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Quorum Sensing

Quorum Sensing Book
Author : Giuseppina Tommonaro
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-04-08
ISBN : 012814906X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of bacterial cooperative behaviour that has an effect on gene regulation. This cell-to-cell communication system involves the production of signalling molecules according to cell density and growth stage. Virulence, the ability to infest a habitat and cause disease, is also governed by such communication signals. Quorum Sensing: Molecular mechanism and biotechnological application collects, describes and summarizes the most interesting results obtained from experts working on QS mechanisms. It contributes to the understanding of the molecular basis that regulates this mechanism, and describes new findings in fields of application. This volume describes the QS mechanism from its molecular basis to medical applications such as antibiotic therapy and involvement of QS in pathologies. This reference also analyzes its potential use in biotechnological applications such as food packaging, drug delivery, and marine biofilm. The broad scope of this title will be of significant use to researchers across several fields with interest in QS, including to microbiologists, chemists, biochemists and ecologists. Describes Quorum Sensing (QS) mechanisms from their molecular basis, to their clinical applications Spans several fields in relation to QS, including microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry and ecology Considers QS as an approach to the discovery of new antibiotics Looks at QS as a means to understand the microbial world and towards use of bacteria and their products in biotechnological applications Summarizes key results on QS mechanisms’ molecular basis and fields of application

Trends in Quorum Sensing and Quorum Quenching

Trends in Quorum Sensing and Quorum Quenching Book
Author : V. Ravishankar Rai,Jamuna A Bai
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-05-25
ISBN : 1000051498
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book on Trends in Quorum Sensing and Quorum Quenching: New Perspectives and Applications focuses on the recent advances in the field of quorum sensing in bacteria and the novel strategies developed for quorum sensing inhibition. The topics covered are multidisciplinary and wide-ranging,and includes quorum sensing phenomenon in pathogenic bacteria, food spoilers, and agriculturally relevant bacteria. The applications of quorum sensing inhibitors such as small molecules, bioactives, natural compounds, and quorum quenching enzymes in controlling bacterial infections in clinical settings, agriculture and aquaculture are discussed. The potential use of quorum quenching enzymes for mitigating biofouling is also covered. Special focus is given to exploring quorum sensing inhibitors from microbes and flora inhabiting biodiversity rich regions including tropical rain forests and marine environments. Key features: Covers the fundamental aspects, the progress and challenges in the field of quorum sensing and quorum quenching Reviews quorum sensing in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria of clinical, agricultural, and industrial relevance Discusses the application and future trends of quorum sensing inhibitors from lab to clinical and environmental settings Provides comprehensive coverage on molecular mechanisms in bacterial signaling

Biofilms in Plant and Soil Health

Biofilms in Plant and Soil Health Book
Author : Iqbal Ahmad,Fohad Mabood Husain
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-07-14
ISBN : 1119246415
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biofilms are predominant mode of life for microbes under natural conditions. The three-dimensional structure of the biofilm provides enhanced protection from physical, chemical and biological stress conditions to associated microbial communities. These complex and highly structured microbial communities play a vital role in maintaining the health of plants, soils and waters. Biofilm associated with plants may be pathogenic or beneficial based on the nature of their interactions. Pathogenic or undesirable biofilm requires control in many situations, including soil, plants, food and water. Written by leading experts from around the world, Biofilms in Plant and Soil Health provides an up-to-date review on various aspects of microbial biofilms, and suggests future and emerging trends in biofilms in plant and soil health. Issues are addressed in four sub areas: I) The fundamentals and significance of biofilm in plant and soil health, and the concept of mono and mixed biofilms by PGPR and fungal biofilms. II) Biochemical and molecular mechanisms in biofilm studies in plant associated bacteria, and techniques in studying biofilms and their characterization, gene expression and enhanced antimicrobial resistance in biofilms, as well as biotic and biotic factors affecting biofilm in vitro. III) The ecological significance of soil associated biofilms and stress management and bioremediation of contaminated soils and degraded ecosystems. IV) Pathogenic biofilm associated with plant and food and its control measures. This book is recommended for students and researchers working in agricultural and environmental microbiology, biotechnology, soil sciences, soil and plant health and plant protection. Researchers working in the area of quorum sensing, biofilm applications, and understanding microbiome of soil and plants will also find it useful.

Quorum Sensing

Quorum Sensing Book
Author : Saurabh Sudha Dhiman
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021
ISBN : 9780841298606
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

New developments in researching quorum sensing Microbial growth affects industries as diverse as agriculture, engineering, and medicine, to name a few. As more precise solutions are needed for modern challenges, researchers must understand the mechanisms of microbial growth. Quorum sensing (QS) is an essential part of microbial growth, and this work contains key areas such as signal molecules; mechanisms of signal transfer, role, and type of signal receptors; quorum quenching; characterization of microbial plasmids in quorum sensing; and novel and underexplored molecules involved in QS, along with therapeutic roles of quorum sensing inhibitors. This volume is perfect for researchers working on microbiology or biotechnology.

Quorum Sensing

Quorum Sensing Book
Author : Giuseppina Tommonaro
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-04-15
ISBN : 0128149051
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Quorum sensing (QS) is a process of bacterial cooperative behaviour that has an effect on gene regulation. This cell-to-cell communication system involves the production of signalling molecules according to cell density and growth stage. Virulence, the ability to infest a habitat and cause disease, is also governed by such communication signals. Quorum Sensing: Molecular mechanism and biotechnological application collects, describes and summarizes the most interesting results obtained from experts working on QS mechanisms. It contributes to the understanding of the molecular basis that regulates this mechanism, and describes new findings in fields of application. This volume describes the QS mechanism from its molecular basis to medical applications such as antibiotic therapy and involvement of QS in pathologies. This reference also analyzes its potential use in biotechnological applications such as food packaging, drug delivery, and marine biofilm. The broad scope of this title will be of significant use to researchers across several fields with interest in QS, including to microbiologists, chemists, biochemists and ecologists. Describes Quorum Sensing (QS) mechanisms from their molecular basis, to their clinical applications Spans several fields in relation to QS, including microbiology, chemistry, biochemistry and ecology Considers QS as an approach to the discovery of new antibiotics Looks at QS as a means to understand the microbial world and towards use of bacteria and their products in biotechnological applications Summarizes key results on QS mechanisms' molecular basis and fields of application

Quorum Sensing

Quorum Sensing Book
Author : Kendra P. Rumbaugh
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2010-11-05
ISBN : 9781607619703
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since its early days in the 1990s, the Quorum Sensing (QS) field has grown from a few dozen laboratories, investigating the pathways, proteins, and chemicals that facilitate signaling in bacteria, to hundreds of groups that have integrated evolutionary biology, computer science, mathematics, engineering, and metagenomics to create an ever-expanding and dynamic field. In Quorum Sensing: Methods and Protocols, expert researchers provide an in-depth set of diverse protocols that span this broad area of study. Broken into three detailed sections, the volume covers the detection, isolation, and characterization of the QS signals made by both Gram- and Gram+ bacteria, determination of the function of QS signals in vivo, and the development of QS disruption strategies. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters include brief introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and expert tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known experimental pitfalls. Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Quorum Sensing: Methods and Protocols serves as an invaluable collection of easily accessible techniques for scientists seeking to further our knowledge about bacterial communication and its relation to humanity.

Quorum Sensing vs Quorum Quenching A Battle with No End in Sight

Quorum Sensing vs Quorum Quenching  A Battle with No End in Sight Book
Author : Vipin Chandra Kalia
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-09-29
ISBN : 8132219821
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Microbial relationships with all life forms can be as free living, symbiotic or pathogenic. Human beings harbor 10 times more microbial cells than their own. Bacteria are found on the skin surface, in the gut and other body parts. Bacteria causing diseases are the most worrisome. Most of the infectious diseases are caused by bacterial pathogens with an ability to form biofilm. Bacteria within the biofilm are up to 1000 times more resistant to antibiotics. This has taken a more serious turn with the evolution of multiple drug resistant bacteria. Health Departments are making efforts to reduce high mortality and morbidity in man caused by them. Bacterial Quorum sensing (QS), a cell density dependent phenomenon is responsible for a wide range of expressions such as pathogenesis, biofilm formation, competence, sporulation, nitrogen fixation, etc. Majority of these organisms that are important for medical, agriculture, aquaculture, water treatment and remediation, archaeological departments are: Aeromonas, Acinetobacter, Bacillus, Clostridia, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas, Vibrio and Yersinia spp. Biosensors and models have been developed to detect QS systems. Strategies for inhibiting QS system through natural and synthetic compounds have been presented here. The biotechnological applications of QS inhibitors (QSIs) in diverse areas have also been dealt with. Although QSIs do not affect growth and are less likely to impose selective pressure on bacteria, however, a few reports have raised doubts on the fate of QSIs. This book addresses a few questions. Will bacteria develop mechanisms to evade QSIs? Are we watching yet another defeat at the hands of bacteria? Or will we be acting intelligently and survive the onslaughts of this Never Ending battle?

Biotechnological Applications of Quorum Sensing Inhibitors

Biotechnological Applications of Quorum Sensing Inhibitors Book
Author : Vipin Chandra Kalia
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-05-30
ISBN : 9811090262
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book discusses the practical applications of quorum sensing inhibitors for both human and plant health. Quorum sensing inhibitors that disrupt microbial biofilms can be employed to treat bacterial infections. The book describes the various bioactive molecules that can serve as quorum sensing inhibitors to combat deadly bacterial infections, in addition to several synthetic quorum sensing inhibitors. Quorum sensing is the mechanism through which bacteria develop antibiotic resistance. Intended to provide a clearer understanding of the practical applications of quorum sensing inhibitors, the book details how the problem of antibiotic resistance can be countered through the intelligent application of quorum sensing inhibitors.

Fundamentals of and Applications Based on Quorum Sensing and Quorum Sensing Interference

Fundamentals of  and Applications Based on  Quorum Sensing and Quorum Sensing Interference   Book
Author : Cristina García-Aljaro,Ana Otero,Tom Defoirdt
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-01-23
ISBN : 2889633810
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Background Bacteria use quorum sensing (QS) circuits to coordinate various activities (among which biofilm formation and the expression of virulence factors) based on the presence of signaling molecules. Different families of signal molecules have been identified in Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria (e.g. autoinducer peptides and acyl homoserine lactones). Similarly, different quorum sensing antagonists interfering with these system have been found in nature, promoting a new and promising field of research, quorum sensing interference. One of the most intensively studied applications of quorum sensing interference is its use as an alternative or synergycally with antibiotics to fight (antibiotic-resistant) bacterial pathogens. Many studies have been published claiming quorum sensing inhibitory activity of natural and synthetic compounds. However, after decades of research, several questions regarding the suitability of this approach to fight bacterial pathogens remain unanswered, including the risk that pathogens will develop resistance against quorum quenching. Meanwhile, the interest in quorum sensing has increased considerably, and this has broadened the fields where it can find biotechnological, environmental and industrial applications, such as anti biofouling, steering fermentations, bioremediation and wastewater treatment. Goal and scope The goal of this Research Topic is to broaden the knowledge of the phenotypes regulated by quorum sensing and the advances in quorum sensing interference. Deciphering microorganism language and the different phenotypes regulated by microbial signalling systems is a frontier for the development of new tools for the management of microorganisms to fulfil human needs with a broad application in different areas such as medicine, environmental sciences and industry.

Quorum Sensing and its Biotechnological Applications

Quorum Sensing and its Biotechnological Applications Book
Author : Vipin Chandra Kalia
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-08-11
ISBN : 9811308489
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book delves into the biotechnological applications of Quorum sensing (QS)- a peculiar gene-regulatory process of some microorganisms. Quorum Sensing allows a large bacterial population to work together in a coordinated manner to carry out metabolic activities, which individual bacterium cannot. The different chapters describe how, associating bioremediation process with energy generation is an economical proposal, for reducing pollution and managing biowastes. The book discusses how QS can be exploited for biotechnological applications in generating bioproducts, bioenergy, bioremediation, biosensors, health and agricultural activities. It further highlights how QS is becoming an integral part of synthetic biology for genetic circuits for producing: (i) novel products, (ii) biosensors, (iii) bioactive molecules, etc. The book is divided into different sections for a clear understanding of the applicability of QS in, the Environment, Energy, Agriculture and Health sectors.

Implication of Quorum Sensing System in Biofilm Formation and Virulence

Implication of Quorum Sensing System in Biofilm Formation and Virulence Book
Author : Pallaval Veera Bramhachari
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-01-28
ISBN : 9811324298
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book illustrates the importance and significance of Quorum sensing (QS), it’s critical roles in regulating diverse cellular functions in microbes, including bioluminescence, virulence, pathogenesis, gene expression, biofilm formation and antibiotic resistance. Microbes can coordinate population behavior with small molecules called autoinducers (AHL) which serves as a signal of cellular population density, triggering new patterns of gene expression for mounting virulence and pathogenesis. Therefore, these microbes have the competence to coordinate and regulate explicit sets of genes by sensing and communicating amongst themselves utilizing variety of signals. This book descry emphasizes on how bacteria can coordinate an activity and synchronize their response to external signals and regulate gene expression. The chapters of the book provide the recent advancements on various functional aspects of QS systems in different gram positive and gram negative organisms. Finally, the book also elucidates a comprehensive yet a representative description of a large number of challenges associated with quorum sensing signal molecules viz. virulence, pathogenesis, antibiotic synthesis, biosurfactants production, persister cells, cell signaling and biofilms, intra and inter-species communications, host-pathogen interactions, social interactions & swarming migration in biofilms.

Fundamentals of Quorum Sensing Analytical Methods and Applications in Membrane Bioreactors

Fundamentals of Quorum Sensing  Analytical Methods and Applications in Membrane Bioreactors Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-05-21
ISBN : 0444640657
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fundamentals of Quorum Sensing, Analytical Methods and Applications in Membrane Bioreactors, Volume 81, describes the novelty of membrane bioreactors for the treatment of wastewater and the removal of specific contaminants that affect water quality or pose harm to humans. Topics of note in the updated release include Water Chemistry and Microbiology, Quorum Sensing as Bacterial Communication Language, the Effects of Quorum Sensing, Quorum Quenching, Membrane Bioreactors for Wastewater Treatment, Removal of Specific Contaminants, Microextraction Techniques, and the Determination of Quorum Sensing Chemicals. The contents of this updated volume will be appealing to a wide range of researchers as the authors of most chapters are experts in their respective fields with numerous published studies. Gives an overview of quorum sensing as a communication language for bacteria and quorum quenching mediated approaches to mitigate or eliminate the effects of quorum sensing Presents various sensitive determination methods where a variety of microextraction strategies is used for preconcentration of analyte(s)

Implication of Quorum Sensing and Biofilm Formation in Medicine Agriculture and Food Industry

Implication of Quorum Sensing and Biofilm Formation in Medicine  Agriculture and Food Industry Book
Author : Pallaval Veera Bramhachari
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-11-26
ISBN : 9813294094
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book illustrates the role of quorum sensing in the food industry, agriculture, veterinary sciences, and medicine. It highlights the importance of quorum sensing in regulating diverse cellular functions in microbes, including virulence, pathogenesis, controlled-gene expression systems, and antibiotic resistance. This book also describes the role of quorum sensing in survival behavior and antibiotic resistance in bacteria. Further, it reviews the major role played by quorum sensing in food spoilage, biofilm formation, and food-related pathogenesis. It also explores the methods for the detection and quantification of quorum sensing signals. It also presents antimicrobial and anti-quorum sensing activities of medicinal plants. Finally, the book elucidates a comprehensive yet representative description of basic and applied aspects of quorum sensing inhibitors. This book serves an ideal guide for researchers to understand the implications of quorum sensing in the food industry, medicine, and agriculture.

Bioactive Phytochemicals to Target Quorum Sensing Virulence Factors and Biofilm Formation in Pathogenic Microorganisms

Bioactive Phytochemicals to Target Quorum Sensing  Virulence Factors and Biofilm Formation in Pathogenic Microorganisms Book
Author : Palanivel Velmurugan,Muthusamy Govarthanan,Arumugam Veera Ravi,Ponmurugan Karuppiah,Sivakumar S
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-12-06
ISBN : 2889718190
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Bioactive Phytochemicals to Target Quorum Sensing Virulence Factors and Biofilm Formation in Pathogenic Microorganisms book written by Palanivel Velmurugan,Muthusamy Govarthanan,Arumugam Veera Ravi,Ponmurugan Karuppiah,Sivakumar S, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Quorum Network Sensing Quenching in Multidrug Resistant Pathogens

Quorum Network  Sensing Quenching  in Multidrug Resistant Pathogens Book
Author : Rodolfo Garcia-Conteras,Thomas K. Wood,Maria Tomás
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2019-06-28
ISBN : 2889458822
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The findings of the contributed studies from this Research Topic reflect important aspects (hot topics) of Quorum network (Sensing/Quenching) in multidrug-resistant pathogens, which including: (i) novel mechanisms of QS and detection techniques, (ii) QS/QQ in clinical multidrug resistant strains, (iii) the relationship between QS/QQ as well as multidrug resistance, and (iv) the application of new QQ therapies.

Trends in Quorum Sensing and Quorum Quenching

Trends in Quorum Sensing and Quorum Quenching Book
Author : Jamuna A. Bai,V. Ravishankar Rai
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-05-25
ISBN : 9780367224288
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book on Trends in Quorum Sensing and Quorum Quenching: New Perspectives and Applications focuses on the recent advances in the field of quorum sensing in bacteria and the novel strategies for quorum sensing inhibition. The topics covered are multidisciplinary and wide ranging from quorum sensing phenomenon in pathogenic bacteria, food spoilers and agriculturally relevant bacteria. The potential application of quorum sensing inhibitors including small molecules, bioactives, natural compounds and quorum quenching enzymes in controlling bacterial infections, in aquaculture and biofouling are also discussed. Special focus is given to exploring quorum sensing inhibitors from microbes and flora inhabiting biodiversity rich regions including tropical rain forests, various tropical soils and oceans. Key features: Covers the fundamental aspects and the progresses and the challenges in the field and the future trend Reviews quorum sensing in gram positive and gram negative bacteria of clinical, agricultural and industrial relevance Discusses the application of quorum sensing inhibitors from lab to clinical and environmental settings Provides comprehensive coverage on bacterial signaling mechanism V. Ravishankar Rai earned his MSc and PhD from the University of Mysore, India. Currently, Dr. Rai is working in the Department of Studies in Microbiology, University of Mysore, India. He has been awarded fellowship of UNECSO Biotechnology Action Council, Paris (1996) to visit Murdoch University, Perth, Indo-Israel Cultural Exchange Fellowship (1998), Biotechnology Overseas fellowship, Government of India (2008), Indo-Hungarian Exchange fellowship to visit Budapest (2011) and Bilateral Exchange Fellowship by Indian National Academy of Sciences to visit Turkey (2016). He was invited by Academia Sinica, Taiwan as Visiting Fellow (2010). He received Incoming fellowship from Cardiff University, United Kingdom (2017). Recently, he was invited by Centre of Excellence for Biomedical and Biomaterials Research, Mauritius (2018). He has been awarded Bilateral Exchange Fellowship by Indian National Academy of Sciences to visit Germany (2019), Eric Ojala fund International Travel Fellowship to visit Massey University (2019) and Cambridge-Hamied Visiting Lecture Scheme (2020). Jamuna A Bai has completed her MSc and PhD in Microbiology from University of Mysore, India. She is currently working as an Assistant Professor in JSS Academy of Higher Education Research, India. She has previously worked as Research Associate in UGC sponsored University with Potential Excellence Project and ICMR Senior Research Fellow in University of Mysore, India. Her research interest includes food safety, role of quorum sensing and biofilms in food-related bacteria and developing quorum-sensing inhibitors. She is presently working on antimicrobial application of functionalized nanomaterials against pathogens.

Bacterial Sensing and Signaling

Bacterial Sensing and Signaling Book
Author : Mattias Collin,Raymond Schuch
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release : 2009-01-01
ISBN : 3805591322
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the last fifteen years it has become increasingly obvious that bacteria are not as simple and solitary as once believed. Rather, an accumulating body of work shows that bacteria are highly complicated and social organisms, constantly sensing their surroundings and altering both their environments and behaviors to ensure survival. Direct communication between bacteria turns out to be quite common, as are coordinated intra- and interspecies responses that include the formation of highly sophisticated microbial communities. In fact, threats to bacterial survival from assaults ranging from nutrient deprivation and oxygen depletion tothe defenses of eukaryotic hostsare all managed through the integration of a dizzying array of complex sensory and communication systems with the appropriate bacterial behaviors. This volume provides an update of the current knowledgeinthe expanding field ofbacterial sensing and signaling, highlighting its most important and interesting aspects. In twelve state-of-the-art articles, respected international experts address topics such as quorum sensing and secondary messengers, chemotaxis and magnetoaerotaxis, two-component phosphotransferase systems, bacterial virulence mechanisms, thermoregulation, and more. The final chapter represents a unique description of the tools available to manipulate many of the sensing and signaling systems described in this volume. Bacterial Sensing and Signaling is recommended reading for students, scientists and clinicians with interests in microbiology, immunology, ecology, biotechnology and a range of other disciplines.

The Prokaryotes

The Prokaryotes Book
Author : Stanley Falkow,Eugene Rosenberg,Karl-Heinz Schleifer,Erko Stackebrandt
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2006-10-12
ISBN : 038725496X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The revised Third Edition of The Prokaryotes, acclaimed as a classic reference in the field, offers new and updated articles by experts from around the world on taxa of relevance to medicine, ecology and industry. Entries combine phylogenetic and systematic data with insights into genetics, physiology and application. Existing entries have been revised to incorporate rapid progress and technological innovation. The new edition improves on the lucid presentation, logical layout and abundance of illustrations that readers rely on, adding color illustration throughout. Expanded to seven volumes in its print form, the new edition adds a new, searchable online version.

Histidine Kinases in Signal Transduction

Histidine Kinases in Signal Transduction Book
Author : Masayori Inouye,Rinku Dutta
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2002-11-13
ISBN : 0080534015
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Living cells are constantly sensing environmental changes, and their abilities to sense these changes and adapt to them are essential for their survival. In bacteria, histidine kinases are the major sensors for these environmental stresses, enabling cells to adapt to new growth conditions. Written by leading experts in the field, this book provides an up-to-date and comprehensive review on the structure and function of histidine kinases. It also provides extensive information on the physiological roles of histidine kinases in bacteria and eukaryotes. An an essential reference for cell biologists, microbiologists, molecular biologists, and biochemists interested in signal transduction. Experimental biologists and pharmacologists studying signal transduction systems in living organisms will also find it a valuable research tool. The first comprehensive book on the roles of histidine kinases in cells 23 in-depth chapters written by leading experts in the field Describes the most recent advances in the field of signal transduction