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Protein Trafficking In Neurons

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Protein Trafficking in Neurons

Protein Trafficking in Neurons Book
Author : Andrew J. Bean
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2006-10-27
ISBN : 9780080465890
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The efficient delivery of cellular constituents to their proper location is of fundamental importance for all cells and is of particular interest to neuroscientists, because of the unique functions and complex architecture of neurons. Protein Trafficking in Neurons examines mechanisms of protein trafficking and the role of trafficking in neuronal functioning from development to plasticity to disease. The book is divided into seven sections that review mechanisms of protein transport, the role of protein trafficking in synapse formation, exo- and endocytosis, transport of receptors, trafficking of ion channels and transporters, comparison of trafficking mechanisms in neuronal vs. non-neuronal cell types, and the relationship between trafficking and neuronal diseases such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Prion Diseases. Provides a comprehensive examination of membrane/protein movement in neuronal function Sections on synapse development, synaptic transmission, and the role of trafficking in neurological disease Includes a focus on Molecular Mechanisms Illustrated with color summary pictures The only book examining protein trafficking and its functional implications, written by leaders in the field

Involvement of Myosin V and Associated Proteins in Protein Trafficking and Neuronal Morphogenesis

Involvement of Myosin V and Associated Proteins in Protein Trafficking and Neuronal Morphogenesis Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Proper neuronal development and function requires precise sorting and delivery of various elements from the soma to the synapse. Important mediators of intracellular transport events are the actin-based class V myosin motors, which are involved in organelle transport in various cell types. Two myosin V family members, myosin Va and Vb, are present in the brain, however, the identity of cargoes transported by these motors is unknown. The objective of this thesis was to conduct molecular and cell biological studies to identify and characterize novel myosin V cargoes in neurons. The first approach I used was to characterize the distribution of candidate protein cargoes after blocking the function of endogenous myosin Va and Vb with dominant-negative (DN) versions. I found that in developing neurons, expression of DN myosin Vb, but not DN myosin Va, resulted in the accumulation in the soma of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit, GluR1, and a reduction of its surface expression. I also found that myosin Vb-mediated trafficking of GluR1 required an interaction with the GTPase Rab11. These results reveal a novel mechanism for the transport of a specific glutamate receptor subunit mediated by myosin Vb and Rab11. As an alternative approach to identify myosin Va binding partners in the brain, we conducted a yeast-two hybrid screen of a rat brain cDNA library using the cargo binding domain of myosin Va. Among the proteins identified in our screen, I selected a protein of unknown function previously identified as Rab-lysosomal-interacting protein like 2 (RILPL2) and further assessed its function. I found that RILPL2 expression in non-neuronal cells resulted in morphological changes and activation of the Rho GTPase Rac1. In developing neurons, gain or loss of RILPL2 function altered the density of dendritic spine protrusions and increased phosphorylation of the Rac1 effector Pak. These findings uncover a novel role for the myosin Va-interacting protein, RILPL2, in regulati.

The Neuronal Cytoskeleton Motor Proteins and Organelle Trafficking in the Axon

The Neuronal Cytoskeleton  Motor Proteins  and Organelle Trafficking in the Axon Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-01-12
ISBN : 0128033541
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Neuronal Cytoskeleton, Motor Proteins, and Organelle Trafficking in the Axon, a new volume in the Methods in Cell Biology series continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers research methods in neuronal cells, and includes sections on such topics as actin transport in axons and neurofilament transport. Covers an increasingly appreciated field in cell biology Includes both established and new technologies Contributed by experts in the field

Molecular Biology of the Neuron

Molecular Biology of the Neuron Book
Author : R. W. Davies,Brian J. Morris
Publisher : OUP Oxford
Release : 2004-04-08
ISBN : 0191585831
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nerve cells - neurons - are arguably the most complex of all cells. From the action of these cells comes movement, thought and consciousness. It is a challenging task to understand what molecules direct the various diverse aspects of their function. This has produced an ever-increasing amount of molecular information about neurons, and only in Molecular Biology of the Neuron can a large part of this information be found in one source. In this book, a non-specialist can learn about the molecules that control information flow in the brain or the progress of brain disease in an approachable format, while the expert has access to a wealth of detailed information from a wide range of topics impacting on his or her field of endeavour. The text is designed to achieve a balance of accessibility and broad coverage with up-to-date molecular detail. In the six years since the first edition of Molecular Biology of the Neuron there has been an explosion in the molecular information about neurons that has been discovered, and this information is incorporated into this second edition. Entirely new chapters have been introduced where recent advances have made a new aspect of neuronal function more comprehensible at the molecular level. Written by leading researchers in the field, the book provides an essential overview of the molecular structure and function of neurons, and will be an invaluable tool to students and researchers alike.

Local Biosynthetic Trafficking of Synaptic Proteins in Neuronal Dendrites

Local Biosynthetic Trafficking of Synaptic Proteins in Neuronal Dendrites Book
Author : Aaron Benjamin Bowen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neurons face the challenge of regulating the abundance, distribution and repertoire of integral membrane proteins on the surface of their immense, architecturally complex dendritic arbors. While the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) supports local translation of secretory cargo in all dendrites, most dendrites lack the Golgi apparatus (GA), an essential organelle for conventional secretory trafficking. Thus, whether secretory cargo is locally trafficked in dendrites through a non-canonical pathway remains a fundamental question. We have defined the trafficking itinerary for key synaptic molecules in dendrites. Following ER exit, the AMPA-type glutamate receptor GluA1 and neuroligin 1 undergo spatially restricted entry into the dendritic secretory pathway and accumulate in recycling endosomes (REs) located in dendrites and spines prior to reaching the plasma membrane. Surprisingly, surface delivery of GluA1 occurred even when GA function was disrupted. Thus, in addition to their canonical role in protein recycling, REs are critical mediators of forward secretory trafficking in neuronal dendrites and spines through a specialized GA-independent trafficking network. While the SNARE machinery that supports biosynthetic trafficking from the GA to the plasma membrane in neurons is not known, the SNAREs that mediate RE exocytosis have been partially defined. Surprisingly, we found that constitutive trafficking of GluA1 through REs does not depend on VAMP2, an R-SNARE with a well-defined role in RE exocytosis. Instead, the clostridial-neurotoxin insensitive SNARE VAMP7 defined a pool of GluA1-containing transport vesicles and was required for their delivery to the plasma membrane. Synaptic stimulation accelerated the delivery of GluA1 from this pool. Interestingly, while this activity-regulated delivery required VAMP2, inhibition of VAMP7 had no effect on activity-induced exocytosis. Thus, VAMP2 and VAMP7 play complementary roles in activity-induced and constitutive delivery of new synaptic proteins. Overall we have identified a novel biosynthetic pathway that involves GA-independent transfer of cargoes to the dendritic RE compartment. Subsequent exocytosis of biosynthetic REs is constitutively maintained by VAMP7, but can be promoted by synaptic activity in a VAMP2-dependent manner. These results provide crucial insight into membrane trafficking processes that could support experience-dependent learning by rapidly delivering locally synthesized proteins to synaptic locations. Ongoing efforts are focused on the development of novel optical approaches to control secretory trafficking that will ultimately expand our capability to dissect the spatial trafficking of cargoes within the dendrite.

Protein Degradation Aggregation Membrane Trafficking and Exosomes in Neuronal Health and Disease

Protein Degradation  Aggregation  Membrane Trafficking and Exosomes in Neuronal Health and Disease Book
Author : Beatriz Alvarez,Miguel Diaz-Hernandez,Douglas Campbell,Irena Vlatkovic
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-08-02
ISBN : 2889766756
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Protein Degradation Aggregation Membrane Trafficking and Exosomes in Neuronal Health and Disease book written by Beatriz Alvarez,Miguel Diaz-Hernandez,Douglas Campbell,Irena Vlatkovic, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Intracellular Traffic and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Intracellular Traffic and Neurodegenerative Disorders Book
Author : Peter H. St.George-Hyslop,William C. Mobley
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-02-03
ISBN : 3540879412
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Many adult onset neurodegenerative diseases arise from the accumulation of misfolded peptides. This book examines the role sub-cellular trafficking pathways play in the pathological accumulation of these misfolded proteins and in attempts to clear them.

Protein Kinesis

Protein Kinesis Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : CSHL Press
Release : 1995
ISBN : 9780879690694
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Investigators provide an account of how cells control and repair the folding of newly synthesized proteins and transport them correctly to membranes, mitochondria and other cellular addresses. It also provides information on synaptic function, cell movement and other cellular functions.

Neurotransmitter Release

Neurotransmitter Release Book
Author : Hugo J. Bellen
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Begins by providing a comprehensive introduction to the features and properties of synapses. It then describes key techniques used to study neurotransmitter release, from calcium entry to exocytosis. This is followed by chapters covering the identification and function of proteins involved in neurotransmitter release, the role of phospholipids in neurosecretion, and neurotransmitter transporter proteins. Subsequent chapters concentrate on approaches to unravel the function of specific proteins in vivo using toxins that affect neurotransmitter release, giant squit axons, C. elegans, Drosophila, and mice.

Membrane Trafficking and Endocytosis in Neurons

Membrane Trafficking and Endocytosis in Neurons Book
Author : Ayesha Murshid
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"In mammalian cells, two main membrane trafficking pathways, the secretory and endocytic pathways are important for many biological functions. Secretory proteins are synthesized on ribosomes inside the cells, translocated into the ER for proper folding, later mature in the Golgi and continue their journey to the plasma membrane. Endocytosis is defined as a process of vesicle formation from the plasma membrane, where external solutes like nutrients, growth factors and transmembrane proteins are internalized by the cell to endosomal compartments. Internalized protein can either be degraded in lysosomes or recycled back to the plasma membrane. Clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME) is one of the most commonly used endocytic mechanisms in mammalian cells and its mechanism has been intensively studied over the years. Clathrin with the help of other adaptor/accessory proteins are able to form vesicles in the plasma membrane which are removed from the membrane by dynamin. There are many other kinds of internalization pathways which include phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, caveolae-dependent endocytosis, and caveolae and clathrin-independent endocytosis. In the first part of the thesis, we characterized a newly identified WVQF motif containing, AP2-binding protein, NECAP1 in neurons. We found that NECAP1 plays a vital role in the CME of transferrin and synaptotagmin in neuronal cells. In the second part, we studied endocytosis of nerve growth factor (NGF) receptor (TrkA) in PC 12 cells. At a low dose (1 ng/ml) of NGF, we found that CME of TrkA is AP2- and NECAP1-independent in PC12 cells and that beta arrestin 1 can act as an alternate adaptor for its internalization. At higher extracellular concentration of NGF, uptake is clathrin- and dynamin- and beta-arrestin 1-independent, but requires actin, Cdc42 and sphingolipids, suggesting a different pathway. Our results show that large extracellular concentrations of NGF lead to strong signals of finite duration which is later terminated by degradation of NGF or NGF-TrkA whereas low concentrations of NGF leads to long lived signals. In the third chapter, we characterized newly identified Rabs, mainly Rab18 and Rab43. We found that Rab18 is involved in COPI independent trafficking of cargo beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase (Galtase)-YFP suggesting its role in retrograde trafficking from Golgi to ER, whereas Rab43 has a regulatory role in the interaction between microtubule and pre-Golgi intermediates possibly via interaction with motor proteins. Taken together, the data in this thesis contribute to our understanding of the endocytic and secretory pathways of mammalian cells."--

Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology

Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology Book
Author : Stefan Offermanns,W. Rosenthal
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-08-14
ISBN : 3540389164
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An essential text, this is a fully updated second edition of a classic, now in two volumes. It provides rapid access to information on molecular pharmacology for research scientists, clinicians and advanced students. With the A-Z format of over 2,000 entries, around 350 authors provide a complete reference to the area of molecular pharmacology. The book combines the knowledge of classic pharmacology with the more recent approach of the precise analysis of the molecular mechanisms by which drugs exert their effects. Short keyword entries define common acronyms, terms and phrases. In addition, detailed essays provide in-depth information on drugs, cellular processes, molecular targets, techniques, molecular mechanisms, and general principles.

Trafficking of Prion Protein in Adult Sensory Neurons

Trafficking of Prion Protein in Adult Sensory Neurons Book
Author : Celia J. Parkyn,King's College London. Guy's, King's and St. Thomas's School of Medicine
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Trafficking of Prion Protein in Adult Sensory Neurons book written by Celia J. Parkyn,King's College London. Guy's, King's and St. Thomas's School of Medicine, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Trafficking Inside Cells

Trafficking Inside Cells Book
Author : Nava Segev
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2011-04-18
ISBN : 9780387939988
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers the past, present and future of the intra-cellular trafficking field, which has made a quantum leap in the last few decades. It details how the field has developed and evolved as well as examines future directions.

The Dynamic Synapse

The Dynamic Synapse Book
Author : Josef T. Kittler,Stephen J. Moss
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2006-03-27
ISBN : 0203486285
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Exploring the diverse tools and technologies used to study synaptic processes, The Dynamic Synapse: Molecular Methods in Ionotropic Receptor Biology delineates techniques, methods, and conceptual advances for studying neurotransmitter receptors and other synaptic proteins. It describes a broad range of molecular, biochemical, imaging, and electrophysiological approaches for studying the biology of synapses. Specific topics include the use of proteomics to study synaptic protein complexes, the development of phosphorylation state specific antibodies, post-genomic tools applied to the study of synapses and RNA interference in neurons. In addition, several chapters focus on methods for gene and protein delivery into neuronal tissue. The use of biochemical, electrophysiological and optical tagging techniques to study the movement and membrane trafficking of neurotransmitter receptors in the membrane of live nerve cells are also discussed. To complement these approaches, the application of approaches for achieving long-term alterations in the genetic complement of neurons in vivo using viral vectors or homologous recombination of ES cells are also described.

Synaptojanin1 is Involved in Endolysosomal Trafficking in Cone Photoreceptors

Synaptojanin1 is Involved in Endolysosomal Trafficking in Cone Photoreceptors Book
Author : Ashley Amelia George
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cells require the ability to properly sort and traffic proteins to their correct subcellular destination. The production of new proteins must be balanced by the turnover of old and damaged proteins. A breakdown in this process is detrimental to any cell; however highly polarized, non-proliferating cells, such as neurons, are particularly vulnerable to defects in protein turnover. Photoreceptors are highly polarized, specialized neurons that have high protein trafficking demands. At one end of the photoreceptor is the outer segment; the site of photon detection and phototransduction. The outer segment requires a constant supply of new proteins and membranes to maintain proper function. At the opposite end of the cell is the site of synaptic transmission. The synapse also undergoes large amounts of membrane trafficking and turnover due to the release of neurotransmitter and subsequent synaptic vesicle recycling. Although both ends of the photoreceptor require efficient membrane trafficking, the majority of studies of protein trafficking in photoreceptors have focused on the outer segment. In addition, photoreceptors do not need to degrade old and damaged proteins and membranes from the outer segment; the retinal pigment epithelium phagocytoses outer segment discs. Therefore the focus on outer segment trafficking has resulted in a deficit in our understanding of the process of protein degradation in photoreceptor cells. In this study we establish that the zebrafish nrca14 mutant has a specific defect in endolysosomal and autophagic trafficking and can therefore be used as a model to understand these processes in cone photoreceptors. The trafficking defects in the nrca14 cones begin early in photoreceptor development. The accumulation of autophagosomes in the nrca14 mutant is due, at least in part, to impaired autophagosome maturation that is not caused by a decrease in autophagosome mobility. The causative mutation in the nrca14mutant is in the gene encoding a polyphosphoinositide phosphatase Synaptojanin1; highlighting the importance of the phosphoinositide lipids in protein degradation pathways. We analyzed the distribution of the phosphoinositides PI(3)P, PI(4)P, PI(3,5)P2 and PI(4,5)P2 in wild type and nrca14 photoreceptors. We found that the distribution of these lipids in wild type photoreceptors is the same as in non-neuronal cell types; PI(3)P on endosomes, PI(4)P on the Golgi, PI(3,5)P2 on late endosomes/lysosomes and PI(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane. We found no gross change in the distribution of these phosphoinositides in nrca14 mutant photoreceptors. Further, we use the nrca14 mutant phenotypes to discover that the Synaptojanin1 dephosphorylates a PIP species with a 5'phosphate to regulate autophagy and endolysosomal trafficking. Collectively, my work has generated a large tool set for studying membrane trafficking in zebrafish cone photoreceptors and has defined a specific role for Synaptojanin1 in regulating autophagy and degradative trafficking pathways in cones.

Rab GTPases and Membrane Trafficking

Rab GTPases and Membrane Trafficking Book
Author : Laurence Porter,Phillip Shinnick
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release : 2012-05-21
ISBN : 1608053652
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Ypt/Rab GTPases form the largest branch of the Ras-related small GTPase superfamily and regulate intracellular membrane trafficking in all eukaryotes. Since their discovery over two decades ago, a wealth of information has accumulated about the roles that"

The Neuronal Functions of EF hand Ca 2 binding Proteins 2nd Edition

The Neuronal Functions of EF hand Ca 2   binding Proteins 2nd Edition Book
Author : Michael R. Kreutz,José R. Naranjo,Karl-Wilhelm Koch,Beat Schwaller
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-11-01
ISBN : 2889450031
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Ca2+ signaling in neurons is characterized by highly restricted and dynamic gradients called Ca2+ waves, spikes, transients and puffs depending upon their corresponding spatial and temporal features. Based on this strict segmentation the Ca2+ ion provides a versatile basis for complex signaling in neuronal subcompartments with a spatial resolution of micro- and nanodomains. The multitude of Ca2+-regulated processes requires specialized downstream processing machinery, translating the Ca2+ signal into alterations of cellular processes. The broad range of different Ca2+-triggered phenomena in neurons, ranging from neurotransmission to gene expression, is reflected by the existence of a multitude of different Ca2+-binding proteins (CaBPs) from which numerous belong to the EF-hand super-family. EF-hand proteins can be subdivided into Ca2+ buffer and Ca2+ sensor proteins. Whereas the first group has a very high affinity for Ca2+, exhibits little conformational change in the Ca2+-bound state and is thought to mainly chelate Ca2+, the second group has a lower affinity for Ca2+ and shows considerable conformational changes upon Ca2+-binding, which usually triggers a target interaction. Neuronal calcium sensor (NCS) proteins and the related Caldendrin/CaBP/Calneuron (nCaBPs) proteins are members of this latter group. They resemble the structure of their common ancestor Calmodulin (CaM) with four EF-hand Ca2+-binding motifs, of which not all are functional. However, despite their structural homology with CaM, NCS as well as nCaBPs are quite diverse in amino acid sequence. It is therefore surprising that relatively few binding partners have been identified that are not CaM targets and this raises the question of the specificity and function of these interactions. In terms of function, binding of NCS and nCaBP has frequently different consequences than binding of CaM, which substantially increases the versatility of the Ca2+ tool kit. The general idea of this special issue is to provide an overview on the function of neuronal EF-hand calcium-binding proteins in health and disease. But we will not just provide a mere collection of articles to stress the function of each protein. The issue will mainly deal with emerging concepts on Ca2+-signaling/buffering mediated by EF-hand Ca2+-binding proteins. This includes questions like features that define the functional role of a EF-hand calcium sensor in neurons, the conditions that make physiological relevance of a given interaction of a CaBP with its target plausible, the emerging synaptic role of these proteins, and mounting evidence for their role in the regulation of protein trafficking. Structural aspects and biophysical studies will be covered. Another aspect will be the role of CaBPs in brain disease states. This aspect includes studies showing that CaBPs are targets of drugs in clinical use, studies showing that expression levels of calcium-binding proteins are frequently altered in brain disease states as well as reports on mutations in EF-hand calcium sensors linked to human disease.

                          Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1978
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biology of the NMDA Receptor

Biology of the NMDA Receptor Book
Author : Antonius M. VanDongen
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2008-10-29
ISBN : 9781420044157
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The NMDA receptor plays a critical role in the development of the central nervous system and in adult neuroplasticity, learning, and memory. Therefore, it is not surprising that this receptor has been widely studied. However, despite the importance of rhythms for the sustenance of life, this aspect of NMDAR function remains poorly studied. Written by one of the world’s leading authorities on NMDA receptors, Biology of the NMDA Receptor brings together virtually all the players in this important field.

Molecular Biology of the Cell

Molecular Biology of the Cell Book
Author : Bruce Alberts
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 9780815332183
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Molecular Biology of the Cell book written by Bruce Alberts, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.