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Pyrolysis Of Biomass For Fuels And Chemicals

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Pyrolysis of Biomass for Fuels and Chemicals

Pyrolysis of Biomass for Fuels and Chemicals Book
Author : Akwasi A. Boateng
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-06-15
ISBN : 012818213X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pyrolysis of Biomass for Fuels and Chemicals provides a thorough overview of thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals via the pyrolysis platform. The book covers the principles underlying pyrolysis of biomass from the chemical engineering perspective. It discusses thermal-only pyrolysis, the traditional pyrolysis process under inert atmosphere with no catalyst, and the role of catalytic pyrolysis and tail gas reactive pyrolysis in resolving the instability issues associated with product distribution. The addresses condensed phase upgrading where the oil produced can be upgraded for stability or hydrogenated to drop-in transportation fuels, as well as feedstock selection, including opportunity fuels/feedstocks. Finally, pilot and demonstration scale projects from around the world are examined, and some immediate applications of pyrolysis oils in combustion systems are analyzed. Engineering researchers and professionals in the bioenergy, biochemical, and petrochemical fields find in this book a complete resource for understanding the relationships between possible technologies, applications, costs, and products value, as they tackle the challenges for large scale adoption of pyrolysis for the production of 2nd generation biofuels and biochemicals. PhD students in areas of energy, chemical, mechanical, and materials engineering will also benefit from fundamental and applied research in a concise format that can save them time and serve as a reference through bioenergy conversion courses. Covers thermal only pyrolysis, catalytic pyrolysis, and tail gas reactive pyrolysis Examines the relationships between technologies, applications, costs and products value, and end-use Offers a cradle-to-grave approach that includes coverage of feedstocks, their compositional traits, and how they affect conversion technologies with regard to yields, quality of pyrolysis fuel intermediates, and subsequent upgrade to drop-in fuels

Thermochemical Processing of Biomass

Thermochemical Processing of Biomass Book
Author : Robert C. Brown
Publisher : Wiley
Release : 2019-05-06
ISBN : 1119417570
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A comprehensive examination of the large number of possible pathways for converting biomass into fuels and power through thermochemical processes Bringing together a widely scattered body of information into a single volume, this book provides complete coverage of the many ways that thermochemical processes are used to transform biomass into fuels, chemicals and power. Fully revised and updated, this new edition highlights the substantial progress and recent developments that have been made in this rapidly growing field since publication of the first edition and incorporates up-to-date information in each chapter. Thermochemical Processing of Biomass: Conversion into Fuels, Chemicals and Power, 2nd Edition incorporates two new chapters covering: condensed phased reactions of thermal deconstruction of biomass and life cycle analysis of thermochemical processing systems. It offers a new introductory chapter that provides a more comprehensive overview of thermochemical technologies. The book also features fresh perspectives from new authors covering such evolving areas as solvent liquefaction and hybrid processing. Other chapters cover combustion, gasification, fast pyrolysis, upgrading of syngas and bio-oil to liquid transportation fuels, and the economics of thermochemically producing fuels and power, and more. Features contributions by a distinguished group of European and American researchers offering a broad and unified description of thermochemical processing options for biomass Combines an overview of the current status of thermochemical biomass conversion as well as engineering aspects to appeal to the broadest audience Edited by one of Biofuels Digest’s "Top 100 People" in bioenergy for six consecutive years Thermochemical Processing of Biomass: Conversion into Fuels, Chemicals and Power, 2nd Edition will appeal to all academic researchers, process chemists, and engineers working in the field of biomass conversion to fuels and chemicals. It is also an excellent book for graduate and advanced undergraduate students studying biomass, biofuels, renewable resources, and energy and power generation.

Thermochemical Conversion of Woody Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Final Report

Thermochemical Conversion of Woody Biomass to Fuels and Chemicals Final Report Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Maine and its industries identified more efficient utilization of biomass as a critical economic development issue. In Phase I of this implementation project, a research team was assembled, research equipment was implemented and expertise was demonstrated in pyrolysis, hydrodeoxygenation of pyrolysis oils, catalyst synthesis and characterization, and reaction engineering. Phase II built upon the infrastructure to innovate reaction pathways and process engineering, and integrate new approaches for fuels and chemical production within pulp and paper and other industries within the state. This research cluster brought together chemists, engineers, physicists and students from the University of Maine, Bates College, and Bowdoin College. The project developed collaborations with Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Brookhaven National Laboratory. The specific research projects within this proposal were of critical interest to the DoE - in particular the biomass program within EERE and the catalysis/chemical transformations program within BES. Scientific and Technical Merit highlights of this project included: (1) synthesis and physical characterization of novel size-selective catalyst/supports using engineered mesoporous (1-10 nm diameter pores) materials, (2) advances in fundamental knowledge of novel support/ metal catalyst systems tailored for pyrolysis oil upgrading, (3) a microcalorimetric sensing technique, (4) improved methods for pyrolysis oil characterization, (5) production and characterization of woody biomass-derived pyrolysis oils, (6) development of two new patented bio oil pathways: thermal deoxygenation (TDO) and formate assisted pyrolysis (FASP), and (7) technoeconomics of pyrolysis of Maine forest biomass. This research cluster has provided fundamental knowledge to enable and assess pathways to thermally convert biomass to hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals.

Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Pyrolysis

Production of Biofuels and Chemicals with Pyrolysis Book
Author : Zhen Fang,Richard L. Smith,Lujiang Xu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2020-10-07
ISBN : 9789811527319
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a collection of studies on state-of-art techniques for converting biomass to chemical products by means of pyrolysis, which are widely applicable to the valorization of biomass. In addition to discussing the fundamentals and mechanisms for producing bio-oils, chemicals, gases and biochar using pyrolysis, it outlines key reaction parameters and reactor configurations for various types of biomass. Written by leading experts and providing a broad range of perspectives on cutting-edge applications, the book is a comprehensive reference guide for academic researchers and industrial engineers in the fields of natural renewable materials, biorefinery of lignocellulose, biofuels, and environmental engineering, and a valuable resource for university students in the fields of chemical engineering, material science and environmental engineering.

Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass for the Production of Fuels and Chemicals

Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass for the Production of Fuels and Chemicals Book
Author : Torren R. Carlson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass for the Production of Fuels and Chemicals book written by Torren R. Carlson, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

The Role of Catalysis for the Sustainable Production of Bio fuels and Bio chemicals

The Role of Catalysis for the Sustainable Production of Bio fuels and Bio chemicals Book
Author : Kostas Triantafyllidis,Angelos Lappas,Michael Stöcker
Publisher : Newnes
Release : 2013-03-19
ISBN : 0444563326
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Role of Catalysis for the Sustainable Production of Bio-fuels and Bio-chemicals describes the importance of catalysis for the sustainable production of biofuels and biochemicals, focused primarily on the state-of-the-art catalysts and catalytic processes expected to play a decisive role in the "green" production of fuels and chemicals from biomass. In addition, the book includes general elements regarding the entire chain of biomass production, conversion, environment, economy, and life-cycle assessment. Very few books are available on catalysis in production schemes using biomass or its primary conversion products, such as bio-oil and lignin. This book fills that gap with detailed discussions of: Catalytic pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass Hybrid biogasoline by co-processing in FCC units Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to biofuels (biomass-to-liquid process) Steam reforming of bio-oils to hydrogen With energy prices rapidly rising, environmental concerns growing, and regulatory apparatus evolving, this book is a resource with tutorial, research, and technological value for chemists, chemical engineers, policymakers, and students. Includes catalytic reaction mechanism schemes and gives a clear understanding of catalytic processes Includes flow diagrams of bench-, pilot- and industrial-scale catalytic processing units and demonstrates the various process technologies involved, enabling easy selection of the best process Incorporates many tables, enabling easy comparison of data based on a critical review of the available literature

Biomass Pyrolysis Liquids Upgrading and Utilization

Biomass Pyrolysis Liquids Upgrading and Utilization Book
Author : A.V. Bridgwater,G. Grassi
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401138443
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomass pyrolysis has been practised for centuries in the manufacture of charcoal for industry and leisure. Only in the last two decades, however, has attention focussed on a better understanding of the science and technology, with the resultant benefits of better designed and controlled processes that give high yields of liquid products. These liquids, or 'bio-oil' as it is referred to, can be used in a variety of ways: -combustion to replace conventional fuel oil in boilers, process equipment such as kilns and in gas turbines for power generation; -upgrading by hydrotreating or with zeolites to gasoline, diesel and other hydrocarbon fuels, of chemicals; --extraction and upgrading to fuel additives and chemical specialities. Any charcoal produced can also be utilised to form char- water slurries, analogous to coal-water slurries, or bioi-oil slurries which may be used as liquid fuels in many combustion applications. A group of experts was set up in the EC Energy from Biomass programme to evaluate the status and opportunities for deriving useful liquid products from biomass pyrolysis. This book is a report of their findings and conclusions. It forms an authoritative guide to the wide range of technologies employed in biomass pyrolysis, and product upgrading, utilisation and characterisation. Recommendations and conclusions are included to identify promising areas of research and development that will be of value to researchers, planners and companies throughout the world.

Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals

Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass to Liquid Fuels and Chemicals Book
Author : Mark Crocker
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2010-09-10
ISBN : 1849732264
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There is increasing recognition that low-cost, high capacity processes for the conversion of biomass into fuels and chemicals are essential for expanding the utilization of carbon neutral processes, reducing dependency on fossil fuel resources, and increasing rural income. While much attention has focused on the use of biomass to produce ethanol via fermentation, high capacity processes are also required for the production of hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass. In this context, this book provides an up-to-date overview of the thermochemical methods available for biomass conversion to liquid fuels and chemicals. In addition to traditional conversion technologies such as fast pyrolysis, new developments are considered, including catalytic routes for the production of liquid fuels from carbohydrates and the use of ionic liquids for lignocellulose utilization. The individual chapters, written by experts in the field, provide an introduction to each topic, as well as describing recent research developments.

Thermochemical Processing of Biomass

Thermochemical Processing of Biomass Book
Author : Robert C. Brown
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-03-16
ISBN : 9781119990994
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thermochemical pathways for biomass conversion offer opportunitiesfor rapid and efficient processing of diverse feedstocks intofuels, chemicals and power. Thermochemical processing has severaladvantages relative to biochemical processing, including greaterfeedstock flexibility, conversion of both carbohydrate and lignininto products, faster reaction rates, and the ability to produce adiverse selection of fuels. Thermochemical Processing of Biomass examines the largenumber of possible pathways for converting biomass into fuels,chemicals and power through the use of heat and catalysts. The bookpresents a practical overview of the latest research in thisrapidly developing field, highlighting the fundamental chemistry,technical applications and operating costs associated withthermochemical conversion strategies. Bridging the gap between research and practical application,this book is written for engineering professionals in the biofuelsindustry, as well as academic researchers working in bioenergy,bioprocessing technology and chemical engineering. Topics covered include: Combustion Gasification Fast Pyrolysis Hydrothermal Processing Upgrading Syngas and Bio-oil Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Fuels Hybrid Thermochemical/Biochemical Processing Economics of Thermochemical Conversion For more information on the Wiley Series in Renewable Resources,visit ahref="http://www.wiley.com/go/rrs"www.wiley.com/go/rrs/a

Biomass Pyrolysis Liquids Upgrading and Utilization

Biomass Pyrolysis Liquids Upgrading and Utilization Book
Author : A.V. Bridgwater,G. Grassi
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1991-03-31
ISBN : 9781851665655
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomass pyrolysis has been practised for centuries in the manufacture of charcoal for industry and leisure. Only in the last two decades, however, has attention focussed on a better understanding of the science and technology, with the resultant benefits of better designed and controlled processes that give high yields of liquid products. These liquids, or 'bio-oil' as it is referred to, can be used in a variety of ways: -combustion to replace conventional fuel oil in boilers, process equipment such as kilns and in gas turbines for power generation; -upgrading by hydrotreating or with zeolites to gasoline, diesel and other hydrocarbon fuels, of chemicals; --extraction and upgrading to fuel additives and chemical specialities. Any charcoal produced can also be utilised to form char- water slurries, analogous to coal-water slurries, or bioi-oil slurries which may be used as liquid fuels in many combustion applications. A group of experts was set up in the EC Energy from Biomass programme to evaluate the status and opportunities for deriving useful liquid products from biomass pyrolysis. This book is a report of their findings and conclusions. It forms an authoritative guide to the wide range of technologies employed in biomass pyrolysis, and product upgrading, utilisation and characterisation. Recommendations and conclusions are included to identify promising areas of research and development that will be of value to researchers, planners and companies throughout the world.

Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass

Fast Pyrolysis of Biomass Book
Author : Robert C Brown,Kaige Wang
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2017-07-07
ISBN : 1782626182
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Fast pyrolysis and related catalytic pyrolysis are of increasing interest as pathways to advanced biofuels that closely mimic traditional petroleum products. Research has moved from empirical investigations to more fundamental studies of pyrolysis mechanisms. Theories on the chemical and physical pathways from plant polymers to pyrolysis products have proliferated as a result. This book brings together the latest developments in pyrolysis science and technology. It examines, reviews and challenges the unresolved and sometimes controversial questions about pyrolysis, helping advance the understanding of this important technology and stimulating discussion on the various competing theories of thermal deconstruction of plant polymers. Beginning with an introduction to the biomass-to-biofuels process via fast pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis, chapters address prominent questions such as whether free radicals or concerted reactions dominate deconstruction reactions. Finally, the book concludes with an economic analysis of fast pyrolysis versus catalytic pyrolysis. This book will be of interest to advanced students and researchers interested in the science behind renewable fuel technology, and particularly the thermochemical processing of biomass.

Pyrolysis Oils

Pyrolysis Oils Book
Author : Tushar P. Vispute
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There is a growing need to develop the processes to produce renewable fuels and chemicals due to the economical, political, and environmental concerns associated with the fossil fuels. One of the most promising methods for a small scale conversion of biomass into liquid fuels is fast pyrolysis. The liquid product obtained from the fast pyrolysis of biomass is called pyrolysis oil or bio-oil. It is a complex mixture of more than 300 compounds resulting from the depolymerization of biomass building blocks, cellulose; hemi-cellulose; and lignin. Bio-oils have low heating value, high moisture content, are acidic, contain solid char particles, are incompatible with existing petroleum based fuels, are thermally unstable, and degrade with time. They cannot be used directly in a diesel or a gasoline internal combustion engine. One of the challenges with the bio-oil is that it is unstable and can phase separate when stored for long. Its viscosity and molecular weight increases with time. It is important to identify the factors responsible for the bio-oil instability and to stabilize the bio-oil. The stability analysis of the bio-oil showed that the high molecular weight lignin oligomers in the bio-oil are mainly responsible for the instability of bio-oil. The viscosity increase in the bio-oil was due to two reasons: increase in the average molecular weight and increase in the concentration of high molecular weight oligomers. Char can be removed from the bio-oil by microfiltration using ceramic membranes with pore sizes less than 1 [mu meter]. Removal of char does not affect the bio-oil stability but is desired as char can cause difficulty in further processing of the bio-oil. Nanofiltration and low temperature hydrogenation were found to be the promising techniques to stabilize the bio-oil. Bio-oil must be catalytically converted into fuels and chemicals if it is to be used as a feedstock to make renewable fuels and chemicals. The water soluble fraction of bio-oil (WSBO) was found to contain C2 to C6 oxygenated hydrocarbons with various functionalities. In this study we showed that both hydrogen and alkanes can be produced with high yields from WSBO using aqueous phase processing. Hydrogen was produced by aqueous phase reforming over Pt/Al2O3 catalyst. Alkanes were produced by hydrodeoxygenation over Pt/SiO2-Al2O3. Both of these processes were preceded by a low temperature hydrogenation step over Ru/C catalyst. This step was critical to achieve high yields of hydrogen and alkanes. WSBO was also converted to gasoline-range alcohols and C2 to C6 diols with up to 46% carbon yield by a two-stage hydrogenation process over Ru/C catalyst (125 °C) followed by over Pt/C (250 °C) catalyst. Temperature and pressure can be used to tune the product selectivity. The hydroprocessing of bio-oil was followed by zeolite upgrading to produce C6 to C8 aromatic hydrocarbons and C2 to C4 olefins. Up to 70% carbon yield to aromatics and olefins was achieved from the hydrogenated aqueous fraction of bio-oil. The hydroprocessing steps prior to the zeolite upgrading increases the thermal stability of bio-oil as well as the intrinsic hydrogen content. Increasing the thermal stability of bio-oil results in reduced coke yields in zeolite upgrading, whereas, increasing the intrinsic hydrogen content results in more oxygen being removed from bio-oil as H2O than CO and CO2. This results in higher carbon yields to aromatic hydrocarbon and olefins. Integrating hydroprocessing with zeolite upgrading produces a narrow product spectrum and reduces the hydrogen requirement of the process as compared to processes solely based on hydrotreating. Increasing the yield of petrochemical products from biomass therefore requires hydrogen, thus cost of hydrogen dictates the maximum economic potential of the process.

Biomass for Renewable Energy Fuels and Chemicals

Biomass for Renewable Energy  Fuels  and Chemicals Book
Author : Donald L. Klass
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1998-07-06
ISBN : 9780080528052
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels, and Chemicals serves as a comprehensive introduction to the subject for the student and educator, and is useful for researchers who are interested in the technical details of biomass energy production. The coverage and discussion are multidisciplinary, reflecting the many scientific and engineering disciplines involved. The book will appeal to a broad range of energy professionals and specialists, farmers and foresters who are searching for methods of selecting, growing, and converting energy crops, entrepreneurs who are commercializing biomass energy projects, and those involved in designing solid and liquid waste disposal-energy recovery systems. Presents a graduated treatment from basic principles to the details of specific technologies Includes a critical analysis of many biomass energy research and commercialization activities Proposes several new technical approaches to improve efficiencies, net energy production, and economics Reviews failed projects, as well as successes, and methods for overcoming barriers to commercialization Written by a leader in the field with 40 years of educational, research, and commercialization experience

Biomass combustion science technology and engineering

Biomass combustion science  technology and engineering Book
Author : A. Bridgwater
Publisher : Elsevier Inc. Chapters
Release : 2013-04-04
ISBN : 0128087595
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This chapter examines the fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce liquids for use as fuels and chemicals. The technology for fast pyrolysis is described and the characteristics of the main product bio-oil. This primary liquid is characterised by the many properties that affect its use. These properties have caused increasingly extensive research to be undertaken to address properties that need modification and this area is reviewed in terms of physical, catalytic and chemical upgrading. Of particular note is the increasing diversity of upgrading methods.

Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion

Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion Book
Author : R.P. Overend,T. Milne,L. Mudge
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9400949324
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Throughout the world many projects have been underway to investigate the conversion of renewable biomass into energy and synthetic fuels by thermo chemical methods such as combustion, pyrolysis, gasification and lique faction. While many of these represent prior art used during the early 20th century, the recent decade since the 1970s oil shock has immeasurably increased the knowledge base for such processes. Much of the new knowledge has been gained by persons who were not trained in classical wood chemistry and there have not yet been many attempts to synthesize the knowledge into a corpus of systematic information. To bring this about the International Energy Agency's Forestry Energy collaboration, the Gas Research Institute, the National Research Council of Canada and the US Department of Energy jointly sponsored a conference on the Fundamentals of Thermochemical Biomass Conversion in Estes Park, Colorado which was held on October 18-22, 1982. The Conference, which was structured around invited plenary papers and contributions from researchers, served as the basis for the papers in this volume which reflect the substantial conclusions of the Conference. During the planning for the Conference, it was realized by the editors in their capacity as Co-chairmen that a major problem in biomass research was the lack of reproducibility between reported experiments and their inter comparison on account of the heterogeneity of biomass materials. A well known wood chemist, George M.

Recent Advances in Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass

Recent Advances in Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass Book
Author : Ashok Pandey,Thallada Bhaskar,Michael Stöcker,Rajeev Sukumaran
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2015-01-28
ISBN : 0444632905
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides general information and data on one of the most promising renewable energy sources: biomass for its thermochemical conversion. During the last few years, there has been increasing focus on developing the processes and technologies for the conversion of biomass to liquid and gaseous fuels and chemicals, in particular to develop low-cost technologies. This book provides date-based scientific information on the most advanced and innovative processing of biomass as well as the process development elements on thermochemical processing of biomass for the production of biofuels and bio-products on (biomass-based biorefinery). The conversion of biomass to biofuels and other value-added products on the principle biorefinery offers potential from technological perspectives as alternate energy. The book covers intensive R&D and technological developments done during the last few years in the area of renewable energy utilizing biomass as feedstock and will be highly beneficial for the researchers, scientists and engineers working in the area of biomass-biofuels- biorefinery. Provides the most advanced and innovative thermochemical conversion technology for biomass Provides information on large scales such as thermochemical biorefinery Useful for researchers intending to study scale up Serves as both a textbook for graduate students and a reference book for researchers Provides information on integration of process and technology on thermochemical conversion of biomass

The Potential of the Production of Fuels and Chemicals from Marine Biomass

The Potential of the Production of Fuels and Chemicals from Marine Biomass Book
Author : Konstantinos Anastasakis
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The need for sustainability, energy security and reduction of global warming has brought many alternative energy sources into the foreground. Already there are well established technologies that can produce renewable energy but when it comes to the production of renewable liquid fuels and chemicals: biomass is the primary feedstock. Biomass is a renewable source of energy that can provide heat, electricity and transport fuels. However, utilisation of biomass posses some limitations such as land availability and competition of energy crops with food crops. In order to overcome these problems "third generation" biofuels from alternative feedstock such as macro-algae have recently come into the foreground. Oceans and seas cover over 70% of the earth's surface, most of which is under exploited, resulting in additional potential for biomass production. This thesis concentrates on the potential for production of bio-energy and chemicals from macro-algae through thermochemical processes such as pyrolysis, combustion and hydrothermal liquefaction. Utilisation of aquatic . biomass for production of bioenergy is a very recent concept and there is a lack of information on their thermochemical behaviour. This investigation contributes to a wider study and forms part of the Supergen II bionergy programme investigating the potential for utilisation of macrolage in the UK. This investigation includes a detailed characterisation of the fuel properties and thermal behaviour of a range of wild seaweeds around the UK provided by the Scottish Association of Marine Sciences. In addition, a range of model biochemical components have been investigated, in particular, the model carbohydrates present in macro-algae. Alginic acid, mannitol, laminarin, fucoidan and cellulose are the mam carbohydrates present in brown macro-algae. The rest of the plant material comprises of protein and ash. Freshly harvested macro-algae contain 80-90wt% moisture. Their ash content is high, reflecting their high inorganic content. Potassium is the most abundant metal present in macro-algae although other metals are also present including sodium, calcium, magnesium, Their carbohydrate, protein IV I' and ash content undergo a seasonal variation during their growth cycle. This variation was found to affect their properties as fuel. Carbon content reaches its maximum during summer - early autumn. During the same period, the inorganic (and thus ash) content is at its minimum suggesting summer - early autumn as the optimum period for harvesting macro-algae for bio- energy. The high carbon and low inorganic content during this period is reflected in its higher heating value but it is still relatively low (13-14 MJ/kg) when compared with terrestrial biomass. The nature of the inhabitant location was found to significantly influence macro-algae fuel properties with samples grown in the open ocean having better fuel properties (higher HHV and lower inorganic content) than samples growing in canals and estuaries. Investigation of the pyrolysis behaviour was performed using thermal analysis such as TGA and Py-GC/MS. The volatile matter evolved during pyrolysis was higher for s.amples collected during summer and early spring due to their higher carbon content. The main volatiles evolved during decomposition were found to originate either from their carbohydrates or from their protein content. Specific marker compounds were identified for the carbohydrates such as dianhydromannitol, 1-(2-furanyl)-ethanone, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-l-one and furfural for manitol, laminarin and alginic acid respectively. Proteins are found to produce a range of indoles and pyrroles. Some of the compounds identified may have industrial applications indicating the possibility of producing chemicals through pyrolysis of macro-algae. The high moisture content of seaweed necessitates that significant amounts of water must be removed before this feedstock can be converted by pyrolysis. The high moisture content is similary an issue for combustion which has been assessed by a combination of TGA and characterisation of the biomass. Macro-algae have a low HHV, high halogen content and high ash content and are predicted to have high slagging and fouling behaviour in conventional combustion chambers. This fouling behaviour is predicted through empirical indexes such as the alkali index and is shown to be higher than terrestrial biomass even during summer - early autumn when their inorganic content is at minimum. Typical ash contents vary from 18 to 45wt% and contain mainly oxides of K20, Na20, CaO and MgO. Pre-treatment prior to combustion can significantly reduce the ash content leading to improved combustion properties, but this also leads to removal of some biochemical components. Using an acid pre-treatment, some of the seaweed's biopolymers, such as mannitol or fucoidan, can be removed presenting the possibility for acquiring valuable chemicals from seaweed before combustion of the residue. An alternative processing route, capable of processing wet feedstocks called hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) involves the processing of the macro-algae in subcritical water. HTL converts the starting material into four product 'streams including a bio-crude, a char, an aqueous stream consisting primarily of process water and a gaseous stream. A parametric study of HTL has been investigated using high pressure batch reactors with or without the presence of catalysts. The bio-crude produced from the liquefaction of macrolgae was found to have a high heating value and resembling chemical composition to crude-oil. It can be used directly as a fuel however it still contains significantly high nitrogen levels and will required suitable upgrading (e.g. denitrogenation).The bio-char was found to also have a high heating value. Both bio-crude and bio-char produced from HTL are virtually free of alkali metals suggesting they are suitable for combustion. Reaction conditions such as temperature and the ratio of biomass to water have the greatest influence on product yields and properties. Typical bio-crude yields were in the range of 10 to 19wt% on a daf basis with their HHVs ranging from 32 to 38 MJ/kg. The yields of bio-chars were in similar range (1 Owt% to 19wt% on a db) with HHV s between 10 and 26 MJ/kg. An energy balance was calculated in order to investigate the energy required to heat the mixture of macro-algae and water. The energy recovery in the bio-crude and bio-char was relatively low, between 50 and 65%, indicating that a significant portion of the energy content of macro-algae is passing in to the other product streams.

Catalytic Conversion of Lignin derived Compounds to Fuels and Chemicals

Catalytic Conversion of Lignin derived Compounds to Fuels and Chemicals Book
Author : Tarit Nimmanwudipong
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9781267759382
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The environmental problems caused by the production and usage of non-renewable fossil fuels has encouraged scientists to conduct research on alternative fuels. Lignocellolusic biomass is considered one of the most promising resources of alternative liquid fuels as well as renewable chemicals. Among several potential routes for biomass conversion, fast pyrolysis and subsequent catalytic upgrading has gained interest widely. Although the combination involves minimum numbers of steps, the cost of resultant fuels and chemicals is not yet low. Therefore, research is needed for better understanding of the process. This study considered the potential use of "bio-oils", product from fast pyrolysis of lignin, the under-utilized part of lignocellulose, as possible aromatic chemical and fuel feedstock source with the key challenge being the removal of excessive oxygen. The literature of catalytic upgrading of lignin-derived bio-oils is still lacking fundamental chemistry. Detailed and quantitative information about the products, the important reaction pathways, and kinetics is limited, but vital as basis for predicting catalyst choices and designing processes. Thus, our goal was to provide such information and to begin unraveling the chemistry of conversion of oxygenate molecules characteristic of lignin-derived bio-oils--and specifically to understand crucial catalytic oxygen-removal reactions. We investigated the conversion of prototypical compounds that represent important components in lignin-derived bio-oils. The reactions were catalyzed by a solid acid (HY zeolite) and supported metals (Pt/[gamma]-Al2O3), which are typical in petroleum and petrochemical industries. This dissertation addresses catalytic reactions of guaiacol, cyclohexanone, and eugenol. For the first time in this field, our data determine quantitative conversion, selectivity of the products, and approximate kinetics of the primary products in the reactions with Pt/[gamma]-Al2O3. The results show that four major reaction classes including transalkylation, hydrogenation, hydrogenolysis, and hydrodeoxygenation were dominant. Without H2 as a reactant and a metal function in the catalyst, transalkylation was the only important reaction class as observed in the conversion catalyzed by acidic HY zeolite. Higher H2 partial pressure led to higher selectivity of oxygen removal products in the conversion catalyzed by Pt/[gamma]-Al2O3. The data identify the role of catalyst functions and imply that a supported-metal catalyst and high pressure H2 will be necessary for oxygen removal of compounds found in lignin-derived bio-oils. Catalyst deactivation was usually observed in the conversion with HY zeolite and Pt/[gamma]-Al2O3. The earlier results indicate that acid sites of the catalysts were associated with the formation of carbonaceous materials on those catalysts. Therefore, the conversion of guaiacol catalyzed by basic supported platinum (Pt/MgO) was investigated. The data show that Pt/MgO deactivated less rapidly compared to other catalysts. The corresponding selectivity to oxygen removal products was nearly doubled the value observed from the reactions catalyzed by Pt/[gamma]-Al2O3, demonstrating potential value of basic support for selective HDO process. In summary, results obtained from this research lead to better understanding of catalytic conversion of lignin-derived compounds. Extrapolation of these understanding will help predicting catalyst performance in the upgrading of bio-oils and ultimately designing suitable catalysts and optimizing operating conditions for the conversion of lignin to fuels and chemicals.

Pyrolysis

Pyrolysis Book
Author : Mohamed Samer
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2017-07-05
ISBN : 953513311X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides useful information about pyrolysis, which includes the pyrolysis of biomass and pyrolysis of fossil fuels and petrochemicals. Additionally, this book elucidates and illustrates further innovative pyrolysis processes such as catalytic pyrolysis, spray pyrolysis, and microwave-assisted pyrolysis. This book discusses the production of semiconductors and nanomaterials through the pyrolysis process.

Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass for the Production of Energy and Chemicals

Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass for the Production of Energy and Chemicals Book
Author : Anthony Dufour
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2016-01-07
ISBN : 1119137705
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book highlights the processes of biomass thermochemical conversion, covering topics from combustion and gasification, to pyrolysis and liquefaction. Heat, power, biofuels and green chemicals can all be produced by these thermochemical processes. The different scales of investigation are presented: from the bioenergy chains, to the reactors and molecular mechanisms. The author uses current research and data to present bioenergy chains from forest to final use, including the biomass supply chains, as well as the life cycle assessment of different process chains. Biomass conversion reactors are also presented, detailing their technologies for combustion, gasification and syngas up-grading systems, pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading. The physical-chemical mechanisms occurring in all these reactors are presented highlighting the main pathways for gas, char and bio-oil formation from biomass. This book offers an overview of biomass valorization for students, engineers or developers in chemistry, chemical, environmental or mechanical engineering.