soot and mineral aerosols, cirrus cloud particles, snow and frost crystals, ocean hydrosols, interplanetary and cometary dust grains, and microorganisms. It is now well known that scattering properties of nonspherical particles can differ dramatically from those of "equivalent" (e.g., equal-volume or equal-surface-area) spheres. Therefore, the ability to accurately compute or measure light scattering by nonspherical particles in order to clearly understand the effects of particle nonsphericity on light scattering is very important. The rapid improvement of computers and experimental techniques over the past 20 years and the development of efficient numerical approaches have resulted in major advances in this field which have not been systematically summarized. Because of the universal importance of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles, papers on different aspects of this subject are scattered over dozens of diverse research and engineering journals. Often experts in one discipline (e.g., biology) are unaware of potentially useful results obtained in another discipline (e.g., antennas and propagation). This leads to an inefficient use of the accumulated knowledge and unnecessary redundancy in research activities. This book offers the first systematic and unified discussion of light scattering by nonspherical particles and its practical applications and represents the state-of-the-art of this important research field. Individual chapters are written by leading experts in respective areas and cover three major disciplines: theoretical and numerical techniques, laboratory measurements, and practical applications. An overview chapter provides a concise general introduction to the subject of nonspherical scattering and should be especially useful to beginners and those interested in fast practical applications. The audience for this book will include graduate students, scientists, and engineers working on specific aspects of electromagnetic scattering by small particles and its applications in remote sensing, geophysics, astrophysics, biomedical optics, and optical engineering. * The first systematic and comprehensive treatment of electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles and its applications * Individual chapters are written by leading experts in respective areas * Includes a survey of all the relevant literature scattered over dozens of basic and applied research journals * Consistent use of unified definitions and notation makes the book a coherent volume * An overview chapter provides a concise general introduction to the subject of light scattering by nonspherical particles * Theoretical chapters describe specific easy-to-use computer codes publicly available on the World Wide Web * Extensively illustrated with over 200 figures, 4 in color

Aerosol Science

Aerosol Science Book
Author : Ian Colbeck,Mihalis Lazaridis
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-02-03
ISBN : 1119977924
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aerosols influence many areas of our daily life. They are at the core of environmental problems such as global warming, photochemical smog and poor air quality. They can also have diverse effects on human health, where exposure occurs in both outdoor and indoor environments. However, aerosols can have beneficial effects too; the delivery of drugs to the lungs, the delivery of fuels for combustion and the production of nanomaterials all rely on aerosols. Advances in particle measurement technologies have made it possible to take advantage of rapid changes in both particle size and concentration. Likewise, aerosols can now be produced in a controlled fashion. Reviewing many technological applications together with the current scientific status of aerosol modelling and measurements, this book includes: • Satellite aerosol remote sensing • The effects of aerosols on climate change • Air pollution and health • Pharmaceutical aerosols and pulmonary drug delivery • Bioaerosols and hospital infections • Particle emissions from vehicles • The safety of emerging nanomaterials • Radioactive aerosols: tracers of atmospheric processes With the importance of this topic brought to the public’s attention after the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull, this book provides a timely, concise and accessible overview of the many facets of aerosol science.