Skip to main content

Rationality

In Order to Read Online or Download Rationality Full eBooks in PDF, EPUB, Tuebl and Mobi you need to create a Free account. Get any books you like and read everywhere you want. Fast Download Speed ~ Commercial & Ad Free. We cannot guarantee that every book is in the library!

Rationality in Social Interactions

Rationality in Social Interactions Book
Author : Guido Olschewski
Publisher : Logos Verlag Berlin GmbH
Release : 2009
ISBN : 3832523685
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The analysis of human decision making in social sciences is often based on a conception of rationality. This dissertation contains three microeconomic models, which directly build on the rationality assumption in economic theory. We model agents endowed with rational preferences and analyze how such preferences translate into decisions in a given social interaction. In particular, we present three different models: (1) Arrovian social choice theory with delegation as a feasible policy alternative; (2) Game theory and the existence of mental equilibrium in 2x2 games; (3) Information economics and its application to analyzing stakeholder participation in electronic health record networks.

The Economics of Rationality

The Economics of Rationality Book
Author : Bill J Gerrard
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2006-04-10
ISBN : 1134915284
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The concept of rationality is the heart of modern economics. Neo-classical theory seems unable to proceed without assuming a rational agent seeking to find the optimal means to a well defined end. Yet many find this uncritical treatment of rationality problematic. It takes little account of culture history or creativity and consequently many economists find this insistence on rationality of little use when trying to explain a wide range of economic phenomena. Increasingly these include a large number of game theorists and others involved in mainstream theory as well as those typically opposed to neo-classicism. The Economics of Rationality contains a number of critical perspectives on the treatment of rationality in economics.

Ecological Rationality

Ecological Rationality Book
Author : Peter M. Todd,Gerd Gigerenzer
Publisher : OUP USA
Release : 2012-04-10
ISBN : 0195315448
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

"More information is always better, and full information is best. More computation is always better, and optimization is best." More-is-better ideals such as these have long shaped our vision of rationality. Yet humans and other animals typically rely on simple heuristics to solve adaptive problems, focusing on one or a few important cues and ignoring the rest, and shortcutting computation rather than striving for as much as possible. In this book, we argue that in an uncertain world, more information and computation are not always better, and we ask when, and why, less can be more. The answers to these questions constitute the idea of ecological rationality: how we are able to achieve intelligence in the world by using simple heuristics matched to the environments we face, exploiting the structures inherent in our physical, biological, social, and cultural surroundings.

Rationality and Freedom

Rationality and Freedom Book
Author : Amartya Sen
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 2004-03-30
ISBN : 9780674013513
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Rationality and freedom are among the most profound and contentious concepts in philosophy and the social sciences. In this, the first of two volumes, Amartya Sen brings clarity and insight to these difficult issues.

Faith Freedom and Rationality

Faith  Freedom  and Rationality Book
Author : Jeff Jordan,Daniel Howard-Snyder
Publisher : Rowman & Littlefield
Release : 1996
ISBN : 9780847681532
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The philosophy of religion, once considered a deviation from an otherwise analytically rigorous discipline, has flourished over the past two decades. This collection of new essays by twelve distinguished philosophers of religion explores three broad themes: religious attitudes of belief, acceptance, and love; human and divine freedom; and the rationality of religious belief.

Rationality and Operators

Rationality and Operators Book
Author : Susumu Cato
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-08-29
ISBN : 9789811018954
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This unique book develops an operational approach to preference and rationality as the author employs operators over binary relations to capture the concept of rationality. A preference is a basis of individual behavior and social judgment and is mathematically regarded as a binary relation on the set of alternatives. Traditionally, an individual/social preference is assumed to satisfy completeness and transitivity. However, each of the two conditions is often considered to be too demanding; and then, weaker rationality conditions are introduced by researchers. This book argues that the preference rationality conditions can be captured mathematically by “operators,” which are mappings from the set of operators to itself. This operational approach nests traditional concepts in individual/social decision theory and clarifies the underlying formal structure of preference rationality. The author also applies his approach to welfare economics. The core problem of ‘new welfare economics,’ developed by Kaldor, Hicks, and Samuelson, is the rationality of social preference. In this book the author translates the social criteria proposed by those three economists into operational forms, which provide new insights into welfare economics extending beyond ‘new welfare economics.’

Rationality Of Irrationality The Schizophrenia Criminal Insanity And Neurosis

Rationality Of Irrationality  The  Schizophrenia  Criminal Insanity And Neurosis Book
Author : Rofe Yacov
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2020-03-10
ISBN : 9811208905
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book challenges the validity of all traditional theories of psychopathology, particularly with regard to schizophrenia. It demonstrates that the accepted belief that schizophrenia is a brain disease is wrong, a result of the inability of traditional theories to provide an alternative explanation for the correlation between schizophrenia and genetic/neurological impairments.Psych-Bizarreness Theory (PBT), presented in this book, demonstrates that bizarre/mad behaviors, schizophrenia, criminal insanity and neuroses are rational coping mechanisms to extreme levels of emotional distress, usually depression, which are chosen by the individual to improve his quality of life. PBT integrates the scientific contributions of all traditional theories into one theoretical framework. It also integrates all therapeutic interventions of mad behaviors into one theoretical umbrella and suggests a new, humanistic therapeutic approach.

Choice Rationality and Social Theory RLE Social Theory

Choice  Rationality and Social Theory  RLE Social Theory  Book
Author : Barry Hindess
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2014-08-21
ISBN : 1317652134
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Choice, Rationality and Social Theory is a powerful rebuttal of the remarkably influential theories underlying 'rational choice analysis'. Rational choice analysis maintains that social life is principally to be explained as the outcome of rational choices on the part of individual actors. Adherents of this view include not only philosophers, political scientists and sociologists, but also prominent politicians in Western governments – notably of the United Kingdom and the United States. Rational choice analysis is said to be rigorous, capable of great technical sophistication, and able to generate powerful explanations on the basis of a few, relatively simple theoretical assumptions. Barry Hindess argues that the theory is seriously deficient, first, because there are important actors in the modern world other than human individuals, and second, because it says nothing about those processes of deliberation that play an important part in actors' decisions. The use of highly questionable assumptions about actors and their rationality has the effect of closing off important areas of intellectual inquiry and ignoring the reality of certain forms of thought and the social conditions on which they depend. These points are established through detailed examination of the concepts of the actor and of rationality – providing an overall argument that constitutes a serious challenge to any adherent of rational choice analysis.

The Age of Post Rationality

The Age of Post Rationality Book
Author : Val Colic-Peisker,Adrian Flitney
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-10-24
ISBN : 9811062595
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book challenges the hegemonic view that economic calculation represents the ultimate rationality. The West legitimises its global dominance by the claim to be a rational, democratic, science-based and progressive civilisation. Yet, over the past decades, the dogma of economic rationality has become an ideological black hole whose gravitational pull allows no public debate or policy to escape. Political leaders of all creeds are held in its orbit and public language is saturated by it. This dogma has pervaded all spheres of life, ushering the age of post-rationality, especially in English speaking countries. The authors discuss several aspects of post-rational global capitalism still dominated by the Anglosphere: hyper-competition, hyper-consumption, inequality, volatile global financial markets, environmental degradation and the unforeseen effects of the internet-mediated communication revolution. The book concludes by discussing some utopian and dystopian future scenarios and asking whether the West can transcend its crisis of rationality.

Rationality and Reasoning

Rationality and Reasoning Book
Author : Jonathon St. B.T. Evans,David E. Over
Publisher : Psychology Press
Release : 2013-09-13
ISBN : 1135472300
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book addresses an apparent paradox in the psychology of thinking. On the one hand, human beings are a highly successful species. On the other, intelligent adults are known to exhibit numerous errors and biases in laboratory studies of reasoning and decision making. There has been much debate among both philosophers and psychologists about the implications of such studies for human rationality. The authors argue that this debate is marked by a confusion between two distinct notions: (a) personal rationality (rationality1 Evans and Over argue that people have a high degree of rationality1 but only a limited capacity for rationality2. The book re-interprets the psychological literature on reasoning and decision making, showing that many normative errors, by abstract standards, reflect the operation of processes that would normally help to achieve ordinary goals. Topics discussed include relevance effects in reasoning and decision making, the influence of prior beliefs on thinking, and the argument that apparently non-logical reasoning can reflect efficient decision making. The authors also discuss the problem of deductive competence - whether people have it, and what mechanism can account for it. As the book progresses, increasing emphasis is given to the authors' dual process theory of thinking, in which a distinction between tacit and explicit cognitive systems is developed. It is argued that much of human capacity for rationality1 is invested in tacit cognitive processes, which reflect both innate mechanisms and biologically constrained learning. However, the authors go on to argue that human beings also possess an explicit thinking system, which underlies their unique - if limited - capacity to be rational.

Rationality in the Social Sciences

Rationality in the Social Sciences Book
Author : Helmut Staubmann,Victor Lidz
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-11-30
ISBN : 331962377X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This volume presents for the first time a collection of historically important papers written on the concept of rationality in the social sciences. In 1939-40, the famed Austrian economist Joseph A. Schumpeter and the famous sociologist Talcott Parsons convened a faculty seminar at Harvard University on the topic of rationality. The first part includes their essays as well as papers by the Austrian phenomenologist Alfred Schütz, the sociologist Wilbert Moore, and the economist Rainer Schickele. Several younger economists and sociologists with bright futures also participated, including Alex Gerschenkron, John Dunlop, Paul M. Sweezy, and Wassily W. Leontief, who was later awarded the Nobel Prize for developing input-output analysis. The second part presents essays and commentaries written by today’s internationally noted social scientists and addressing the topic of rationality in social action from a broad range of perspectives. The book’s third and final part shares the recently discovered correspondence between the seminar principals regarding the original but failed plan to publish its proceedings. It also includes letters, not previously published, between Richard Grathoff, Walter M. Sprondel and Talcott Parsons on the rationality seminar and the exchanges between Parsons and Schütz.

Evolutionary Epistemology Rationality and the Sociology of Knowledge

Evolutionary Epistemology  Rationality  and the Sociology of Knowledge Book
Author : Karl Raimund Popper
Publisher : Open Court Publishing
Release : 1987
ISBN : 9780812690392
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

"Bartley and Radnitzky have done the philosophy of knowledge a tremendous service. Scholars now have a superb and up-to-date presentation of the fundamental ideas of evolutionary epistemology." --Philosophical Books

Models of Bounded Rationality and Mechanism Design

Models of Bounded Rationality and Mechanism Design Book
Author : Ariel Rubinstein,Jacob Glazer
Publisher : World Scientific Series in Eco
Release : 2016-08-22
ISBN : 9789813141322
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book brings together the authors' joint papers from over a period of more than twenty years. The collection includes seven papers, each of which presents a novel and rigorous model in Economic Theory. All of the models are within the domain of implementation and mechanism design theories. These theories attempt to explain how incentive schemes and organizations can be designed with the goal of inducing agents to behave according to the designer's (principal's) objectives. Most of the literature assumes that agents are fully rational. In contrast, the authors inject into each model an element which conflicts with the standard notion of full rationality, demonstrating how such elements can dramatically change the mechanism design problem. Although all of the models presented in this volume touch on mechanism design issues, it is the formal modeling of bounded rationality that the authors are most interested in. A model of bounded rationality signifies a model that contains a procedural element of reasoning that is not consistent with full rationality. Rather than looking for a canonical model of bounded rationality, the articles introduce a variety of modeling devices that will capture procedural elements not previously considered, and which alter the analysis of the model. The book is a journey into the modeling of bounded rationality. It is a collection of modeling ideas rather than a general alternative theory of implementation.

Economic Rationality and Practical Reason

Economic Rationality and Practical Reason Book
Author : Julian Nida-Rümelin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 9401588147
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

The theory of practical rationality does not belong to one academic discipline alone. There are quite divergent philosophical, economical, sociological, psychological and politological contributions. Sometimes the disciplinary boundaries impede theoretical progress. On the other hand it is an indication for the high complexity of the subject that so many divergent paradigms compete with one another, or - what is worse - live separately in a kind of splendid isolation. Decision theory in the broader sense, embracing the theory of games and collective choice theory, can help to understand practical reason in philosophical analysis. But there are interesting aspects which cannot be dealt with adequately within a decision-theoretic conceptual framework. To have both of these convictions justifies to neglect dis ciplinary boundaries and poses a problem for the orthodoxies of either sides. All the essays of this volume focus on the relation between economic rationality and practical reason and discuss different aspects of the same problem, i. e. a basic deficiency in the standard economic theory of practical rationality. But philosophical analysis would not be of much help if it just rejected the economic paradigm. It must rather help to integrate economic aspects into a broader view on practical reason.

Evaluating the Political Rationality of Terrorist Groups

Evaluating the Political Rationality of Terrorist Groups Book
Author : Eric van Um
Publisher : Springer VS
Release : 2015-11-16
ISBN : 9783658115388
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book improves our understanding of terrorists’ motivations and rationality and may, ultimately, also indicate how to respond to the phenomenon of terrorism. In his research studies, Eric van Um explores the political rationality of terrorist groups. The political rationality model builds on rational choice theory. It demands that terrorist groups take into account the costs and benefits of their available options and choose the option promising them the highest political utility. Testing the explanatory power of this model is relevant, as rational choice approaches have become very prominent in terrorism research. But, at the same time, their empirical power remains highly contested. Increased knowledge of the political rationality model not only promises added value for terrorism research itself, but also for social sciences more generally.

Rationality in Science Religion and Everyday Life

Rationality in Science  Religion  and Everyday Life Book
Author : Mikael Stenmark
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016-09-15
ISBN : 9780268041052
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Mikael Stenmark examines four models of rationality and argues for a discussion of rationality that takes into account the function and aim of such human practices as science and religion. "Rationality in Science, Religion, and Everyday Life is a clear, informed, and stimulating discussion that will be of interest to a wide range of philosophers, theologians, and others concerned with the rational status of religious belief. It provides a useful overview and sugggest some fruitful new approaches." --Gary Gutting, author of Religious Belief and Religious Skepticism

Rationality and Modernity

Rationality and Modernity Book
Author : Gunnar Skirbekk
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 1993
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

This book deals with rationality and modernity, focusing on the philosophical discussion of contexuality and universality concerning rationality and basic norms. Its perspective is that of the "pragmatic turn." Its discursive dimension is that of a mutual criticism between hermeneutic contextualism on the one hand and trans-contextual pragmatics on the other, or more precisely, between contextual praxeology as found in the late Wittgenstein and universal pragmatics as in Apel or in Habermas. Its basic concern is that of elaborating an improved conception of rationality as situated but still universally valid. On the one hand attempts are made to defend a pragmatic (gradualistic and "post-sceptical") notion of universal reason, including basic norms, and on the other hand there are attempts at case-oriented "piecemeal negotiations" and "sublations" by the use of arguments from absurdity (including self-referential arguments). Hence that which is philosophically novel and important can be summarized in terms of a pragmatic meliorism which allows for a universality denied by contextualist positions. At the same time this pragmatic meliorism, emphasizing attempts at overcoming the "negative," avoids some of the problems inherent in universalistic positions which predominately operate with "positive" goals and ideals.

Expectations Rationality and Economic Performance

Expectations  Rationality and Economic Performance Book
Author : Tobias F. Rötheli
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

'To a significant extent, the book is at the cutting edge of much economic thinking in microeconomics. . . it brings together nicely material on uncertainty, expectations and cognitive limitations and relates this to recent work in experimental economics.' - Geoffrey M. Hodgson, University of Hertfordshire, UK 'For more than 200 years, economists have debated the microfoundations of their science. There is only one way forward and that is to carefully examine the nature and the rationality of decision processes. Professor Rötheli's book is unique. He offers an idiosyncratic blend of theoretical analysis and experimental research that enlightens and provokes.' - Werner F.M. De Bondt, DePaul University, US This book offers a broad perspective on the economics of expectations. Experimental studies are used to analyse how human bounded rationality affects economic performance. The challenges posed for policy making are also addressed. Tobias Rötheli begins by presenting the basic tools and theoretical models necessary to our understanding of rational and boundedly rational expectations and their role in economic life. Key topics discussed include expectations in general equilibrium theory, probabilities and expected utility, heterogeneity of economic agents, behavioural alternatives to forecasting and the effects of expectations heuristics, particularly in financial markets. The author then goes on to explore the fascinating insights behavioural economics - the empirical analysis of economic decision making - has to offer. Here experimental studies illustrate the effects of costly information, the role of pattern recognition as basis of expectations, anticipation and coordination failures, and the role of expectations in determining the general price level. The book also addresses the implications of the experimental findings for applied economics. Aiming to achieve the accessibility of a textbook, this research monograph will appeal to economic researchers interested in economic behaviour and theory, as well as students taking upper-level undergraduate and graduate courses. It will also be of interest to economists working in business and government.

Rational Ritual

Rational Ritual Book
Author : Michael Suk-Young Chwe
Publisher : Princeton University Press
Release : 2013-04-28
ISBN : 0691158282
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Why do Internet, financial service, and beer commercials dominate Super Bowl advertising? How do political ceremonies establish authority? Why does repetition characterize anthems and ritual speech? Why were circular forms favored for public festivals during the French Revolution? This book answers these questions using a single concept: common knowledge. Game theory shows that in order to coordinate its actions, a group of people must form "common knowledge." Each person wants to participate only if others also participate. Members must have knowledge of each other, knowledge of that knowledge, knowledge of the knowledge of that knowledge, and so on. Michael Chwe applies this insight, with striking erudition, to analyze a range of rituals across history and cultures. He shows that public ceremonies are powerful not simply because they transmit meaning from a central source to each audience member but because they let audience members know what other members know. For instance, people watching the Super Bowl know that many others are seeing precisely what they see and that those people know in turn that many others are also watching. This creates common knowledge, and advertisers selling products that depend on consensus are willing to pay large sums to gain access to it. Remarkably, a great variety of rituals and ceremonies, such as formal inaugurations, work in much the same way. By using a rational-choice argument to explain diverse cultural practices, Chwe argues for a close reciprocal relationship between the perspectives of rationality and culture. He illustrates how game theory can be applied to an unexpectedly broad spectrum of problems, while showing in an admirably clear way what game theory might hold for scholars in the social sciences and humanities who are not yet acquainted with it. In a new afterword, Chwe delves into new applications of common knowledge, both in the real world and in experiments, and considers how generating common knowledge has become easier in the digital age.

Analyzing Politics

Analyzing Politics Book
Author : Kenneth A. Shepsle
Publisher : W W Norton & Company Incorporated
Release : 2010
ISBN : 9780393935073
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Analyzing Politics makes the fundamentals of rational-choice theory accessible to undergraduates in clear, nontechnical language.