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Radioactivity In The Terrestrial Environment

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Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment

Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment Book
Author : George Shaw
Publisher : Elsevier Science Limited
Release : 2007
ISBN : 9780080438726
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Radioactivity in the Environment Series addresses the key aspects of this socially important and complex interdisciplinary subject. Presented objectively and with the ultimate authority gained from the many contributions by the world's leading experts, the negative and positive consequences of having a radioactive world around us is documented and given perspective. In a world in which nuclear science is not only less popular than in the past, but also less extensively taught in universities and colleges, this book series will fill a significant educational gap. Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment presents an updated and critical review of designing, siting, constructing and demonstrating the safety and environmental impact of deep repositories for radioactive wastes. It is structured to provide a broad perspective of this multi-faceted, multi-disciplinary topic providing enough detail for a non-specialist to understand the fundamental principles involved. * Contains extensive references to sources of more detailed information * Provides a detailed summary of radioactivity in terrestrial ecosystems, providing a substantial and essential reference on the subject * Discusses lesser-known sources of radiation exposure that provide useful information for those seeking to place environmental radioactivity into perspective

Environmental Radionuclides

Environmental Radionuclides Book
Author : Klaus Froehlich
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009-09-23
ISBN : 9780080913292
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth’s environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers

Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment

Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-03-02
ISBN : 9780080474892
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Radioactivity in the Environment Series addresses the key aspects of this socially important and complex interdisciplinary subject. Presented objectively and with the ultimate authority gained from the many contributions by the world's leading experts, the negative and positive consequences of having a radioactive world around us is documented and given perspective. In a world in which nuclear science is not only less popular than in the past, but also less extensively taught in universities and colleges, this book series will fill a significant educational gap. Radioactivity in the Terrestrial Environment presents an updated and critical review of designing, siting, constructing and demonstrating the safety and environmental impact of deep repositories for radioactive wastes. It is structured to provide a broad perspective of this multi-faceted, multi-disciplinary topic providing enough detail for a non-specialist to understand the fundamental principles involved. Contains extensive references to sources of more detailed information Provides a detailed summary of radioactivity in terrestrial ecosystems, providing a substantial and essential reference on the subject Discusses lesser-known sources of radiation exposure that provide useful information for those seeking to place environmental radioactivity into perspective

TENR Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation

TENR   Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation Book
Author : Anselmo Salles Paschoa,F. Steinhausler
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2009-12-31
ISBN : 9780080914183
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book on TENR discusses the basic Physics and Chemistry principles of natural radiation. The current knowledge of the biological effects of natural radiation is summarized. A wide variety of topics, from cosmic radiation to atmospheric, terrestrial and aquatic radiation is addressed, including radon, thoron, and depleted uranium. Issues like terrorism and geochronology using natural radiation are also examined. Comprehensive global TENR data assembly Critical assessment of the significant radiological impact of TENR on man and the environment as compared to radiological impact from man-made sources in nuclear technology and nuclear medicine Illustration of the importance of TENR for the future conceptual development of radiation protection

Radioecology and the Restoration of Radioactive Contaminated Sites

Radioecology and the Restoration of Radioactive Contaminated Sites Book
Author : F.F. Luykx,Martin J. Frissel
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2011-09-28
ISBN : 9789401066204
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Most of the nuclear facilities built since the Second World War have ceased active operation and have been decommissioned. Some of the sites are heavily contaminated with radioactive substances. Correct and efficient action to mitigate the radiological consequences of such contamination will only be possible when the behaviour of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment is sufficiently well known. Yet radioecologists often find it difficult to study the transfer of radioactivity in agricultural land and semi-natural ecosystems, because of the complexity and diversity of such environments. The present book presents an analysis of all the factors that affect the behaviour of radionuclides as they move from their point of release through the environment and then enter the tissues of biota living in the ecosystems, in particular plants and animals consumed by humans. The course on which the book is based was held in a region that is heavily contaminated by radioactive discharges into the environment during nuclear weapons fabrication in the 1950s and '60s, and due to a severe accidental release following the explosion of a rad-waste tank in 1957. This allowed in situ training of the students. The book's main emphasis is on specific radioecological problems in severely contaminated areas in the former Soviet Union: the Southern Urals Trail, the rivers Techa-Isert-Tobol-Irtis-Ob, and the 30 km zone around Chernobyl. Systems examined include soils, arable and pasture land, forests, lakes and rivers. Special attention is paid to the effects of radiation on natural ecosystems: trees, soil-dwelling organisms, and aquatic organisms. Synergistic effects are also considered. Short, medium and long term countermeasures are discussed.

Radionuclides in the Environment

Radionuclides in the Environment Book
Author : Clemens Walther,Dharmendra K. Gupta
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-10-30
ISBN : 331922171X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides extensive and comprehensive information to researchers and academicians who are interested in radionuclide contamination, its sources and environmental impact. It is also useful for graduate and undergraduate students specializing in radioactive-waste disposal and its impact on natural as well as manmade environments. A number of sites are affected by large legacies of waste from the mining and processing of radioactive minerals. Over recent decades, several hundred radioactive isotopes (radioisotopes) of natural elements have been produced artificially, including 90Sr, 137Cs and 131I. Several other anthropogenic radioactive elements have also been produced in large quantities, for example technetium, neptunium, plutonium and americium, although plutonium does occur naturally in trace amounts in uranium ores. The deposition of radionuclides on vegetation and soil, as well as the uptake from polluted aquifers (root uptake or irrigation) are the initial point for their transfer into the terrestrial environment and into food chains. There are two principal deposition processes for the removal of pollutants from the atmosphere: dry deposition is the direct transfer through absorption of gases and particles by natural surfaces, such as vegetation, whereas showery or wet deposition is the transport of a substance from the atmosphere to the ground by snow, hail or rain. Once deposited on any vegetation, radionuclides are removed from plants by the airstre am and rain, either through percolation or by cuticular scratch. The increase in biomass during plant growth does not cause a loss of activity, but it does lead to a decrease in activity concentration due to effective dilution. There is also systemic transport (translocation) of radionuclides within the plant subsequent to foliar uptake, leading the transfer of chemical components to other parts of the plant that have not been contaminated directly.

Radioactive Particles in the Environment

Radioactive Particles in the Environment Book
Author : International Atomic Energy Agency
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 9789201190109
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the years, radioactive particles have been released to the environment from nuclear weapons testing and nuclear fuel cycle operations. However, measurements of environmental radioactivity and any associated assessments are often based on the average bulk mass or surface concentration, assuming that radionuclides are homogeneously distributed as simple ionic species. It has generally not been recognised that radioactive particles present in the environment often contain a significant fraction of the bulk sample activity, leading to sample heterogeneity problems and false and/or erratic measurement data. Moreover, the inherent differences in the transport and bioavailability of particle bound radionuclides compared with those existing as molecules or ions have largely been ignored in dose assessments. There are currently no documents or international guides covering this aspect of environmental impact assessments. To fill this gap, between 2001 and 2008 the IAEA performed a Coordinated Research Programme (CRP- G4.10.03) on the 'Radiochemical, Chemical and Physical Characterisation of Radioactive Particles in the Environment' with the objective of development, adoption and application of standardised analytical techniques for the comprehensive study of radioactive particles. This IAEA-TECDOC presents the findings and achievements of the above CRP in the area of measurement and characterisation of radioactive particles in the environment.

Ionizing and Non ionizing Radiation

Ionizing and Non ionizing Radiation Book
Author : Adelaja Osibote
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2020-01-15
ISBN : 1789841410
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides readers with comprehensive details on the management and measures to protect health against risks to people and environments generated by the use of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation. This book is divided into three sections, namely, Radiation Protection and Measurement; Radiation Therapy; and Radioactivity. The first section covers ionizing radiation protection; population exposure to non-ionizing density; and the system of dosimetry quantities for use in emergency preparedness and response to nuclear or radiological accidents. The second section covers various planning techniques for spinal stereotactic body radiotherapy and the application of radiation technology in the development of a malaria vaccine. The third section discusses environmental radioactivity monitoring using efficient measurements and the assessment of radiation exposure to humans. Also in this section is the evaluation of the effects of chronic radiation exposure on the testes of mice after a nuclear power plant accident.

Environmental Radionuclides

Environmental Radionuclides Book
Author : Klaus Froehlich
Publisher : Elsevier Science
Release : 2009-11-05
ISBN : 9780080438733
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental Radionuclides presents a state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides to study processes and systems in the continental part of the Earth's environment. It is conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers in the marine environment (Livingston, Marine Radioactivity) and with the radioecology of natural and man-made terrestrial systems (Shaw, Radioactivity in Terrestrial Ecosystems). Although the book focuses on natural and anthropogenic radionuclides (radioactive isotopes), it also refers to stable environmental isotopes, which in a variety of applications, especially in hydrology and climatology, have to be consulted to evaluate radionuclide measurements in terms of the ages of groundwater and climate archives, respectively. The basic principles underlying the various applications of natural and anthropogenic radionuclides in environmental studies are described in the first part of the book. The book covers the two major groups of applications: the use of radionuclides as tracers for studying transport and mixing processes: and as time markers to address problems of the dynamics of such systems, manifested commonly as the so-called residence time in these systems. The applications range from atmospheric pollution studies, via water resource assessments to contributions to global climate change investigation. The third part of the book addresses new challenges in the development of new methodological approaches, including analytical methods and fields of applications. A state-of-the-art summary of knowledge on the use of radionuclides Conceived as a companion to the two volumes of this series, which deal with isotopes as tracers

The Natural Radiation Environment VII

The Natural Radiation Environment VII Book
Author : J.P. McLaughlin,E.S. Simopoulos,F. Steinhäusler
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2005-03-30
ISBN : 0080457916
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Natural Radiation Environment Symposium (NRE VII), the Seventh in the NRE series, which commenced forty years ago in 1963 at Rice University Texas, was held in Rhodes (Greece) in May 2002. During the intervening four decades the research work presented at these NRE Symposia has contributed to a deeper understanding of natural radiation and in particular of its contribution to human radiation exposures. It is clear from the quality and diversity of the 143 papers in this volume of Radioactivity in the Environment series that the study of the natural radiation environment is an active and continually expanding field of research. The papers in this volume fall into a number of main and topical research areas namely: the measurement and behaviour of natural radionuclides in the environment cosmic radiation measurement and dosimetry the external penetrating radiation field at ground level TENR (Technologically Enhanced Natural Radiation) and NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) studies assessment of the health effects of radon regulatory aspects of natural radiation exposures In these papers the results of many new surveys of natural radionuclide levels in the environment and of improved methods of detection are described. While some of the natural radiation sources investigated are unmodified by human activity, many accounts are given here of exposures to natural sources which have been enhanced by technology. Such TENR and NORM exposures are shown to range from activities such as mining, oil and gas exploitation, the use of industrial by-products as building materials, to space travel to name but a few. In several cases quite high doses to some individuals are shown to occur. Accounts are given here of methods to prevent and reduce exposures to such sources.

The Terrestrial Environment B

The Terrestrial Environment  B Book
Author : P. Fritz
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 1483289834
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Environmental Isotope Geochemistry, Volume 2: The Terrestrial Environment, B focuses on the processes, methodologies, principles, and approaches involved in isotope geochemistry. The selection first elaborates on mathematical models for the interpretation of environmental radioisotopes in groundwater systems; isotopes in cloud physics; and environmental isotopes in lake studies. Discussions focus on water balance studies of lakes, isotopic fractionations during evaporation of water, study of hailstone growth mechanisms by means of isotopic analyses, isotopic effects during growth of individual elements, and models and their hydrological significance. The text then takes a look at environmental isotope and anthropogenic tracers of lake sedimentation; stable isotope geochemistry of travertines; and isotope geochemistry of carbonates in the weathering zone. Topics include isotopic composition of carbonates in the weathering zone; reprecipitation processes in the weathering zone; isotopic composition of carbon and oxygen sources in the weathering zone; and geochemical conditions controlling travertine deposition. The manuscript also reviews radioactive noble gases in the terrestrial environment, isotope effects of nitrogen in the soil and biosphere, and oxygen and hydrogen isotope geochemistry of deep basin brines. The selection is a vital source of data for researchers interested in isotope geochemistry.

The Effects of UV Radiation in the Marine Environment

The Effects of UV Radiation in the Marine Environment Book
Author : Stephen De Mora,Serge Demers,Maria Vernet
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2000-03-09
ISBN : 1139429515
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book, first published in 2000, provides a comprehensive review of UV radiation effects in the marine environment. A multidisciplinary approach is adopted to discuss all aspects from a physical, chemical and biological perspective. The book begins by describing the attenuation of UV radiation in the atmosphere and sea water, outlining the photochemical reactions involved and highlighting the role that such chemistry can play in influencing the biogeochemical cycling of various elements. The deleterious consequences of such radiation on organisms and strategies adopted to mitigate these harmful repercussions are discussed. The organisms considered range from virus and bacteria through phytoplankton and zooplankton to fish and mammals. The book is aimed at researchers and graduate students in photobiology, photochemistry and environmental science. It will also be useful as a supplementary text for courses in oceanography, climatology and ecology.

Introduction to Radiation

Introduction to Radiation Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9781100215723
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Introduction to Radiation book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Radiological Issues for Fukushima s Revitalized Future

Radiological Issues for Fukushima   s Revitalized Future Book
Author : Tomoyuki Takahashi
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-01-19
ISBN : 9784431558477
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book overviews environmental issues 4 years after the Fukushima nuclear accident, covering a wide range of areas related to radiation and radioactivity. The topics discussed are necessary to make clear the relationship between the results of research and Fukushima’s revitalized future. The chapters are divided into four parts: Part 1 presents the identification of radionuclides in soil and migration of radionuclides in the terrestrial environment; Part 2 describes the safety decontamination system and treatment of radioactive waste; Part 3 explains the development of the system of measurement of environmental radiation and evaluation of external exposure; and Part 4 discusses the identification of radionuclides in farm products, control of root uptake, identification of decreasing radionuclides by food processing, and evaluation of internal exposure. Since the accident at the Tokyo Electric Power Company's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station in 2011, gradual steps have been taken toward environmental recovery in the area. However, there are still many issues that need to be tackled in order to achieve the full revitalization of Fukushima. These issues encompass many different disciplines such as economics, psychology, and sociology. In this kind of situation, the role of science in relation to radiation and radioactivity is especially important. This book aims to contribute to planning countermeasures against nuclear disasters in the future. It will be of particular interest to governmental officials who are engaged with the Fukushima nuclear accident; researchers, including those in international sectors, who are interested in radiological issues; and those who need comprehensive and reliable information about the Fukushima accident.

Handbook of the Solar Terrestrial Environment

Handbook of the Solar Terrestrial Environment Book
Author : Yohsuke Kamide,Abraham C.-L. Chian
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-08-02
ISBN : 3540463143
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As a star in the universe, the Sun is constantly releas- cover a wide range of time and spatial scales, making ?? ing energy into space, as much as ?. ? ?? erg/s. Tis observations in the solar-terrestrial environment c- energy emission basically consists of three modes. Te plicated and the understanding of processes di?cult. ?rst mode of solar energy is the so-called blackbody ra- In the early days, the phenomena in each plasma diation, commonly known as sunlight, and the second region were studied separately, but with the progress mode of solar electromagnetic emission, such as X rays of research, we realized the importance of treating and UV radiation, is mostly absorbed above the Earth’s the whole chain of processes as an entity because of stratosphere. Te third mode of solar energy emission is strong interactions between various regions within in the form of particles having a wide range of energies the solar-terrestrial system. On the basis of extensive from less than ? keV to more than ? GeV. It is convenient satellite observations and computer simulations over to group these particles into lower-energy particles and thepasttwo decades, it hasbecomepossibleto analyze higher-energy particles, which are referred to as the so- speci?cally the close coupling of di?erent regions in the lar wind and solar cosmic rays, respectively. solar-terrestrial environment.

Environmental Radioactivity from Natural Industrial and Military Sources

Environmental Radioactivity from Natural  Industrial and Military Sources Book
Author : Merrill Eisenbud,Thomas F. Gesell
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1997-03-26
ISBN : 9780080505800
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Environmental Radioactivity from Natural, Industrial, and Military Sources is the comprehensive source of information on radiation in the environment and human exposure to radioactivity. This Fourth Edition isa complete revision and extension of the classic work, reflecting major new developments and concerns as the Cold War ended, nuclear weapons began to be dismantled, and cleanup of the nuclear weapons facilities assumed center stage. Contamination from accidents involving weapons, reactors, and radionuclide sources are discussed in an updated chapter, including the latest information about the effects of the Chernobyl accident. Important revisions are also made to the chapters on natural radioactivity, nuclear fuels and power reactors, radioactive waste management, and various other sources of exposure. Several chapters provide primers for readers who may not be familiar with the fundamentals of radiation biology, protection standards, and pathways for the environmental transport of radionuclides. An Appendix lists the properties of the more important radionuclides found in the environment. The book concludes with a commentary on contemporary social aspects of radiation exposure and risks that offers analternative view to current, often excessive concerns over radiation, nuclear technology, and waste. Describes every important source of environmental radioactivity Reviews the vexing problems of radioactive waste management and clean-up of contaminated sites Contains measured or projected radiation dose estimates for the major sources Features 126 figures, 80 tables, and more than 1200 references Discusses current problems in historical context The two authors bring more than 75 years of combined experience with environmental radioactivity Provides an understanding of the sources of environmental radioactivity and human exposure from the mining of ores to final disposal of wastes Thoroughly reviews important contamination accidents

Cosmogenic Radionuclides

Cosmogenic Radionuclides Book
Author : Jürg Beer,Ken McCracken,Rudolf von Steiger
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-01-19
ISBN : 3642146503
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cosmogenic radionuclides are radioactive isotopes which are produced by natural processes and distributed within the Earth system. With a holistic view of the environment the authors show in this book how cosmogenic radionuclides can be used to trace and to reconstruct the history of a large variety of processes. They discuss the way in which cosmogenic radionuclides can assist in the quantification of complex processes in the present-day environment. The book aims to demonstrate to the reader the strength of analytic tools based on cosmogenic radionuclides, their contribution to almost any field of modern science, and how these tools may assist in the solution of many present and future problems that we face here on Earth. The book provides a comprehensive discussion of the basic principles behind the applications of cosmogenic (and other) radionuclides as environmental tracers and dating tools. The second section of the book discusses in some detail the production of radionuclides by cosmic radiation, their transport and distribution in the atmosphere and the hydrosphere, their storage in natural archives, and how they are measured. The third section of the book presents a number of examples selected to illustrate typical tracer and dating applications in a number of different spheres (atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, biosphere, solar physics and astronomy). At the same time the authors have outlined the limitations of the use of cosmogenic radionuclides. Written on a level understandable by graduate students without specialist skills in physics or mathematics, the book addresses a wide audience, ranging from archaeology, biophysics, and geophysics, to atmospheric physics, hydrology, astrophysics and space science.

Tropical Radioecology

Tropical Radioecology Book
Author : J.R. Twining,M. Baxter
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2012-10-18
ISBN : 0080450164
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Tropical Radioecology is a guide to the wide range of scientific practices and principles of this multidisciplinary field. It brings together past and present studies in the tropical and subtropical areas of the planet, highlighting the unique aspects of tropical systems. Until recently, radioecological models for tropical environments have depended upon data derived from temperate environments, despite the differences of these regions in terms of biota and abiotic conditions. Since radioactivity can be used to trace environmental processes in humans and other biota, this book offers examples of studies in which radiotracers have been used to assess biokinetics in tropical biota. This book: Features chapters co-authored by world experts that explain the origins, inputs, distributions, behaviour, and consequences of radioactivity in tropical and subtropical systems. Provides comprehensive lists of relevant data and identifies current knowledge gaps to allow for targeted radioecological research in the future. Integrates radioecological information into the most recent radiological consequences modelling and best-practice probabilistic ecological risk analysis methodology, given the need to understand the implications of enhanced socio-economic development in the world's tropical regions. John Twining has published research and conducted field and laboratory studies on the nuclear industry's impact on the environment over four decades. While much of this work has been related to Australia's role as a uranium supplier, he has also evaluated this impact at the Maralinga test sites in the deserts of central Australia and the effects of French testing in the central Pacific. John also focused on the uptake of radionuclides by crops and the use of isotopes as tracers of biological processes. Much of this work was accomplished in tropical or subtropical environments, and this experience proved valuable for Tropical Radioecology. John is now associate editor for the Journal of Environmental Radioecology and a self-employed consultant radioecologist.

Evaluation of Guidelines for Exposures to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials

Evaluation of Guidelines for Exposures to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials Book
Author : National Research Council,Division on Earth and Life Studies,Commission on Life Sciences,Committee on Evaluation of EPA Guidelines for Exposure to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 1999-02-25
ISBN : 0309062977
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Naturally occurring radionuclides are found throughout the earth's crust, and they form part of the natural background of radiation to which all humans are exposed. Many human activities-such as mining and milling of ores, extraction of petroleum products, use of groundwater for domestic purposes, and living in houses-alter the natural background of radiation either by moving naturally occurring radionuclides from inaccessible locations to locations where humans are present or by concentrating the radionuclides in the exposure environment. Such alterations of the natural environment can increase, sometimes substantially, radiation exposures of the public. Exposures of the public to naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) that result from human activities that alter the natural environment can be subjected to regulatory control, at least to some degree. The regulation of public exposures to such technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and other regulatory and advisory organizations is the subject of this study by the National Research Council's Committee on the Evaluation of EPA Guidelines for Exposures to Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials.