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Radionuclide Behaviour In The Natural Environment

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Radionuclide Behaviour in the Natural Environment

Radionuclide Behaviour in the Natural Environment Book
Author : Christophe Poinssot,Horst Geckeis
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-09-20
ISBN : 0857097199
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Understanding radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment is essential to the sustainable development of the nuclear industry and key to assessing potential environmental risks reliably. Minimising those risks is essential to enhancing public confidence in nuclear technology. Scientific knowledge in this field has developed greatly over the last decade.Radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment provides a comprehensive overview of the key processes and parameters affecting radionuclide mobility and migration. After an introductory chapter, part one explores radionuclide chemistry in the natural environment, including aquatic chemistry and the impact of natural organic matter and microorganisms. Part two discusses the migration and radioecological behavior of radionuclides. Topics include hydrogeology, sorption and colloidal reactions as well as in-situ investigations. Principles of modelling coupled geochemical, transport and radioecological properties are also discussed. Part three covers application issues: assessment of radionuclide behaviour in contaminated sites, taking Chernobyl as an example, estimation of radiological exposure to the population, performance assessment considerations related to deep geological repositories, and remediation concepts for contaminated sites. With its distinguished editors and international team of expert contributors, Radionuclide behaviour in the natural environment is an essential tool for all those interested or involved in nuclear energy, from researchers, designers and industrial operators to environmental scientists. It also provides a comprehensive guide for academics of all levels in this field. Provides a comprehensive overview of the key processes and parameters affecting radionuclide mobility and migration Explores radionuclide chemistry in the natural environment Discusses the migration and radioecological behaviour of radionuclides

Environmental Remediation and Restoration of Contaminated Nuclear and Norm Sites

Environmental Remediation and Restoration of Contaminated Nuclear and Norm Sites Book
Author : L van Velzen
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-02-02
ISBN : 1782422382
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nuclear sites become contaminated with radionuclides due to accidents and activities carried out without due consideration for the environment. Naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) released by industrial processes such as coal power production and fertilizer manufacture may also require clean-up. Environmental remediation and restoration aim to reduce exposure to radiation from contaminated soil or groundwater. This book provides a comprehensive overview of this area. Part 1 provides an introduction to the different types of contaminated site and their characteristics. Part 2 addresses environmental restoration frameworks and processes. Part 3 then reviews different remediation techniques and methods of waste disposal. Explores types and characteristics of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites Provides an in depth guide to environmental restoration frameworks and processes including stakeholder involvement, risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis in the remediation and restoration of contaminated nuclear and NORM sites Offers coverage of remediation techniques and waste disposal from electrokinetic remediation to in situ and ex situ bioremediation of radionuclides contaminated soils

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis IV

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis IV Book
Author : Peter Warwick
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2011
ISBN : 1849731551
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis IV is a collection of original papers presented at the Eleventh International Symposium on Environmental Radiochemical Analysis. Representing the work of leading scientists across the globe this new edition provides information on: "new methods of radionuclide analyses "developments and improvements in existing methods "mass spectrometry in radionuclide measurements "results of an intercomparison study "gamma detector performance "emergency radiological foodchain monitoring. The book is essential reading for practising radioanalysts and students who are specialising in radiochemical analysis.

Emerging Natural and Tailored Nanomaterials for Radioactive Waste Treatment and Environmental Remediation

Emerging Natural and Tailored Nanomaterials for Radioactive Waste Treatment and Environmental Remediation Book
Author : Changlun Chen
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-04-25
ISBN : 0081027761
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Emerging Natural and Tailored Nanomaterials for Radioactive Waste Treatment and Environmental Remediation: Principles and Methodologies, Volume 29 provides an overview of the most important radionuclide sources in the environment, their interaction with environmental media, and appropriate remediation techniques. The book focuses on the assessment of radionuclide sorption behavior in contaminated sites and the synthesis of new materials for radionuclides remediation through sorption concepts. Chapters investigate the main interaction mechanisms between toxic/radioactive metal ions with natural and manmade materials, natural clay minerals and oxides, and novel nanomaterials, such as ordered mesoporous silicas, carbon nanotubes, graphene, and metal-organic framework-based materials. Techniques and models discussed include kinetics analysis, thermodynamic analysis, surface complexation models, spectroscopic techniques, and theoretical calculations. Provides a systemic discussion on the interactions between toxic and radioactive metal ions and natural and manmade materials Helps to select the best approach to remove toxic/radioactive metal ions from a surface Edited by a scientific authority in toxic/radioactive metal ion interactions

Interactions of Microorganisms with Radionuclides

Interactions of Microorganisms with Radionuclides Book
Author : M.J. Keith-Roach,F.R. Livens
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2002-04-22
ISBN : 9780080534909
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Many environmental processes are influenced, if not controlled, by microbial action and it is becoming increasingly important to develop an understanding of microbial roles in geochemistry. This book brings together state of the art research into microbiological processes and the extent to which they affect or can be used to control radioactive elements. The basic principles and fundamental mechanisms by which microbes and radionuclides interact are outlined, the methodology described, potential microbial influences on waste repositories examined, direct and indirect effects on transport both on local and global scales considered and potential technological applications identified. The book is directed towards advanced undergraduate students, postgraduates and researchers in the areas of environmental radioactivity, environmental microbiology, biotechnology and radioactive waste management. It will also be of interest to regulators, policy makers and non-governmental organisations. This novel and timely book offers a fully integrated approach to a topical international issue.

Behavior of Radionuclides in the Environment II

Behavior of Radionuclides in the Environment II Book
Author : Alexei Konoplev,Kenji Kato,Stepan N. Kalmykov
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-05-19
ISBN : 981153568X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is Volume II in a three-volume set on the Behavior of Radionuclides in the Environment, focusing on Chernobyl. Now, so many years after the Chernobyl accident, new data is emerging and important new findings are being made. The book reviews major research achievements concerning the behavior of Chernobyl-derived radionuclides, including their air transport and resuspension, mobility and bioavailability in the soil-water environment, vertical and lateral migration in soils and sediments, soil-to-plant and soil-to-animal transfer, and water-to-aqueous biota transfer. The long-term dynamics of radionuclides in aquatic ecosystems are also discussed, in particular, the heavily contaminated cooling pond of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, which is in the process of being decommissioned. Lessons learned from long-term research on the environmental behavior of radionuclides can help us understand the pathways of environmental contamination, which, in turn, will allow us to improve methods for modeling and predicting the long-term effects of pollution. This book features a wealth of original data and findings, many of which have never been published before, or were not available internationally. The contributing authors are experts from Ukraine, Russia and Belarus with more than 30 years of experience investigating Chernobyl-derived radionuclides in the environment. The content presented here can help to predict the evolution of environmental contamination following a nuclear accident, and specifically the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

The Natural Radiation Environment VII

The Natural Radiation Environment VII Book
Author : J.P. McLaughlin,E.S. Simopoulos,F. Steinhäusler
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2005-03-30
ISBN : 9780080457918
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Natural Radiation Environment Symposium (NRE VII), the Seventh in the NRE series, which commenced forty years ago in 1963 at Rice University Texas, was held in Rhodes (Greece) in May 2002. During the intervening four decades the research work presented at these NRE Symposia has contributed to a deeper understanding of natural radiation and in particular of its contribution to human radiation exposures. It is clear from the quality and diversity of the 143 papers in this volume of Radioactivity in the Environment series that the study of the natural radiation environment is an active and continually expanding field of research. The papers in this volume fall into a number of main and topical research areas namely: the measurement and behaviour of natural radionuclides in the environment cosmic radiation measurement and dosimetry the external penetrating radiation field at ground level TENR (Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation) and NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) studies assessment of the health effects of radon regulatory aspects of natural radiation exposures In these papers the results of many new surveys of natural radionuclide levels in the environment and of improved methods of detection are described. While some of the natural radiation sources investigated are unmodified by human activity, many accounts are given here of exposures to natural sources which have been enhanced by technology. Such TENR and NORM exposures are shown to range from activities such as mining, oil and gas exploitation, the use of industrial by-products as building materials, to space travel to name but a few. In several cases quite high doses to some individuals are shown to occur. Accounts are given here of methods to prevent and reduce exposures to such sources.

Man Made and Natural Radioactivity in Environmental Pollution and Radiochronology

Man Made and Natural Radioactivity in Environmental Pollution and Radiochronology Book
Author : Richard Tykva,Dieter Berg
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-14
ISBN : 9401704961
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The goal of this book is to examine the complex state of radioactivity in the environment, and to understand the interplay of its two principal sources: man-made and natural. The text examines human contributions to release of radionuclides, with an eye to future reductions, and assesses natural occurrences in an evaluation of baseline radioactivity.

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis V

Environmental Radiochemical Analysis V Book
Author : Peter Warwick
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2015-07-27
ISBN : 1782621555
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Incidents in the past have made scientists aware of the need for accurate methods of radionuclide analyses in order to estimate the risk to the public from released radioactivity. This book is an authoritative, up-to-date collection of research contributions presented at the 12th International Symposium on Environmental Radiochemical Analysis. Representing the work of leading scientists from across the globe it presents information on radiochemical analysis, measurement of radioactivity, naturally occurring radioactive materials, radioactively contaminated land, fate of radionuclides in natural and engineered environments and behaviour and analysis of radionuclides in radioactive wastes. This essential work will be a key reference for graduates and professionals who work across fields involving analytical chemistry, environmental science and technology, and waste disposal.

Radionuclides in the Environment

Radionuclides in the Environment Book
Author : Clemens Walther,Dharmendra K. Gupta
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-10-30
ISBN : 331922171X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides extensive and comprehensive information to researchers and academicians who are interested in radionuclide contamination, its sources and environmental impact. It is also useful for graduate and undergraduate students specializing in radioactive-waste disposal and its impact on natural as well as manmade environments. A number of sites are affected by large legacies of waste from the mining and processing of radioactive minerals. Over recent decades, several hundred radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) of natural elements have been produced artificially, including 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I. Several other anthropogenic radioactive elements have also been produced in large quantities, for example technetium, neptunium, plutonium and americium, although plutonium does occur naturally in trace amounts in uranium ores. The deposition of radionuclides on vegetation and soil, as well as the uptake from polluted aquifers (root uptake or irrigation) are the initial point for their transfer into the terrestrial environment and into food chains. There are two principal deposition processes for the removal of pollutants from the atmosphere: dry deposition is the direct transfer through absorption of gases and particles by natural surfaces, such as vegetation, whereas showery or wet deposition is the transport of a substance from the atmosphere to the ground by snow, hail or rain. Once deposited on any vegetation, radionuclides are removed from plants by the airstre am and rain, either through percolation or by cuticular scratch. The increase in biomass during plant growth does not cause a loss of activity, but it does lead to a decrease in activity concentration due to effective dilution. There is also systemic transport (translocation) of radionuclides within the plant subsequent to foliar uptake, leading the transfer of chemical components to other parts of the plant that have not been contaminated directly.

Radioactive Releases in the Environment

Radioactive Releases in the Environment Book
Author : John R. Cooper,Keith Randle,Ranjeet S. Sokhi
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2003-05-07
ISBN : 9780471899242
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text brings together in one single comprehensive reference, the fundamentals of radioactivity. It uniquely fills the gap in the market, as no other books deal with environmental radioactivity to this degree. * Timely and invaluable as the studies of environmental processes and the awareness of the impact of human activity on our environment are increasing * Links all three main aspects of environmental radioactivity: Principles, Transport and Measurement * Useful to a wide readership - students, lecturers, researchers, companies and environmental consultants

Soil Pollution

Soil Pollution Book
Author : Ibrahim Mirsal
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-08-20
ISBN : 3540707751
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Despite having been published about two years ago for the first time, the continuous demand for this book encouraged me to prepare this revised and enlarged edition. Many parts of the text have been rewritten, type errors traced and corrected, and the bibliography largely modified to include many of the references published about the subject of soil pollution in the previous ten years. I should like to express my thanks to the staff of Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, for their cooperative efforts in preparing this edition. I also would like to thank Mr. Michael Sidwell (B.A.) for the extreme but characteristic care with which he read and revised the proofs. I hope that, in this new edition, the book may continue to serve the needs of students and professionals alike interested in the subject of soil pollution. Ibrahim A. Mirsal Preface to the First Edition Whoever has enjoyed following the legendary duel between the Egyptian Pharaoh and his magicians (Alchemists) on one side, and Moses and his brother Aaron on the other, as is vividly narrated in the Bible, must have realised that people (at least those living at, or near the eternal battlefields of the Middle East) have always had knowledge about the terrible consequences of soil pollution by chemicals. This knowledge must have existed long before Moses and his Pharaoh. Nobody knows when people became aware of this, yet it must have been born in very early times, reaching back to the dawn of human conscious.

Euro Abstracts

Euro Abstracts Book
Author : N.A
Publisher :
Release : 1996
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Radionuclides in the Study of Marine Processes

Radionuclides in the Study of Marine Processes Book
Author : P.J. Kershaw,D.S. Woodhead
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401136866
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Norwich Symposium, 'Radionuclides in the Study of Marine Proces ses', is a sequel to the very successful conference held at Cherbourg, France in June 1987. The international character of the meeting has been maintained with thirty-eight contributions, from seventeen countries, being accepted for oral presentation. For many years, the radioactive properties of the naturally occurring radionuclides have been used to determine their distributions in the marine environment and, more generally, to gain an understanding of the dynamic processes which control their behaviour in attaining these distributions. More recently the inputs from human activities of both natural and artificial (i.e. man-made) radionuclides have provided additional opportunities for the study of marine processes on local, regional and global scales. Because the sources of artificial radionuclides are often reasonably well defined in space and time, and because a wider range of elements is represented, new viewpoints for the study of processes have become available. Although it is outside the scope of this Symposium, it must be acknowledged that the radiological protection requirements for radioactive waste disposal prac tices to be based on a sound scientific understanding of radionuclide behaviour in the sea have also provided a very strong impetus for the studies.

The Pocos de Caldas Project Natural Analogues of Processes in a Radioactive Waste Repository

The Pocos de Caldas Project  Natural Analogues of Processes in a Radioactive Waste Repository Book
Author : N.A. Chapman,I.G. McKinley,M.E. Shea,J.A.T. Smellie
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 044459891X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The safe disposal of radioactive wastes by burial in deep geological formations requires long-term predictions of the future behaviour of the wastes and their engineered repository. Such predictions can be tested by evaluating processes analogous to those which will occur in a repository, which have been long active in the natural geochemical environment. The Pocos de Caldas Project is a comprehensive study of two ore deposits in Minas Gerais, Brazil, aimed at looking at uranium and thorium series radionuclide and rare-earth element mobility, the development and movement of redox fronts, and the nature of natural groundwater colloids. A multidisciplinary team of experts from 27 laboratories carried out a fully integrated study of the geology, geomorphology, hydrogeology, geochemistry, hydrochemistry and geomicrobiology of the two sites for nearly four years. This book contains 20 papers covering the detailed findings, with particular emphasis on their significance for radioactive waste disposal, especially on the use of the data in testing models of radionuclide movement. It will interest economic geologists, geochemists and performance assessment modellers involved in the geological disposal of radioactive wastes.

Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment

Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-03-02
ISBN : 9780080474892
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Radioactivity in the Environment Series addresses the key aspects of this socially important and complex interdisciplinary subject. Presented objectively and with the ultimate authority gained from the many contributions by the world's leading experts, the negative and positive consequences of having a radioactive world around us is documented and given perspective. In a world in which nuclear science is not only less popular than in the past, but also less extensively taught in universities and colleges, this book series will fill a significant educational gap. Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment presents an updated and critical review of designing, siting, constructing and demonstrating the safety and environmental impact of deep repositories for radioactive wastes. It is structured to provide a broad perspective of this multi-faceted, multi-disciplinary topic providing enough detail for a non-specialist to understand the fundamental principles involved. Contains extensive references to sources of more detailed information Provides a detailed summary of radioactivity in terrestrial ecosystems, providing a substantial and essential reference on the subject Discusses lesser-known sources of radiation exposure that provide useful information for those seeking to place environmental radioactivity into perspective

Fukushima Accident

Fukushima Accident Book
Author : Pavel P. Povinec,Katsumi Hirose,Michio Aoyama
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-07-09
ISBN : 0124114873
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fukushima Accident presents up-to-date information on radioactivity released to the atmosphere and the ocean after the accident on the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant, on the distribution of radionuclides in the world atmosphere and oceans, and their impact on the total environment (man, fauna, and flora). The book will evaluate and discuss the post-Fukushima situation, emphasizing radionuclide impacts on the terrestrial and marine environments, and compare it with the pre-Fukushima sources of radionuclides in the environment. The authors’ results, as well as knowledge gathered from the literature, will provide up-to-date information on the present status of the topics. Fukushima Accident is based on the environmental and nuclear research; however, the presentation will be suitable for university-level readers. 2013 PROSE Award winner in Environmental Science from the Association of American Publishers Covers atmospheric and marine radioactivity, providing information on the global atmospheric dispersion of radionuclides in the atmosphere and world oceans Examines radiation doses to the public and biota to understand the health risks to the public and ecosystems Provides information on monitoring radionuclides in the environment – information on sources of radionuclides, their temporal and spatial variations, and radionuclide levels Covers transport of radionuclides from different sources (e.g. nuclear power plants) as well as atmospheric simulations and modeling approaches