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Pseudoelasticity Of Shape Memory Alloys

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Pseudoelasticity of Shape Memory Alloys

Pseudoelasticity of Shape Memory Alloys Book
Author : Andrzej Ziolkowski
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release : 2015-03-23
ISBN : 0128018011
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pseudoelasticity of Shape Memory Alloys: Theory and Experimental Studies is devoted to the phenomenon of pseudoelasticity (superelasticity) exhibited by shape memory alloy materials. It provides extensive introductory content on the state-of-the-art in the field, including SMA materials development, definition of shape memory effects, and discussions on where shape memory behavior is found in various engineering application areas. The book features a survey of modeling approaches targeted at reliable prediction of SMA materials’ behavior on different scales of observation, including atomistic, microscopic, mezoscopic, and macroscopic. Researchers and graduate students will find detailed information on the modern methodologies used in the process of building constitutive models of advanced materials exhibiting complex behavior. Introduces the phenomenon of pseudoelasticity exhibited by shape memory alloy materials Features a survey of modeling approaches targeted at reliable prediction of SMN materials' behavior on different scales of observation Provides extensive coverage of the state-of-the-art in the field Ideal reference for researchers and graduate students interested in the modern methodologies used in the process of building constitutive models of advanced materials

Pseudoelasticity in Shape Memory Alloys an Extreme Case of Thermoelasticity

Pseudoelasticity in Shape Memory Alloys   an Extreme Case of Thermoelasticity Book
Author : University of Minnesota. Institute for Mathematics and Its Applications,I. Muller
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1985
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Pseudoelasticity in Shape Memory Alloys an Extreme Case of Thermoelasticity book written by University of Minnesota. Institute for Mathematics and Its Applications,I. Muller, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys

Modeling of Shape Memory Alloys Book
Author : Harshad Madhukar Paranjape,OhioLINK Electronic Theses and Dissertations Center
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Shape memory alloys (SMA) show two remarkable properties- pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect. These properties make them an attractive material for a variety of commercial applications. However, the mechanism of austenite to martensite phase transformation, responsible for these properties also induces plastic deformation leading to structural and functional fatigue. Micron scale experiments suggest that the plastic deformation is induced in part due to the local stress field of the fine martensite microstructure. However, the results are qualitative and the nature of transformation-plasticity interaction is dependent on factors like the width of the interfaces.

Shape Memory Alloy Valves

Shape Memory Alloy Valves Book
Author : Alexander Czechowicz,Sven Langbein
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-09-07
ISBN : 3319190814
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book introduces shape memory alloy technology with a specific focus on valve applications. The authors describe application characteristics as well the current and potential uses of this technology. They include an overview of thermal and electrical valves as well as detailed valve design strategies.

Engineering Aspects of Shape Memory Alloys

Engineering Aspects of Shape Memory Alloys Book
Author : T W Duerig,K N Melton,D Stöckel
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 1483144755
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Engineering Aspects of Shape Memory Alloys provides an understanding of shape memory by defining terms, properties, and applications. It includes tutorials, overviews, and specific design examples—all written with the intention of minimizing the science and maximizing the engineering aspects. Although the individual chapters have been written by many different authors, each one of the best in their fields, the overall tone and intent of the book is not that of a proceedings, but that of a textbook. The book consists of five parts. Part I deals with the mechanism of shape memory and the alloys that exhibit the effect. It also defines many essential terms that will be used in later parts. Part II deals primarily with constrained recovery, but to some extent with free recovery. There is an introductory paper which defines terms and principles, then several specific examples of products based on constrained recovery. Both Parts III and IV deal with actuators. Part III introduces engineering principles while Part IV presents several of the specific examples. Finally, Part V deals with superelasticity, with an introductory paper and then several specific examples of product engineering.

Characterizing the Pseudoelastic Behavior of Cu Zn Al Shape Memory Alloys

Characterizing the Pseudoelastic Behavior of Cu Zn Al Shape Memory Alloys Book
Author : Michelle Somerday
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1998
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Characterizing the Pseudoelastic Behavior of Cu Zn Al Shape Memory Alloys book written by Michelle Somerday, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Shape Memory Alloys

Shape Memory Alloys Book
Author : Dimitris C. Lagoudas
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-06-05
ISBN : 0387476857
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a working knowledge of the modeling and engineering applications of shape memory alloys (SMAs), beginning with a rigorous introduction to continuum mechanics and continuum thermodynamics as they relate to the development of SMA modeling.Modern SMAs can recover from large amounts of bending and deformation, and millions of repetitions within recoverable ranges. SMAs are used in the medical industry to create stents, in the dental industry to create dental and orthodontic archwires, and in the aerospace industry to create fluid fittings. The text presents a unified approach to the constitutive modeling of SMAs, including modeling of magnetic and high temperature SMAs.

Shape Memory Alloys

Shape Memory Alloys Book
Author : Ivo Szurman,Radim Kocich,Miroslav Kursa
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2012-03
ISBN : 9783848425358
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Shape Memory Alloys include a wide range of various materials. These materials exhibit unique properties including thermal (shape memory effect) and mechanical (pseudoelasticity) memory, whereas both these characteristics depend on the martensitic phase transformation and diffusion-free transformation of the solid state. One of the main reasons is their attractiveness due to shape memory and pseudoelastic properties, excellent biocompability and high corrosive resistance. The most attention (even today) goes to Ni-Ti and Ni-Ti-Me systems, where Me represents another alloying element. This book covers mainly Ni-Ti based materials. Alloys from these systems have characteristic features of long-range structure, thermoelastic martensite and crystallographic reversible phase transformations. This book is focused on fabrication, conventional as well as non-conventional forming techniques. Among others there are stated methods for transformation temperatures measurement and evaluation of microstructural characteristic.

Micro welding of Nitinol Shape Memory Alloy

Micro welding of Nitinol Shape Memory Alloy Book
Author : Billy Tam
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nitinol shape memory alloys have revolutionized many traditional engineering designs with the unique properties of pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect. At the present moment, primary fabrication processes for Nitinol-based devices include laser cutting and manual techniques. As the interest in incorporating Nitinol in different micro applications and devices increases, the development of effective technology for micro-welding of Nitinol becomes necessary. In general, welding processes may induce significant changes to the processed area rendering the component incompatible or unusable. Strength reduction, inclusions of intermetallic compounds, and changes in pseudoelastic and shape memory effects are all examples of how Nitinol can be affected by welding. The current study has examined the effects of two welding techniques on Nitinol: micro-resistance spot welding (MRSW) and laser micro-welding (LMW). Ni-rich Nitinol wires were welded in a crossed-wire configuration at different energy inputs by varying welding currents for MRSW and peak powers for LMW. The characterization of weld properties focused on the mechanical properties and bonding mechanisms, weld microstructure and formation, and phase transformation temperatures. Additionally, the effects of surface oxide on joint performance were also examined. During MRSW, the primary bonding mechanism was solid state, which consisted of 6 main stages: cold collapse, dynamic recrystallization, interfacial melting, squeeze out, excessive flash, and surface melting. Attempt was made to correlate the joining mechanism with the contact resistances. Joint strength and fracture mechanism were closely linked to the metallurgical properties of the welds. Finally, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests showed that weld metal underwent phase transformation at lower temperatures compared to base material. The second part of this study investigated the effects of Nd:YAG laser micro welding have on Nitinol wires. The fracture strength, weld microstructure, and phase transformation temperatures resulting from the use of varying peak power inputs were studied and compared to both base metal and welds produced using the MRSW process. Results showed good retention of base metal strength and pseudoelastic properties. Moreover, the fusion zone underwent phase transformation at higher temperatures compared to base metal, which substantially altered the active functional properties of Nitinol at room temperature.

Shape Memory Alloy Engineering

Shape Memory Alloy Engineering Book
Author : Antonio Concilio,Leonardo Lecce
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-09-25
ISBN : 0080999212
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Shape Memory Alloy Engineering introduces materials, mechanical, and aerospace engineers to shape memory alloys (SMAs), providing a unique perspective that combines fundamental theory with new approaches to design and modeling of actual SMAs as compact and inexpensive actuators for use in aerospace and other applications. With this book readers will gain an understanding of the intrinsic properties of SMAs and their characteristic state diagrams, allowing them to design innovative compact actuation systems for applications from aerospace and aeronautics to ships, cars, and trucks. The book realistically discusses both the potential of these fascinating materials as well as their limitations in everyday life, and how to overcome some of those limitations in order to achieve proper design of useful SMA mechanisms. Discusses material characterization processes and results for a number of newer SMAs Incorporates numerical (FE) simulation and integration procedures into commercial codes (Msc/Nastran, Abaqus, and others) Provides detailed examples on design procedures and optimization of SMA-based actuation systems for real cases, from specs to verification lab tests on physical demonstrators One of the few SMA books to include design and set-up of demonstrator characterization tests and correlation with numerical models

Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

Shape Memory Alloy Actuators Book
Author : Mohammad H. Elahinia
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2016-01-19
ISBN : 1118359445
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a systematic approach to realizing NiTi shape memory alloy actuation, and is aimed at science and engineering students who would like to develop a better understanding of the behaviors of SMAs, and learn to design, simulate, control, and fabricate these actuators in a systematic approach. Several innovative biomedical applications of SMAs are discussed. These include orthopedic, rehabilitation, assistive, cardiovascular, and surgery devices and tools. To this end unique actuation mechanisms are discussed. These include antagonistic bi-stable shape memory-superelastic actuation, shape memory spring actuation, and multi axial tension-torsion actuation. These actuation mechanisms open new possibilities for creating adaptive structures and biomedical devices by using SMAs.

Shape Memory Alloys Handbook

Shape Memory Alloys Handbook Book
Author : Christian Lexcellent
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-04-08
ISBN : 1118577957
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The aim of this book is to understand and describe themartensitic phase transformation and the process of martensiteplatelet reorientation. These two key elements enable the author tointroduce the main features associated with the behavior ofshape-memory alloys (SMAs), i.e. the one-way shape-memory effect,pseudo-elasticity, training and recovery. Attention is paid in particular to the thermodynamical frame forsolid materials modeling at the macroscopic scale and itsapplications, as well as to the particular use of such alloys– the simplified calculations for the bending of bars andtheir torsion. Other chapters are devoted to key topics such as theuse of the “crystallographical theory of martensite”for SMA modeling, phenomenological and statistical investigationsof SMAs, magneto-thermo-mechanical behavior of magnetic SMAs andthe fracture mechanics of SMAs. Case studies are provided on thedimensioning of SMA elements offering the reader an additionaluseful framework on the subject. Contents 1. Some General Points about SMAs. 2. The World of Shape-memory Alloys. 3. Martensitic Transformation. 4. Thermodynamic Framework for the Modeling of SolidMaterials. 5. Use of the “CTM” to Model SMAs. 6. Phenomenological and Statistical Approaches for SMAs. 7. Macroscopic Models with Internal Variables. 8. Design of SMA Elements: Case Studies. 9. Behavior of Magnetic SMAs. 10. Fracture Mechanics of SMAs. 11. General Conclusion. Appendix 1. Intrinsic Properties of Rotation Matrices. Appendix 2. “Twinning Equation” Demonstration. Appendix 3. Calculation of the Parameters a, n and Q from the“Twinning” Equation. Appendix 4. “Twinned” Austenite/MartensiteEquation. About the Authors Christian Lexcellent is Emeritus Professor at the ÉcoleNational Supérieure de Mécanique et des Microtechniquesde Besançon and a researcher in the Department of AppliedMechanics at FEMTO-ST in France. He is a specialist in themechanics of materials and phase transition and has taught in thesubjects of mechanics of continuum media and shape memory alloys.He is also a member of the International Committee of ESOMAT.

A Multiscale Study of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys

A Multiscale Study of NiTi Shape Memory Alloys Book
Author : Reza Mirzaeifar
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are widely used in a broad variety of applications in multiscale devices ranging from nano-actuators used in nano-electrical-mechanical systems (NEMS) to large energy absorbing elements in civil engineering applications. This research introduces a multiscale analysis for SMAs, particularly Nickel-Titanium alloys (NiTi). SMAs are studied in a variety of length scales ranging from macroscale to nanoscale. In macroscale, a phenomenological constitutive framework is adopted and developed by adding the effect of phase transformation latent heat. Analytical closed-form solutions are obtained for modeling the coupled thermomechanical behavior of various large polycrystalline SMA devices subjected to different loadings, including uniaxial loads, torsion, and bending. Thermomechanical responses of several SMA devices are analyzed using the introduced solutions and the results are validated by performing various experiments on some large SMA elements. In order to study some important properties of polycrystalline SMAs that the macroscopic phenomenological frameworks cannot capture, including the texture and intergranular effects in polycrystalline SMAs, a micromechanical framework with a realistic modeling of the grains based on Voronoi tessellations is used. The local form of the first law of thermodynamics is used and the energy balance relations for the polycrystalline SMAs are obtained. Generalized coupled thermomechanical governing equations considering the phase transformation latent heat are derived for polycrystalline SMAs. A three-dimensional finite element framework is used and different polycrystalline samples are modeled. By considering appropriate distributions of crystallographic orientations in the grains obtained from experimental texture measurements of NiTi samples the effects of texture and the tension-compression asymmetry on the thermomechanical response of polycrystalline SMAs are studied. The interaction between the stress state (tensile or compressive), number of grains, and the texture on the thermomechanical response of polycrystalline SMAs is also studied. For studying some aspects of the thermomechanical properties of SMAs that cannot be studied neither by the phenomenological constitutive models nor by the micromechanical models, molecular dynamics simulations are used to explore the martensitic phase transformation in NiTi alloys at the atomistic level. The martensite reorientation, austenite to martensite phase transformation, and twinning mechanisms in NiTi nanostructures are analyzed and the effect of various parameters including the temperature and size on the phase transformation at the atomistic level is studied. Results of this research provide insight into studying pseudoelasticity and shape memory response of NiTi alloys at different length scales and are useful for better understanding the solid-to-solid phase transformation at the atomistic level, and the effects of this transformation on the microstructure of polycrystal SMAs and the macroscopic response of these alloys.

Effect of Phase Transformation on the Fracture Behavior of Shape Memory Alloys

Effect of Phase Transformation on the Fracture Behavior of Shape Memory Alloys Book
Author : Antonino Francesco Parrinello
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the last few decades, Shape Memory Alloys (SMAs) have been increasingly explored in order to take advantage of their unique properties (i.e., pseudoelasticity and shape memory effect), in various actuation, sensing and absorption applications. In order to achieve an effective design of SMA-based devices a thorough investigation of their behavior in the presence of cracks is needed. In particular, it is important to understand the effect of phase transformation on their fracture response. The aim of the present work is to study the effect of stress-induced as well as thermo-mechanically-induced phase transformation on several characteristics of the fracture response of SMAs. The SMA thermomechanical response is modeled through an existing constitutive phenomenological model, developed within the framework of continuum thermodynamics, which has been implemented in a finite element framework. The effect of stress-induced phase transformation on the mechanical fields in the vicinity of a stationary crack and on the toughness enhancement associated with crack advance in an SMA subjected to in-plane mode I loading conditions is examined. The small scale transformation assumption is employed in the analysis according to which the size of the region occupied by the transformed material forming close to the crack tip is small compared to any characteristic length of the problem (i.e. the size of the transformation zone is thirty times smaller than the size of the cracked ligament). Given this assumption, displacement boundary conditions, corresponding to the Irwin's solution for linear elastic fracture mechanics, are applied on a circular region in the austenitic phase that encloses the stress-induced phase transformation zone. The quasi-static stable crack growth is studied by assuming that the crack propagates at a certain critical level of the crack-tip energy release rate. The Virtual Crack Closure Technique (VCCT) is employed to calculate the energy release rate. Fracture toughness enhancement associated with transformation dissipation is observed and its sensitivity on the variation of key characteristic non-dimensional parameters related to the constitutive response is investigated. Moreover, the effect of the dissipation due plastic deformation on the fracture resistance is analyzed by using a Cohesive Zone Model (CZM). The effect of thermo-mechanically-induced transformation on the driving force for crack growth is analyzed in an infinite center-cracked SMA plate subjected to thermal actuation under isobaric mode I loading. The crack-tip energy release rate is identified as the driving force for crack growth and is measured over the entire thermal cycle by means of the VCCT. A substantial increase of the crack-tip energy release rate - an order of magnitude for some material systems - is observed during actuation as a result of phase transformation, i.e., martensitic transformation occurring during actuation causes anti-shielding that might cause the energy release rate to reach the critical value for crack growth. A strong dependence of the crack-tip energy release rate on the variation of the thermomechanical parameters characterizing the material response is examined. Therefore, it is implied that the actual shape of the strain- temperature curve is important for the quantitative determination of the change of the crack-tip energy release rate during actuation. The electronic version of this dissertation is accessible from http://hdl.handle.net/1969.1/151222

Superelasticity Pseudoelasticity and Shape Memory Behavior in LaNbO4 Functional Ceramic

Superelasticity  Pseudoelasticity  and Shape Memory Behavior in LaNbO4 Functional Ceramic Book
Author : Hamed Hosseini Toudeshki
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2021
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Shape memory behavior has been noticed in a variety of metallic alloys (and polymers) that can tolerate inelastic strain to some percentages through reversible martensitic phase transformation and returning to their original shape upon application of "thermal loads" (thermally-induced phase transformation). On the other hand, superelasticity is considered as the ability of material to undergo reversible deformation under "mechanical loads" through reversible phase transition (stress-induced phase transformation). Zirconia is the only ceramic material reported to show both responses, superelastic under mechanical loads (stress) and shape memory under thermal loads (heat). In general, the superelastic, pseudoelastic, and shape memory behavior in ceramics are all deformation recovery events triggered through different mechanisms such as phase transition between two crystallography phases, motion of twin boundaries, and reorientation as a response to external loads (mechanical forces, heat, electrical or magnetic fields). Functional phase transforming ceramic materials have raised interest recently for certain applications due to several advantages over metallic alloys, such as high compressive strength, high temperature tolerance, low thermal coefficient of expansion, high biocompatibility and low toxic effects. LaNbO4 is another functional ceramic material with the capability for phase transition (between the low temperature monoclinic martensite and high temperature tetragonal austenite phase) that we study its detail characteristics and behavior in this dissertation. The process of LaNbO4 powder synthesizing, bulk ceramic sintering, material characterization (with various techniques), and surface fabrication (through advanced ion beam milling technology) are discussed. We describe the pseudoelastic-anelastic and Mullins effect behavior along with the coexistence of "ferroelastic" and "martensitic" responses under cyclic mechanical loading on single-crystalline and polycrystalline micropillars of LaNbO4 ceramic at small scale. In addition, we report superelastic and shape memory behavior in polycrystalline micropillars of the ceramic material. The exceptional superelasticity and enhanced reversibility of LaNbO4 micropillars, in response to stress, are explored and characterized in consistent with the theory of supercompatibility (cofactor theory) that has been recently reported by scientists to address the enhanced reversibility and low-hysteresis behavior (improved superelasticity) of certain shape memory metallic alloys.

Shape Memory Alloys

Shape Memory Alloys Book
Author : Francisco Manuel Braz Fernandes
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2013-04-03
ISBN : 9535110845
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Shape memory alloys have become in the past decades a well established research subject. However, the complex relations between properties and structure have created a continuously growing interest for a deeper insight all this time. The complexity of relationships between structure and properties is mostly related to the fact that strong ?multidimensional? interactions are taking place: from the early studies focusing on the thermal and/or mechanical induced phase transformations to the more recent findings on the magnetically induced structural changes. On the other hand, these singular behavioral characteristics have driven a great industrial interest due to the innovative aspects that the applications of shape memory alloys may provide. This makes this subject a highly attractive source of continuous studies, ranging from basics crystallography and thermodynamics to mechanical analysis and electrical and magnetic properties characterization. In this book, a group of recent studies is compiled focusing on a wide range of topics from processing to the relationship between the structure and properties, as well as new applications.

Shape Memory Alloys

Shape Memory Alloys Book
Author : M. Fremond,S. Miyazaki
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-05-04
ISBN : 3709143489
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book consists of two chapters. The first chapter deals with the thermomechanical macroscopic theory describing the transformation and deformation behavior of shape memory alloys. The second chapter deals with the extensive and fundamental review of the experimental works which include crystallography, transformations and mechanical characteristics in Ti-Ni, Cu-base and ferrous shape memory alloys.

First Principles Modelling of Shape Memory Alloys

First Principles Modelling of Shape Memory Alloys Book
Author : Oliver Kastner
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-07-31
ISBN : 3642286194
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Materials sciences relate the macroscopic properties of materials to their microscopic structure and postulate the need for holistic multiscale research. The investigation of shape memory alloys is a prime example in this regard. This particular class of materials exhibits strong coupling of temperature, strain and stress, determined by solid state phase transformations of their metallic lattices. The present book presents a collection of simulation studies of this behaviour. Employing conceptually simple but comprehensive models, the fundamental material properties of shape memory alloys are qualitatively explained from first principles. Using contemporary methods of molecular dynamics simulation experiments, it is shown how microscale dynamics may produce characteristic macroscopic material properties. The work is rooted in the materials sciences of shape memory alloys and covers thermodynamical, micro-mechanical and crystallographical aspects. It addresses scientists in these research fields and their students.

Computational and Experimental Investigation of the Critical Role of Twinning on the Plastic Deformation of High manganese Austenitic Steels and Pseudoelasticity of Niti Shape Memory Alloys

Computational and Experimental Investigation of the Critical Role of Twinning on the Plastic Deformation of High manganese Austenitic Steels and Pseudoelasticity of Niti Shape Memory Alloys Book
Author : Berkay Gümüş
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Computational and Experimental Investigation of the Critical Role of Twinning on the Plastic Deformation of High manganese Austenitic Steels and Pseudoelasticity of Niti Shape Memory Alloys book written by Berkay Gümüş, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Nanomechanics of Plasticity in Ultra strength Metals and Shape Memory Alloys

Nanomechanics of Plasticity in Ultra strength Metals and Shape Memory Alloys Book
Author : Yuan Zhong
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

We study the plasticity mechanisms of diffusionless martensite phase transformation in Nickel-Titanium, one of the most widely used shape memory alloys. The research here involves four thrusts focusing on different length and time scales: (I) Molecular statics and dynamics simulations are applied to study the nanotwin structures and temperature-driven B2 2!B19' phase transitions. (II) Molecular dynamics simulations are performed to explore the stress-driven martensitic phase transformation governing the pseudoelasticity and shape memory effects in NiTi nanopillars. (III) Monte Carlo simulations are conducted to characterize the temperature- driven B2 2!B19 phase transition and the patterning of martensitic nanotwins in NiTi thin films. (IV) Phase field simulations are performed to predict the formation and evolution of complex martensitic microstructures, including the detailed analysis of twin compatibility under complex loading conditions. \r : We also study the nucleation-controlled plasticity mechanisms in different metals of Cu, Al and Ni. Our work focuses on understanding how dislocations nucleate in single crystals. Interatomic potential finite element method is applied to determine when, where and how dislocations nucleate during nanoindentation in metals such as Cu, Al and Ni.