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Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

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Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems Book
Author : Bryon Moyer
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2013
ISBN : 9780124160187
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This Expert Guide gives you the techniques and technologies in embedded multicore to optimally design and implement your embedded system. Written by experts with a solutions focus, this encyclopedic reference gives you an indispensable aid to tackling the day-to-day problems when building, optimizing and managing multicore embedded systems. Following an embedded system design path from start to finish, our team of experts takes you from architecture, through hardware implementation and software programming, to optimization and verification, including debug. With this book you will learn: • What motivates multicore • The architectural options and tradeoffs; when to use what • How to deal with the unique hardware challenges that multicore presents • How to manage the software infrastructure in a multicore environment • How to write effective multicore programs • How to port legacy code into a multicore system and partition legacy software • How to optimize both the system and software • The particular challenges of verifying and debugging multicore hardware and software Road map of key problems/issues and references to their solution in the text • Review of core methods in the context of how to apply them (20% of the book) in embedded systems development • Examples demonstrate timeless implementation details • Short and to-the-point case studies show how key ideas can be implemented, the rationale for choices made, and design guidelines and trade-offs • Proven and practical techniques reflecting the authors' expertise built from years of experience • Key expert advice on tackling critical issues based on years of experience • Tips and tricks • On-line support to include simulations tools, sample code, updates • References to tools and key literature

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems Book
Author : Bryon Moyer
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-02-27
ISBN : 0123914612
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This Expert Guide gives you the techniques and technologies in embedded multicore to optimally design and implement your embedded system. Written by experts with a solutions focus, this encyclopedic reference gives you an indispensable aid to tackling the day-to-day problems when building and managing multicore embedded systems. Following an embedded system design path from start to finish, our team of experts takes you from architecture, through hardware implementation to software programming and debug. With this book you will learn: • What motivates multicore • The architectural options and tradeoffs; when to use what • How to deal with the unique hardware challenges that multicore presents • How to manage the software infrastructure in a multicore environment • How to write effective multicore programs • How to port legacy code into a multicore system and partition legacy software • How to optimize both the system and software • The particular challenges of debugging multicore hardware and software Examples demonstrating timeless implementation details Proven and practical techniques reflecting the authors’ expertise built from years of experience and key advice on tackling critical issues

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems Book
Author : Gitu Jain
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-27
ISBN : 0128073381
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Unlike general-purpose computing systems, multicore embedded systems are designed with a specific application in mind. The memory access patterns for the application can be used to customize the memory architecture of the device. This chapter presents a synopsis of memory types and architecture commonly used in multicore embedded systems. It examines the many trade-offs that can be considered when designing the memory architecture. It considers factors such as whether the memory should be shared or distributed among the multiple cores; will the cores benefit from memory cache and what should the cache configuration be; is there a cache coherency protocol used; should there be other memory types on the device such as scratch pad SRAMs and eDRAMs; does the device use a DMA for memory transfers, and other factors. It provides guidance to the embedded system designers to tailor the memory architecture to their needs.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems Book
Author : Neal Stollon
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-27
ISBN : 0128073500
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As in any complex architecture, debug and instrumentation resources are critical for multicore design. Debug instrumentation provides information for post-silicon debug analysis, software optimization, and performance monitoring. In this chapter, we introduce debug concepts useful for multicore; we deconstruct and discuss different debug instrumentation blocks and interfaces, including typical operations and system integration; and we discuss differences, considerations, and approaches more appropriate to multicore debug. This is followed by multicore debug examples, some of which are based on open standards and some on commercially-available blocks from processor IP providers.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems Book
Author : Frank Schirrmeister
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-27
ISBN : 0128073373
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter will introduce the concepts of multicore related issues, while the subsequent chapters will go into further details. We will start with a general analysis of how electronic design trends lead to multicore hardware-software architectures as the only viable solution addressing consumer requirements on cost, performance and power. We will then categorize multicore architecture concepts by processing and communication requirements and show how different processing techniques combine to form multicore architectures that address the specific needs of different application domains. Special attention will be given to the programmability of the different hardware architectures and the impact that hardware has on software. We will close the chapter with a brief review of existing hardware architectures available on the market, as well as a brief discussion about programming models capable of expressing parallel functionality, which can then be mapped into multiple processor cores.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems Book
Author : Jim Holt
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-27
ISBN : 0128073489
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Synchronization hardware is a fundamental requirement for concurrent software. Ultimately, software depends upon strong guarantees for atomicity, which can only be provided by hardware. Fortunately, hardware can provide a simple but powerful programming interface to higher-level software using only a few synchronization primitives. These few primitives can support a surprisingly broad range of capabilities in software. Yet, even with hardware support to ensure functional correctness, there is an unavoidable performance overhead to pay for synchronization. In recent years, hardware designed to replace precise locking with speculative lock avoidance (e.g., lock-free programming) has begun to emerge. This chapter provides an in-depth look at the lowest level hardware/software interface for synchronization, along with explanations of how the underlying hardware ensures atomicity, and considerations related to weakly consistent memory models. This is complemented with a discussion of various lock avoidance techniques.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems Book
Author : Sanjay R. Deshpande
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-27
ISBN : 012807339X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Growth in the number of transistors per die of an integrated circuit has provided impetus to the development of system-on-chip microprocessors (SoCs). They are becoming ubiquitous and appear in home appliances, cell phones, tablet, laptop, and desk-top computers, and lately even as building blocks in high-end computer systems. As the semiconductor manufacturing technology progresses in concert with Moore’s law, SoCs clearly represent the trend of the future of microprocessor design. SoCs vary widely in composition, complexity and sophistication depending on the computing applications for which they are intended: some are simple single-processor systems, while others range from a few to a few tens of processor cores and contain other hardware functional blocks, storage elements, memory controllers and interfaces to external high-speed interconnections such as PCI Express, SRIO, and others. In any such SoC, the on-chip interconnections play a central role in its operation and contribute vitally to the performance of the applications running in it. This chapter explores the choices of interconnections that may be employed and discusses the criteria for their selection. The chapter illustrates the interconnection selection process by describing an example SoC and examining the interconnections it contains.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems Book
Author : David Kleidermacher
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-27
ISBN : 0128073411
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter discusses the potential of and role of system virtualization in meeting the flexibility, scalability, portability, and robustness demands of next-generation multicore embedded systems. Common architectural approaches to hypervisors are compared, including a strong focus on effective sharing and management of I/O peripherals across virtual machines. The chapter also describes and contrasts the virtualization hardware assistance features available in common multicore processors. Finally, emerging applications and use cases enabled by system virtualization are provided.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems Book
Author : Sanjay Lal
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-27
ISBN : 0128073497
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Some embedded systems require so much performance that they cannot tolerate the overhead imposed by an operating system. Such systems can be built with little to no operating system services, and are often referred to as “bare-metal” systems. Because most programming techniques rely on system services, bare-metal programming requires a different way of implementing code on a multicore platform. This chapter describes where bare-metal systems are used, those aspects that differentiate them from more standard systems, and how they can be designed and programmed.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems Book
Author : Tom Dickens
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-27
ISBN : 0128073462
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Synchronization is the key mechanism used within software applications to safely and efficiently leverage today’s multicore hardware architectures. This chapter aims to build your expertise and knowledge in software synchronization, from the needs behind synchronization to the possible solutions to implement synchronization. The target reader of this chapter is the embedded multicore software developer, along with the tester, project manager, and customer, in order to educate the entire software development team about the technology and the issues. Problems that occur when synchronization is not used, or when it is used badly, are considered. An in-depth look at how to achieve synchronization and also specific conditions that require synchronization are the primary focus of this chapter. Specific synchronization support for different languages, along with design patterns useful for architecting of a synchronized system, are discussed. The chapter wraps up looking at side-effects (good and bad) and problems encountered when writing synchronization code, as well as hardware and operating system effects on synchronization.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems Book
Author : Kenn Luecke
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-27
ISBN : 0128073446
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Efficient software development requires adequate toolsets to assist the developer in analyzing and optimizing a software application’s performance. With the relatively recent advent of multicore embedded hardware platforms, toolsets for supporting multicore development have appeared, although, in some cases, capabilities may be missing or immature, leaving software developers to manually massage outputs from one tool into inputs for the next tool or struggling to investigate unexpected multicore behaviors. This section reviews those multicore tools currently available for software developers as well as those that are still needed for adequate support.

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems

Real World Multicore Embedded Systems Book
Author : Max Domeika
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-02-27
ISBN : 012807342X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter discusses communication and synchronization libraries which can be used to implement parallelism in your embedded application. Details will be shared on several common libaries including Windows Threads, POSIX Threads, Threading Building Blocks, OpenMP, and MCAPI.

Multi Core Embedded Systems

Multi Core Embedded Systems Book
Author : Georgios Kornaros
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-10-08
ISBN : 1439811628
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Details a real-world product that applies a cutting-edge multi-core architecture Increasingly demanding modern applications—such as those used in telecommunications networking and real-time processing of audio, video, and multimedia streams—require multiple processors to achieve computational performance at the rate of a few giga-operations per second. This necessity for speed and manageable power consumption makes it likely that the next generation of embedded processing systems will include hundreds of cores, while being increasingly programmable, blending processors and configurable hardware in a power-efficient manner. Multi-Core Embedded Systems presents a variety of perspectives that elucidate the technical challenges associated with such increased integration of homogeneous (processors) and heterogeneous multiple cores. It offers an analysis that industry engineers and professionals will need to understand the physical details of both software and hardware in embedded architectures, as well as their limitations and potential for future growth. Discusses the available programming models spread across different abstraction levels The book begins with an overview of the evolution of multiprocessor architectures for embedded applications and discusses techniques for autonomous power management of system-level parameters. It addresses the use of existing open-source (and free) tools originating from several application domains—such as traffic modeling, graph theory, parallel computing and network simulation. In addition, the authors cover other important topics associated with multi-core embedded systems, such as: Architectures and interconnects Embedded design methodologies Mapping of applications

System Level Design from HW SW to Memory for Embedded Systems

System Level Design from HW SW to Memory for Embedded Systems Book
Author : Marcelo Götz,Gunar Schirner,Marco Aurélio Wehrmeister,Mohammad Abdullah Al Faruque,Achim Rettberg
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-04-16
ISBN : 3319900234
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th IFIP TC 10 International Embedded Systems Symposium, IESS 2015, held in Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, in November 2015. The 18 full revised papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 25 submissions. The papers present a broad discussion on the design, analysis and verification of embedded and cyber-physical systems including design methodologies, verification, performance analysis, and real-time systems design. They are organized in the following topical sections: cyber-physical systems, system-level design; multi/many-core system design; memory system design; and embedded HW/SW design and applications.

Real Time Systems Development with RTEMS and Multicore Processors

Real Time Systems Development with RTEMS and Multicore Processors Book
Author : Gedare Bloom,Joel Sherrill,Tingting Hu,Ivan Cibrario Bertolotti
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-11-23
ISBN : 1351255770
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The proliferation of multicore processors in the embedded market for Internet-of-Things (IoT) and Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) makes developing real-time embedded applications increasingly difficult. What is the underlying theory that makes multicore real-time possible? How does theory influence application design? When is a real-time operating system (RTOS) useful? What RTOS features do applications need? How does a mature RTOS help manage the complexity of multicore hardware? Real-Time Systems Development with RTEMS and Multicore Processors answers these questions and more with exemplar Real-Time Executive for Multiprocessor Systems (RTEMS) RTOS to provide concrete advice and examples for constructing useful, feature-rich applications. RTEMS is free, open-source software that supports multi-processor systems for over a dozen CPU architectures and over 150 specific system boards in applications spanning the range of IoT and CPS domains such as satellites, particle accelerators, robots, racing motorcycles, building controls, medical devices, and more. The focus of this book is on enabling real-time embedded software engineering while providing sufficient theoretical foundations and hardware background to understand the rationale for key decisions in RTOS and application design and implementation. The topics covered in this book include: Cross-compilation for embedded systems development Concurrent programming models used in real-time embedded software Real-time scheduling theory and algorithms used in wide practice Usage and comparison of two application programmer interfaces (APIs) in real-time embedded software: POSIX and the RTEMS Classic APIs Design and implementation in RTEMS of commonly found RTOS features for schedulers, task management, time-keeping, inter-task synchronization, inter-task communication, and networking The challenges introduced by multicore hardware, advances in multicore real-time theory, and software engineering multicore real-time systems with RTEMS All the authors of this book are experts in the academic field of real-time embedded systems. Two of the authors are primary open-source maintainers of the RTEMS software project.

Multi Core Embedded Systems

Multi Core Embedded Systems Book
Author : Georgios Kornaros
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-10-08
ISBN : 1351834088
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Details a real-world product that applies a cutting-edge multi-core architecture Increasingly demanding modern applications—such as those used in telecommunications networking and real-time processing of audio, video, and multimedia streams—require multiple processors to achieve computational performance at the rate of a few giga-operations per second. This necessity for speed and manageable power consumption makes it likely that the next generation of embedded processing systems will include hundreds of cores, while being increasingly programmable, blending processors and configurable hardware in a power-efficient manner. Multi-Core Embedded Systems presents a variety of perspectives that elucidate the technical challenges associated with such increased integration of homogeneous (processors) and heterogeneous multiple cores. It offers an analysis that industry engineers and professionals will need to understand the physical details of both software and hardware in embedded architectures, as well as their limitations and potential for future growth. Discusses the available programming models spread across different abstraction levels The book begins with an overview of the evolution of multiprocessor architectures for embedded applications and discusses techniques for autonomous power management of system-level parameters. It addresses the use of existing open-source (and free) tools originating from several application domains—such as traffic modeling, graph theory, parallel computing and network simulation. In addition, the authors cover other important topics associated with multi-core embedded systems, such as: Architectures and interconnects Embedded design methodologies Mapping of applications

FPGAs

FPGAs Book
Author : Juan Jose Rodriguez Andina,Eduardo de la Torre Arnanz,Maria Dolores Valdes
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-07-28
ISBN : 1351667270
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) are currently recognized as the most suitable platform for the implementation of complex digital systems targeting an increasing number of industrial electronics applications. They cover a huge variety of application areas, such as: aerospace, food industry, art, industrial automation, automotive, biomedicine, process control, military, logistics, power electronics, chemistry, sensor networks, robotics, ultrasound, security, and artificial vision. This book first presents the basic architectures of the devices to familiarize the reader with the fundamentals of FPGAs before identifying and discussing new resources that extend the ability of the devices to solve problems in new application domains. Design methodologies are discussed and application examples are included for some of these domains, e.g., mechatronics, robotics, and power systems.

Reconfigurable Logic

Reconfigurable Logic Book
Author : Pierre-Emmanuel Gaillardon
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-09-03
ISBN : 1482262193
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

During the last three decades, reconfigurable logic has been growing steadily and can now be found in many different fields. Field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) are one of the most famous architecture families of reconfigurable devices. FPGAs can be seen as arrays of logic units that can be reconfigured to realize any digital systems. Their high versatility has enabled designers to drastically reduce time to market, and made FPGAs suitable for prototyping or small production series in many branches of industrial products. In addition, and thanks to innovations at the architecture level, FPGAs are now conquering segments of mass markets such as mobile communications. Reconfigurable Logic: Architecture, Tools, and Applications offers a snapshot of the state of the art of reconfigurable logic systems. Covering a broad range of architectures, tools, and applications, this book: Explores classical FPGA architectures and their supporting tools Evaluates recent proposals related to FPGA architectures, including the use of network-on-chips (NoCs) Examines reconfigurable processors that merge concepts borrowed from the reconfigurable domain into processor design Exploits FPGAs for high-performance systems, efficient error correction codes, and high-bandwidth network routers with built-in security Expounds on emerging technologies to enhance FPGA architectures, improve routing structures, and create non-volatile configuration flip-flops Reconfigurable Logic: Architecture, Tools, and Applications reviews current trends in reconfigurable platforms, providing valuable insight into the future potential of reconfigurable systems.

Embedded Software Development

Embedded Software Development Book
Author : Ivan Cibrario Bertolotti,Tingting Hu
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-12-19
ISBN : 1466593938
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Embedded Software Development: The Open-Source Approach delivers a practical introduction to embedded software development, with a focus on open-source components. This programmer-centric book is written in a way that enables even novice practitioners to grasp the development process as a whole. Incorporating real code fragments and explicit, real-world open-source operating system references (in particular, FreeRTOS) throughout, the text: Defines the role and purpose of embedded systems, describing their internal structure and interfacing with software development tools Examines the inner workings of the GNU compiler collection (GCC)-based software development system or, in other words, toolchain Presents software execution models that can be adopted profitably to model and express concurrency Addresses the basic nomenclature, models, and concepts related to task-based scheduling algorithms Shows how an open-source protocol stack can be integrated in an embedded system and interfaced with other software components Analyzes the main components of the FreeRTOS Application Programming Interface (API), detailing the implementation of key operating system concepts Discusses advanced topics such as formal verification, model checking, runtime checks, memory corruption, security, and dependability Embedded Software Development: The Open-Source Approach capitalizes on the authors’ extensive research on real-time operating systems and communications used in embedded applications, often carried out in strict cooperation with industry. Thus, the book serves as a springboard for further research.

Multicore Hardware software Design and Verification Techniques

Multicore Hardware software Design and Verification Techniques Book
Author : Pao-Ann Hsiung,Yean-Ru Chen,Chao-Sheng Lin
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release : 2011
ISBN : 1608052257
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The surge of multicore processors coming into the market and on users' desktops has made parallel computing the focus of attention once again. This time, however, it is led by the industry, which ensures that multicore computing is here to stay. Neverthel"