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Handbook on Rare Earth Metals and Alloys Properties Extraction Preparation and Applications

Handbook on Rare Earth Metals and Alloys  Properties  Extraction  Preparation and Applications  Book
Author : NPCS Board of Consultants & Engineers
Publisher : ASIA PACIFIC BUSINESS PRESS Inc.
Release : 2009-04-01
ISBN : 8178331209
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rare earths are essential constituents of more than 100 mineral species and present in many more through substitution. They have a marked geochemical affinity for calcium, titanium, niobium, zirconium, fluoride, phosphate and carbonate ions. Industrially important minerals, which are utilized at present for rare earths production, are essentially three, namely monazite, bastnasite and xenotime. In modern time techniques for exploration of rare earths and yttrium minerals include geologic identification of environments of deposition and surface as well as airborne reconnaissance with magnetometric and radiometric equipment. There are numerous applications of rare earths such as in glass making industry, cracking catalysts, electronic and optoelectronic devices, medical technology, nuclear technology, agriculture, plastic industry etc. Lot of metals and alloys called rare earth are lying in the earth which required to be processed. Some of the important elements extracted from rare earths are uranium, lithium, beryllium, selenium, platinum metals, tantalum, silicon, molybdenum, manganese, chromium, cadmium, titanium, tungsten, zirconium etc. There are different methods involved in production of metals and non metals from rare earths for example; separation, primary crushing, secondary crushing, wet grinding, dry grinding etc. The rare earths are silver, silverymwhite, or gray metals; they have a high luster, but tarnish readily in air, have high electrical conductivity. The rare earths share many common properties this makes them difficult to separate or even distinguish from each other. There are very small differences in solubility and complex formation between the rare earths. The rare earth metals naturally occur together in minerals. Rare earths are found with non metals, usually in the 3+ oxidation state. At present all the rare earth resources in India are in the form of placer monazite deposits, which also carry other industrially important minerals like ilmenite, rutile, zircon, sillimanite and garnet. Some of the fundamentals of the book are commercially important rare earth minerals, exploration for rare earth resources, rare earth resources of the world, some rare earth minerals and their approximate compositions, rare earths in cracking catalysts, rare earth based phosphors, interdependence of applications and production of rare earths, uranium alloys, conversion of ores to lithium chemicals, characterization and analysis of very pure silicon, derivation of molybdenum metal, electoplating and chromizing, electrolytic production of titanium, heat treatment of titanium alloys, tensile properties of alloys etc. The book covers occurrence of rare earth, resources of the world, production of lithium metals, compounds derived from the metals, chemical properties of beryllium, uses of selenium, derivation of molybdenum metals, ore concentration and treatment and many more. This is a unique book of its kind, which will be a great asset for scientists, researchers, technocrats and entrepreneurs.

Rare Earths Industry

Rare Earths Industry Book
Author : Ismar Borges De Lima,Walter Leal Filho
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-09-10
ISBN : 0128025689
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rare Earths elements are composed of 15 chemical elements in the periodic table. Scandium and yttrium have similar properties, with mineral assemblages, and are therefore referred alike in the literature. Although abundant in the planet surface, the Rare Earths are not found in concentrated forms, thus making them economically valued as they are so challenging to obtain. Rare Earths Industry: Technological, Economic and Environmental Implications provides an interdisciplinary orientation to the topic of Rare Earths with a focus on technical, scientific, academic, economic, and environmental issues. Part I of book deals with the Rare Earths Reserves and Mining, Part II focuses on Rare Earths Processes and High-Tech Product Development, and Part III deals with Rare Earths Recycling Opportunities and Challenges. The chapters provide updated information and priceless analysis of the theme, and they seek to present the latest techniques, approaches, processes and technologies that can reduce the costs of compliance with environmental concerns in a way it is possible to anticipate and mitigate emerging problems. Discusses the influence of policy on Rare Earth Elements to help raise interest in developing strategies for management resource development and exploitation Global contributions will address solutions in countries that are high RE producers, including China, Brazil, Australia, and South China End of chapter critical summaries outline the technological, economic and environmental implications of rare earths reserves, exploration and market Provides a concise, but meaningful, geopolitical analysis of the current worldwide scenario and importance of rare earths exploration for governments, corporate groups, and local stakeholders

Rare Earths

Rare Earths Book
Author : Jacques Lucas,Pierre Lucas,Thierry Le Mercier,Alain Rollat,William G. Davenport
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-09-09
ISBN : 0444627448
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

High-technology and environmental applications of the rare-earth elements (REE) have grown dramatically in diversity and importance over the past four decades. This book provides a scientific understanding of rare earth properties and uses, present and future. It also points the way to efficient recycle of the rare earths in end-of-use products and efficient use of rare earths in new products. Scientists and students will appreciate the book's approach to the availability, structure and properties of rare earths and how they have led to myriad critical uses, present and future. Experts should buy this book to get an integrated picture of production and use (present and future) of rare earths and the science behind this picture. This book will prove valuable to.non-scientists as well in order to get an integrated picture of production and use of rare earths in the 21st Century, and the science behind this picture. Defines the chemical, physical and structural properties of rare earths. Gives the reader a basic understanding of what rare earths can do for us. Describes uses of each rare earth with chemical, physics, and structural explanations for the properties that underlie those uses. Allows the reader to understand how rare earths behave and why they are used in present applications and will be used in future applications. Explains to the reader where and how rare earths are found and produced and how they are best recycled to minimize environmental impact and energy and water consumption.

Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths

Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths Book
Author : Nagaiyar Krishnamurthy,Chiranjib Kumar Gupta
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2015-12-02
ISBN : 1466576383
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

New Edition Now Covers Recycling, Environmental Issues, and Analytical Determination Employing four decades of experience in the rare metal and rare earths industry, the authors of Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, Second Edition present the entire subject of rare earth elements with depth and accuracy. This second edition updates the most important developments from the past 10 years. It emphasizes advances made in rare-earth materials processing (converting a rare-earth metal, alloy, or compound to a device-ready material), breakthroughs in the area of rare-earth separation, and now includes a chapter on the recycling of rare earth elements from magnets, batteries, and phosphors among others, covering both manufacturing scrap or materials in end of life devices. Essential to Your Collection This second edition presents comprehensive, detailed, and up-to-date coverage that includes: All aspects of rare earth extractive metallurgy A status of rare earth extraction from various world resources Flow sheets that can be used for rare earths separation, metal reduction, alloy making, refining and end product materials preparation Techniques of various rare earths recycling options An outline of environmental issues in rare earths mining and processing Methods of rare earths determination and analyses of components and impurities in rare earth materials Information extensively linked to primary literature with a complete listing of references A narration of the changing scenario of world rare earth resources and possibility of their exploitation An indispensable resource, Extractive Metallurgy of Rare Earths, Second Edition explains the many aspects of rare earth extractive metallurgy clearly and systematically. The text reveals process implementation possibilities and research opportunities, and considers potential solutions to the challenges impacting this rapidly changing industry.

Rare Earth Elements

Rare Earth Elements Book
Author : Marc Humphries
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release : 2010-11
ISBN : 1437937985
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Contents: (1) Intro.; (2) What are Rare Earth Elements (REE)?; (3) Major End Uses and Applications: Demand for REE; The Application of REE in National Defense; (4) Rare Earth Resources and Production Potential; Supply Chain Issues; Role of China; (5) Rare Earth Legislation in the 111th Congress: H.R. 4866, and S. 3521, the Rare Earths Supply-Chain Technology and Resources Transformation Act of 2010; H.R. 5136, the FY 2011 Nat. Defense Authorization Act; P.L. 111-84, the FY 2010 Nat. Defense Authorization Act; (6) Possible Policy Options: Authorize and Appropriate Funding for a USGS Assessment; Support and Encourage Greater Exploration for REE; Challenge China on Its Export Policy; Establish a Stockpile. Illustrations.

China s rare earth industry

China s rare earth industry Book
Author : Pui-Kwan Tse
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

China's dominant position as the producer of over 95 percent of the world output of rare-earth minerals and rapid increases in the consumption of rare earths owing to the emergence of new clean-energy and defense-related technologies, combined with China's decisions to restrict exports of rare earths, have resulted in heightened concerns about the future availability of rare earths. As a result, industrial countries such as Japan, the United States, and countries of the European Union face tighter supplies and higher prices for rare earths. This paper briefly reviews China's rare-earth production, consumption, and reserves and the important policies and regulations regarding the production and trade of rare earths, including recently announced export quotas.

China and the Geopolitics of Rare Earths

China and the Geopolitics of Rare Earths Book
Author : Sophia Kalantzakos
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2017-12
ISBN : 0190670932
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rare earths are elements that are found in the Earth's crust, and are vital ingredients for the production of a wide variety of high tech, defense, and green technologies -- everything from iPhones and medical technologies, to wind turbines, efficiency lighting, smart bombs, and submarines. While they are not particularly "rare" in availability, they are difficult and expensive to mine. Yet, China has managed to gain control over an estimated 97 percent of the rare earth industry since the 1990s through cheap production, high export taxes, and artificial limitations of supply. Rare earths, and China's monopoly over them, became international news after China "unofficially" halted exports to Japan, the United States, and Europe in 2010. This embargo followed a collision between Chinese and Japanese boats in the East China Sea, a locus of geopolitical and economic tension between the two countries. Although the World Trade Organization forced China to scrap its restrictions, it still holds a stranglehold over these elements that are so critical to the economic and security interests of the United States and its allies. Sophia Kalantzakos argues that the 2010 rare earth crisis signaled more than just a trade dispute. Rather, it raises questions about China's use of economic statecraft, and must be regarded as a part of the larger discourse of global power relations. Importantly, this book also argues that the failure of political actors in the United States and Europe to pass policy to address future supply, or the scientific and business communities to devise sustainable rare earth production outside of China, points to future resource competition. Focusing on China's monopoly over the rare earth industry, this book examines the impacts of growing worldwide resource competition and the complexities policymakers face as they develop strategies and responses in an increasingly globalized world.

The Political Economy of Rare Earth Elements

The Political Economy of Rare Earth Elements Book
Author : Ryan David Kiggins
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-07-28
ISBN : 1137364246
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The contributors argue that rare earths are essential to the information technology revolution on which humans have come to depend for communication, commerce, and, increasingly, engage in conflict. They demonstrate that rare earths are a strategic commodity over which political actors will and do struggle for control.

China s Rare Earths Industry and Its Role in the International Market

China s Rare Earths Industry and Its Role in the International Market Book
Author : Lee Levkowitz,Nathan Beauchamp-Mustafaga
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download China s Rare Earths Industry and Its Role in the International Market book written by Lee Levkowitz,Nathan Beauchamp-Mustafaga, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Wind Energy Deployment and the Relevance of Rare Earths

Wind Energy Deployment and the Relevance of Rare Earths Book
Author : Anja Brumme
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2014-01-27
ISBN : 3658049138
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The worldwide deployment of wind power plants is soaring. Yet the availability of their construction materials could be a potential bottleneck. As rare earth elements represent the most critical materials, Anja Brumme provides a market analysis of rare earths, ascertaining that geological scarcity is not the main problem. Instead, the author identifies four kinds of market failure: market power, co-production, by-production and negative externalities. It becomes apparent that the market for rare earth metals is in a state of severe disequilibrium. Subsequently, her estimate of future rare earth demand patterns based on the wind power industry by 2050 reveals that the current level of supply is unlikely to be sufficient in the long run. To allow for a more elaborate analysis, the author suggests two options of including a rare earth side condition in an integrated assessment model.

A 21st Century Scramble

A 21st Century Scramble Book
Author : Nicholas Jepson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The paper analyses the peculiar structure of the rare earth elements (REE) industry, a sector dominated by China, and the global implications of current upheavals within the sector, especially as they concern South Africa's (re)emerging rare earths production. REEs are a hitherto obscure group of metals that have now assumed global significance. They are especially critical to modern high-strength magnets and constitute vital inputs for a growing range of mass consumer, "green" technology and military applications. It is important to understand that REEs altogether comprise 17 different metals which, although found together in various combinations, differ in relative abundance and breadth of possible applications. There are therefore large variations in prices and criticality of supply between the different elements. The Chinese rare earths industry has secured a 97% share of upstream production by means of aggressive pricing, backed by state support and technology transfer. Beijing is now attempting to consolidate the industry, crack down on illegal mining and restrict and enforce export and production quotas. Official explanations stress renewed concern for environmental issues and the protection of scarce resources from over-exploitation. Also significant, however, is a policy of deliberately using export restrictions to leverage non-Chinese prices, in order to induce foreign downstream producers to relocate production to China. This process is beginning; although there are also two other forms of international response. First, there is demand destruction either through increased efficiency in REE usage, substitution or recycling of rare earths. Secondly -- and most widely known -- are attempts to restart REE supply chains outside China. South Africa is in the forefront of these efforts through two, globally significant, extractive projects. The refurbished Steenkampskraal thorium and REE mine may be the first non-Chinese new producer to come online, in 2012-2013. The Zandkopsdrift development in Northern Cape is less advanced, but is among the largest prospective new REE mines. Both are joint ventures between Western junior mining companies and East Asian parastatals, respectively from China and Korea. Significant environmental risks seem inherent in the extraction and separation of REEs, especially from thorium waste, although apparently this has not reached the public consciousness in the areas immediately around the South African mines. If these dangers can be avoided or minimised, the new rare earths mines could make a small but significant positive developmental impact at local as well as national level.

Crs Report for Congress

Crs Report for Congress Book
Author : Wayne M. Morrison,Congressional Research Service: The Libr,Rachel Tang
Publisher : BiblioGov
Release : 2013-11
ISBN : 9781294255321
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the past few years, the Chinese government has implemented a number of policies to tighten its control over the production and export of "rare earths"--a unique group of 17 metal elements on the periodic table that exhibit a range of special properties, such as magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are important to a number of high technology industries, including renewable energy and various defense systems. China's position as the world's dominant producer and supplier of rare earths (97% of total output) and its policies to limit exports have raised concerns among many in Congress, especially given the importance of rare earths to a variety of U.S. commercial industries (e.g., hybrid and conventional autos, oil and gas, energy-efficient lighting, advanced electronics, chemicals, and medical equipment), as well as to U.S. defense industries that produce various weapon systems. Many are concerned that rising rare earth prices could undermine the global competitiveness of many U.S. firms (lowering their production and employment), impede technological innovation, and raise prices for U.S. consumers. Others are concerned that China's virtual monopoly over rare earths could be used as leverage against major rare earth importers, such as the United States, Japan, and the European Union (EU). ...

Rare

Rare Book
Author : Keith Veronese
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 1616149728
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Illuminates the chemical, economic and geopolitical issues surrounding the world's rare earth metals, identifying their critical role in powering mainstream consumer products and the wars being fought over territories where they are controlled.

China s Virtual Monopoly of Rare Earth Elements

China s Virtual Monopoly of Rare Earth Elements Book
Author : Roland Howanietz
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2018-06-12
ISBN : 1351109898
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rare Earth Elements are a group of 17 metals which have a central role in modern industry, increasingly used in the fields of green technologies, high technological consumer goods, industrial and medical appliances and modern weapons systems. Although deposits of Rare Earths are globally dispersed, over 90% of global demand has been provided by Chinese mines since the late 1990s, leading to a situation where China has a virtual monopoly. This book surveys the Rare Earths mining industry, discusses the extent to which Rare Earths really are scarce elsewhere in the world and assesses the economics of production, considering arguments for the rationing of supply, for higher pricing and for a total export embargo. This actually occurred in 2010, demonstrating the vulnerability of the rest of the world to China’s control of these increasingly vital resources.

Key aspects of the rare earth industry

Key aspects of the rare earth industry Book
Author : Laurence Jay Strauss
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1988
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The rare earths, or lanthanides, consist of a group of 15 interrelated metals from atomic numbers 57 through 71, inclusive, plus yttrium, atomic number 39. Yttrium is included in this study because of both its physical and chemical similarities to the group and its occurrence with them in nature. This study provides a comprehensive review of the rare-earth industry by examining the history, geology, prospecting and mining, chemistry, separation, uses and economics of the metals. Discussions on the uses of the rare earths include those in catalysts, glass, ceramics, and iron and steel industries. Both the technology of the various uses and their rare-earth consumption figures are outlined. Pricing strategies for the different rare-earth concentrations produced are analyzed. Additional attention has been paid to rare-earth consumption patterns of the various consuming regions of the world. These include the U.S., Western Europe and Japan.

China s Rare Earth Industry and Export Regime

China s Rare Earth Industry and Export Regime Book
Author : Wayne M. Morrison,Rachel Tang
Publisher : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Release : 2012-12-26
ISBN : 9781481849210
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the past few years, the Chinese government has implemented a number of policies to tighten its control over the production and export of "rare earths"-a unique group of 17 metal elements on the periodic table that exhibit a range of special properties, such as magnetism, luminescence, and strength. Rare earths are important to a number of high technology industries, including renewable energy and various defense systems.

RARE EARTHS

RARE EARTHS Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 9781910922330
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download RARE EARTHS book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Rare Earth Industry

The Rare Earth Industry Book
Author : Sydney James Johnstone
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1918
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download The Rare Earth Industry book written by Sydney James Johnstone, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Rare Earths in the Glass Industry

Rare Earths in the Glass Industry Book
Author : Thorium Ltd
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 196?
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Rare Earths in the Glass Industry book written by Thorium Ltd, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Episodes from the History of the Rare Earth Elements

Episodes from the History of the Rare Earth Elements Book
Author : C. H. Evans
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1996-07-31
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is the first volume devoted entirely to the fascinating history of the discovery of the rare earth elements. Part I, `Discovery', describes how the isolation and characterization of each new rare earth element confronted chemists with unparalleled difficulties for over 150 years. In addition, these elements introduced particular problems for Mendeleyev's periodic table. Study of the rare earths occupied the best chemical minds of the day, including such notables as Gadolin, Berzelius, Mosander, Hisinger, Kloproth, Urban, Auer von Welsbach and Crookes. An interesting inclusion in the present work is a first-hand account by Marinsky of the discovery of the last rare earth element to be identified: promethium. Taken together, these chapters show how chemical discovery is limited by technology and how priority disputes arise and are settled. Part II, `Application', has chapters on both the industrial uses of the rare earths and their application to pharmacology and medicine, where gadolinium is now a standard contrast-enhancing agent for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is also a contribution from the director of the China Rare Earth Information Centre, which is appropriate as China has the world's largest deposits of rare earth minerals. Today, rare earth elements have a number of important industrial applications including their use as colorants, X-ray phosphors, lasers and magnets. Their unique properties have been widely exploited in biological and biochemical research. They also find increasing application in medicine. Audience: This volume will be of interest to chemists and historians of science and technology.