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Receptors In The Evolution And Development Of The Brain

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Receptors in the Evolution and Development of the Brain

Receptors in the Evolution and Development of the Brain Book
Author : Richard E. Fine, MD
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-04-15
ISBN : 0128110120
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Receptors in the Evolution and Development of the Brain: Matter into Mind presents the key role of receptors and their cognate ligands in wiring the mammalian brain from an evolutionary developmental biology perspective. It examines receptor function in the evolution and development of the nervous system in the large vertebrate brain, and discusses rapid eye movement sleep and apoptosis as mechanisms to destroy miswired neurons. Possible links between trophic deficits and connectional diseases including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and ALS are also discussed. This book is extremely useful to those with an interest in the molecular and cellular neurosciences, including those in cognitive and clinical branches of this subject, and anyone interested in how the incredibly complex human brain can build itself. Provides an understanding of the key role receptors play in brain development and the selection process necessary to construct a large brain Traces the evolution of receptors from the most primitive organisms to humans Emphasizes the roles that REM sleep and apoptosis play in this selection via trophic factors and receptors Describes the role that trophic factor-receptor interactions play throughout life and how trophic deficits can lead to connectional diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and ALS Provides a potential mechanism whereby neuronal stem cells can cure these diseases

Receptors in the Evolution and Development of the Brain

Receptors in the Evolution and Development of the Brain Book
Author : Richard E. Fine
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-06-15
ISBN : 0128110139
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Receptors in the Evolution and Development of the Brain: Matter into Mind presents the key role of receptors and their cognate ligands in wiring the mammalian brain from an evolutionary developmental biology perspective. It examines receptor function in the evolution and development of the nervous system in the large vertebrate brain, and discusses rapid eye movement sleep and apoptosis as mechanisms to destroy miswired neurons. Possible links between trophic deficits and connectional diseases including Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and ALS are also discussed. This book is extremely useful to those with an interest in the molecular and cellular neurosciences, including those in cognitive and clinical branches of this subject, and anyone interested in how the incredibly complex human brain can build itself. Provides an understanding of the key role receptors play in brain development and the selection process necessary to construct a large brain Traces the evolution of receptors from the most primitive organisms to humans Emphasizes the roles that REM sleep and apoptosis play in this selection via trophic factors and receptors Describes the role that trophic factor-receptor interactions play throughout life and how trophic deficits can lead to connectional diseases, including Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and ALS Provides a potential mechanism whereby neuronal stem cells can cure these diseases

Discovering the Brain

Discovering the Brain Book
Author : National Academy of Sciences,Institute of Medicine,Sandra Ackerman
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1992-01-01
ISBN : 0309045290
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The brain ... There is no other part of the human anatomy that is so intriguing. How does it develop and function and why does it sometimes, tragically, degenerate? The answers are complex. In Discovering the Brain, science writer Sandra Ackerman cuts through the complexity to bring this vital topic to the public. The 1990s were declared the "Decade of the Brain" by former President Bush, and the neuroscience community responded with a host of new investigations and conferences. Discovering the Brain is based on the Institute of Medicine conference, Decade of the Brain: Frontiers in Neuroscience and Brain Research. Discovering the Brain is a "field guide" to the brain--an easy-to-read discussion of the brain's physical structure and where functions such as language and music appreciation lie. Ackerman examines How electrical and chemical signals are conveyed in the brain. The mechanisms by which we see, hear, think, and pay attention--and how a "gut feeling" actually originates in the brain. Learning and memory retention, including parallels to computer memory and what they might tell us about our own mental capacity. Development of the brain throughout the life span, with a look at the aging brain. Ackerman provides an enlightening chapter on the connection between the brain's physical condition and various mental disorders and notes what progress can realistically be made toward the prevention and treatment of stroke and other ailments. Finally, she explores the potential for major advances during the "Decade of the Brain," with a look at medical imaging techniques--what various technologies can and cannot tell us--and how the public and private sectors can contribute to continued advances in neuroscience. This highly readable volume will provide the public and policymakers--and many scientists as well--with a helpful guide to understanding the many discoveries that are sure to be announced throughout the "Decade of the Brain."

From Neurons to Neighborhoods

From Neurons to Neighborhoods Book
Author : Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education,Institute of Medicine,Board on Children, Youth, and Families,Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2000-11-13
ISBN : 0309069882
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

How we raise young children is one of today's most highly personalized and sharply politicized issues, in part because each of us can claim some level of "expertise." The debate has intensified as discoveries about our development-in the womb and in the first months and years-have reached the popular media. How can we use our burgeoning knowledge to assure the well-being of all young children, for their own sake as well as for the sake of our nation? Drawing from new findings, this book presents important conclusions about nature-versus-nurture, the impact of being born into a working family, the effect of politics on programs for children, the costs and benefits of intervention, and other issues. The committee issues a series of challenges to decision makers regarding the quality of child care, issues of racial and ethnic diversity, the integration of children's cognitive and emotional development, and more. Authoritative yet accessible, From Neurons to Neighborhoods presents the evidence about "brain wiring" and how kids learn to speak, think, and regulate their behavior. It examines the effect of the climate-family, child care, community-within which the child grows.

Evolution of the Brain Creation of the Self

Evolution of the Brain  Creation of the Self Book
Author : John C. Eccles
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2005-07-05
ISBN : 1134968353
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sir John Eccles, a distinguished scientist and Nobel Prize winner who has devoted his scientific life to the study of the mammalian brain, tells the story of how we came to be, not only as animals at the end of the hominid evolutionary line, but also as human persons possessed of reflective consciousness.

Human Brain Evolution

Human Brain Evolution Book
Author : Stephen Cunnane,Kathlyn Stewart
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2010-07-30
ISBN : 9780470609873
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The evolution of the human brain and cognitive ability is one of the central themes of physical/biological anthropology. This book discusses the emergence of human cognition at a conceptual level, describing it as a process of long adaptive stasis interrupted by short periods of cognitive advance. These advances were not linear and directed, but were acquired indirectly as part of changing human behaviors, in other words through the process of exaptation (acquisition of a function for which it was not originally selected). Based on studies of the modem human brain, certain prerequisites were needed for the development of the early brain and associated cognitive advances. This book documents the energy and nutrient constraints of the modern brain, highlighting the significant role of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) in brain development and maintenance. Crawford provides further emphasis for the role of essential fatty acids, in particular DHA, in brain development, by discussing the evolution of the eye and neural systems. This is an ideal book for Graduate students, post docs, research scientists in Physical/Biological Anthropology, Human Biology, Archaeology, Nutrition, Cognitive Science, Neurosciences. It is also an excellent selection for a grad student discussion seminar.

The Accidental Mind

The Accidental Mind Book
Author : David J. Linden
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 2012-11-01
ISBN : 0674076613
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Linden sets the record straight about the construction of the human brain; rather than the “beautifully-engineered optimized device, the absolute pinnacle of design” portrayed in many dumbed-down text books, pop-science tomes, and education televisions programs, Linden’s organ is a complicated assembly of cobbled-together functionality that created the mind as a by-product of ad-hoc solutions to questions of survival. His guided tour of the glorious amalgam of “crummy parts” includes pit-stops in the histories and fundamentals of neurology, neural-psychology, physiology, molecular and cellular biology, and genetics.

The Brain

The Brain Book
Author : Rob DeSalle,Ian Tattersall
Publisher : Yale University Press
Release : 2012-04-30
ISBN : 0300183569
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

“An engaging and complex examination of the development of the human brain throughout its evolutionary history” (Publishers Weekly). After several million years of jostling for ecological space, only one survivor from a host of hominid species remains standing: us. Human beings are extraordinary creatures, and it is the unprecedented human brain that makes them so. In this delightfully accessible book, the authors present the first full, step-by-step account of the evolution of the brain and nervous system. Tapping the very latest findings in evolutionary biology, neuroscience, and molecular biology, Rob DeSalle and Ian Tattersall explain how the cognitive gulf that separates us from all other living creatures could have occurred. They discuss • The development and uniqueness of human consciousness • How human and nonhuman brains work • The roles of different nerve cells • The importance of memory and language in brain functions, and much more Our brains, they conclude, are the product of a lengthy and supremely untidy history—an evolutionary process of many zigs and zags—that has accidentally resulted in a splendidly eccentric and creative product.

Arthropod Brain

Arthropod Brain Book
Author : A. P. Gupta
Publisher : Wiley-Interscience
Release : 1987-09-29
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The definitive textbook and reference guide to the arthropod brain. The material is arranged logically in three sections. Section I, on evolution, includes a discussion on the presence of a fourth component, tetrocerebrum in the insect brain in addition to the three commonly recognized parts, and the evolutionary trends in the central and mushroom bodies in major arthropod groups. A section on structure and function includes detailed ultrastructural studies of the brain as well as studies of the mechanoreceptory centers, peripheral sensory coding and sensilla function, and antennal information processing. Also examines biochemical topics such as bioamines and mucosubstances, their respective roles in brain function, and various techniques of brain research.

Glutamate Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System

Glutamate Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2011-07-05
ISBN : 0309212243
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Glutamate is the most pervasive neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS). Despite this fact, no validated biological markers, or biomarkers, currently exist for measuring glutamate pathology in CNS disorders or injuries. Glutamate dysfunction has been associated with an extensive range of nervous system diseases and disorders. Problems with how the neurotransmitter glutamate functions in the brain have been linked to a wide variety of disorders, including schizophrenia, Alzheimer's, substance abuse, and traumatic brain injury. These conditions are widespread, affecting a large portion of the United States population, and remain difficult to treat. Efforts to understand, treat, and prevent glutamate-related disorders can be aided by the identification of valid biomarkers. The Institute of Medicine's Forum on Neuroscience and Nervous System Disorders held a workshop on June 21-22, 2010, to explore ways to accelerate the development, validation, and implementation of such biomarkers. Glutamate-Related Biomarkers in Drug Development for Disorders of the Nervous System: Workshop Summary investigates promising current and emerging technologies, and outlines strategies to procure resources and tools to advance drug development for associated nervous system disorders. Moreover, this report highlights presentations by expert panelists, and the open panel discussions that occurred during the workshop.

Survival of the Fattest

Survival of the Fattest Book
Author : Stephen C Cunnane
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2005-05-06
ISBN : 9814480827
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

' How did humans evolve larger and more sophisticated brains? In general, evolution depends on a special combination of circumstances: part genetics, part time, and part environment. In the case of human brain evolution, the main environmental influence was adaptation to a 'shore-based' diet, which provided the world's richest source of nutrition, as well as a sedentary lifestyle that promoted fat deposition. Such a diet included shellfish, fish, marsh plants, frogs, bird's eggs, etc. Humans and, and more importantly, hominid babies started to get fat, a crucial distinction that led to the development of larger brains and to the evolution of modern humans. A larger brain is expensive to maintain and this increasing demand for energy results in, succinctly, survival of the fattest. Contents:The Human Brain: Unique Yet Vulnerable:Human Evolution: A Brief OverviewThe Human Brain: Evolution of Larger Size and PlasticityDefining Characteristics: Vulnerability and High Energy RequirementFatness in Human Babies: Insurance for the Developing BrainNutrition: The Key to Normal Human Brain DevelopmentIodine: The Primary Brain Selective NutrientIron, Copper, Zinc and Selenium: The Other Brain Selective MineralsDocosahexaenoic Acid: The Brain Selective Fatty AcidThe Shore-Based Scenario:Genes, Brain Function and Human Brain EvolutionBringing the Environment and Diet into PlayThe Shore-Based Scenario: Why Survival Misses the PointEarlier VersionsThe EvidenceHow Would It Work?Survival of the Fattest Readership: General, and those with an interest in origins of humans especially human intelligence (the big brain). Keywords:Human Brain;Brain Evolution;Dietary Fat;Body Fat;Human Infant;Fat Babies;HominidsKey Features:A new theory of human brain evolutionThe novel concept that shorelines provided a unique food resourceThe novel concept that fat babies were the key to human brain evolutionReviews:“The nutritionist's perspective that brings energy, fatty acid metabolism, and nutrition to the fore makes this account a provocative and fast-paced one. Readers will be challenged and intrigued by this well thought-out volume.”Joyce A Nettleton, DSc, RD ScienceVoice Consulting Denver, Colorado “Anyone interested in how humans evolved will find much of interest in this book … the main thread of the argument seems so plausible that many readers will want to delve further by way of a number of the items listed in the bibliography.”Henry H Bauer Professor Emeritus of Chemistry & Science Studies, Dean Emeritus of Arts & Sciences Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University “This book is full of interesting facts about our brains and about nutrition and brain and body biochemistry. Cunnane weaves a very complex and multi-faceted hypothesis systematically and relatively clearly … I found the book thought-provoking. It shares data and ideas that are relatively novel and interesting …”European Neurology '

Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy

Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy Book
Author : Ann B. Butler,William Hodos
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2005-09-02
ISBN : 0471733830
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy Evolution and Adaptation Second Edition Ann B. Butler and William Hodos The Second Edition of this landmark text presents a broad survey ofcomparative vertebrate neuroanatomy at the introductory level,representing a unique contribution to the field of evolutionaryneurobiology. It has been extensively revised and updated, withsubstantially improved figures and diagrams that are usedgenerously throughout the text. Through analysis of the variationin brain structure and function between major groups ofvertebrates, readers can gain insight into the evolutionary historyof the nervous system. The text is divided into threesections: * Introduction to evolution and variation, including a survey ofcell structure, embryological development, and anatomicalorganization of the central nervous system; phylogeny and diversityof brain structures; and an overview of various theories of brainevolution * Systematic, comprehensive survey of comparative neuroanatomyacross all major groups of vertebrates * Overview of vertebrate brain evolution, which integrates thecomplete text, highlights diversity and common themes, broadensperspective by a comparison with brain structure and evolution ofinvertebrate brains, and considers recent data and theories of theevolutionary origin of the brain in the earliest vertebrates,including a recently proposed model of the origin of the brain inthe earliest vertebrates that has received strong support fromnewly discovered fossil evidence Ample material drawn from the latest research has been integratedinto the text and highlighted in special feature boxes, includingrecent views on homology, cranial nerve organization and evolution,the relatively large and elaborate brains of birds in correlationwith their complex cognitive abilities, and the current debate onforebrain evolution across reptiles, birds, and mammals. Comparative Vertebrate Neuroanatomy is geared to upper-levelundergraduate and graduate students in neuroanatomy, but anyoneinterested in the anatomy of the nervous system and how itcorresponds to the way that animals function in the world will findthis text fascinating.

The Long Evolution of Brains and Minds

The Long Evolution of Brains and Minds Book
Author : Gerhard Roth
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-03
ISBN : 9400762593
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The main topic of the book is a reconstruction of the evolution of nervous systems and brains as well as of mental-cognitive abilities, in short “intelligence” from simplest organisms to humans. It investigates to which extent the two are correlated. One central topic is the alleged uniqueness of the human brain and human intelligence and mind. It is discussed which neural features make certain animals and humans intelligent and creative: Is it absolute or relative brain size or the size of “intelligence centers” inside the brains, the number of nerve cells inside the brain in total or in such “intelligence centers” decisive for the degree of intelligence, of mind and eventually consciousness? And which are the driving forces behind these processes? Finally, it is asked what all this means for the classical problem of mind-brain relationship and for a naturalistic theory of mind.

Evolution of Nervous Systems

Evolution of Nervous Systems Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-11-23
ISBN : 0128040963
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Evolution of Nervous Systems, Second Edition is a unique, major reference which offers the gold standard for those interested both in evolution and nervous systems. All biology only makes sense when seen in the light of evolution, and this is especially true for the nervous system. All animals have nervous systems that mediate their behaviors, many of them species specific, yet these nervous systems all evolved from the simple nervous system of a common ancestor. To understand these nervous systems, we need to know how they vary and how this variation emerged in evolution. In the first edition of this important reference work, over 100 distinguished neuroscientists assembled the current state-of-the-art knowledge on how nervous systems have evolved throughout the animal kingdom. This second edition remains rich in detail and broad in scope, outlining the changes in brain and nervous system organization that occurred from the first invertebrates and vertebrates, to present day fishes, reptiles, birds, mammals, and especially primates, including humans. The book also includes wholly new content, fully updating the chapters in the previous edition and offering brand new content on current developments in the field. Each of the volumes has been carefully restructured to offer expanded coverage of non-mammalian taxa, mammals, primates, and the human nervous system. The basic principles of brain evolution are discussed, as are mechanisms of change. The reader can select from chapters on highly specific topics or those that provide an overview of current thinking and approaches, making this an indispensable work for students and researchers alike. Presents a broad range of topics, ranging from genetic control of development in invertebrates, to human cognition, offering a one-stop resource for the evolution of nervous systems throughout the animal kingdom Incorporates the expertise of over 100 outstanding investigators who provide their conclusions in the context of the latest experimental results Presents areas of disagreement and consensus views that provide a holistic view of the subjects under discussion

The Wiley Handbook of Evolutionary Neuroscience

The Wiley Handbook of Evolutionary Neuroscience Book
Author : Stephen V. Shepherd
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-01-30
ISBN : 1119994691
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Comprehensive and authoritative, The Wiley Handbook of Evolutionary Neuroscience unifies the diverse strands of an interdisciplinary field exploring the evolution of brains and cognition. A comprehensive reference that unifies the diverse interests and approaches associated with the neuroscientific study of brain evolution and the emergence of cognition Tackles some of the biggest questions in neuroscience including what brains are for, what factors constrain their biological development, and how they evolve and interact Provides a broad and balanced view of the subject, reviewing both vertebrate and invertebrate anatomy and emphasizing their shared origins and mechanisms Features contributions from highly respected scholars in their fields

Conn s Translational Neuroscience

Conn s Translational Neuroscience Book
Author : P. Michael Conn
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-09-28
ISBN : 0128025964
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Conn’s Translational Neuroscience provides a comprehensive overview reflecting the depth and breadth of the field of translational neuroscience, with input from a distinguished panel of basic and clinical investigators. Progress has continued in understanding the brain at the molecular, anatomic, and physiological levels in the years following the 'Decade of the Brain,' with the results providing insight into the underlying basis of many neurological disease processes. This book alternates scientific and clinical chapters that explain the basic science underlying neurological processes and then relates that science to the understanding of neurological disorders and their treatment. Chapters cover disorders of the spinal cord, neuronal migration, the autonomic nervous system, the limbic system, ocular motility, and the basal ganglia, as well as demyelinating disorders, stroke, dementia and abnormalities of cognition, congenital chromosomal and genetic abnormalities, Parkinson's disease, nerve trauma, peripheral neuropathy, aphasias, sleep disorders, and myasthenia gravis. In addition to concise summaries of the most recent biochemical, physiological, anatomical, and behavioral advances, the chapters summarize current findings on neuronal gene expression and protein synthesis at the molecular level. Authoritative and comprehensive, Conn’s Translational Neuroscience provides a fully up-to-date and readily accessible guide to brain functions at the cellular and molecular level, as well as a clear demonstration of their emerging diagnostic and therapeutic importance. Provides a fully up-to-date and readily accessible guide to brain functions at the cellular and molecular level, while also clearly demonstrating their emerging diagnostic and therapeutic importance Features contributions from leading global basic and clinical investigators in the field Provides a great resource for researchers and practitioners interested in the basic science underlying neurological processes Relates and translates the current science to the understanding of neurological disorders and their treatment

The Benzodiazepine Receptor

The Benzodiazepine Receptor Book
Author : Walter E. Müller,Walter Erhard Müller
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1987-12-10
ISBN : 9780521304184
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Benzodiazepines are the most commonly used psychotropic drugs, prescribed for their action as tranquillizers, hypnotics and anti-epileptics. They act in the brain by binding to specific, highly selective recognition sites, the benzodiazepine receptors. This book, first published in 1987, summarises our knowledge of these receptors for a student and professional audience and is divided into two sections. In the first part, the general properties of the receptors and their involvement in the mechanisms of action of benzodiazepines are described. The second part discusses the function of the receptors and concludes that the system represents a novel neuronal system for the fine adjustment of brain function or for auxiliary function if the other neuronal systems fail owing to pathological defects.

The Brain That Changes Itself

The Brain That Changes Itself Book
Author : Norman Doidge
Publisher : Penguin
Release : 2007-03-15
ISBN : 1101147113
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

“Fascinating. Doidge’s book is a remarkable and hopeful portrait of the endless adaptability of the human brain.”—Oliver Sacks, MD, author of The Man Who Mistook His Wife for a Hat What is neuroplasticity? Is it possible to change your brain? Norman Doidge’s inspiring guide to the new brain science explains all of this and more An astonishing new science called neuroplasticity is overthrowing the centuries-old notion that the human brain is immutable, and proving that it is, in fact, possible to change your brain. Psychoanalyst, Norman Doidge, M.D., traveled the country to meet both the brilliant scientists championing neuroplasticity, its healing powers, and the people whose lives they’ve transformed—people whose mental limitations, brain damage or brain trauma were seen as unalterable. We see a woman born with half a brain that rewired itself to work as a whole, blind people who learn to see, learning disorders cured, IQs raised, aging brains rejuvenated, stroke patients learning to speak, children with cerebral palsy learning to move with more grace, depression and anxiety disorders successfully treated, and lifelong character traits changed. Using these marvelous stories to probe mysteries of the body, emotion, love, sex, culture, and education, Dr. Doidge has written an immensely moving, inspiring book that will permanently alter the way we look at our brains, human nature, and human potential.

Molecular Basis of Odor

Molecular Basis of Odor Book
Author : John E. Amoore
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1970
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Molecular Basis of Odor book written by John E. Amoore, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.