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Protein Trafficking In Neurons

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Protein Trafficking in Neurons

Protein Trafficking in Neurons Book
Author : Andrew J. Bean
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2006-10-27
ISBN : 9780080465890
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The efficient delivery of cellular constituents to their proper location is of fundamental importance for all cells and is of particular interest to neuroscientists, because of the unique functions and complex architecture of neurons. Protein Trafficking in Neurons examines mechanisms of protein trafficking and the role of trafficking in neuronal functioning from development to plasticity to disease. The book is divided into seven sections that review mechanisms of protein transport, the role of protein trafficking in synapse formation, exo- and endocytosis, transport of receptors, trafficking of ion channels and transporters, comparison of trafficking mechanisms in neuronal vs. non-neuronal cell types, and the relationship between trafficking and neuronal diseases such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's and Prion Diseases. Provides a comprehensive examination of membrane/protein movement in neuronal function Sections on synapse development, synaptic transmission, and the role of trafficking in neurological disease Includes a focus on Molecular Mechanisms Illustrated with color summary pictures The only book examining protein trafficking and its functional implications, written by leaders in the field

Involvement of Myosin V and Associated Proteins in Protein Trafficking and Neuronal Morphogenesis

Involvement of Myosin V and Associated Proteins in Protein Trafficking and Neuronal Morphogenesis Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Proper neuronal development and function requires precise sorting and delivery of various elements from the soma to the synapse. Important mediators of intracellular transport events are the actin-based class V myosin motors, which are involved in organelle transport in various cell types. Two myosin V family members, myosin Va and Vb, are present in the brain, however, the identity of cargoes transported by these motors is unknown. The objective of this thesis was to conduct molecular and cell biological studies to identify and characterize novel myosin V cargoes in neurons. The first approach I used was to characterize the distribution of candidate protein cargoes after blocking the function of endogenous myosin Va and Vb with dominant-negative (DN) versions. I found that in developing neurons, expression of DN myosin Vb, but not DN myosin Va, resulted in the accumulation in the soma of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor subunit, GluR1, and a reduction of its surface expression. I also found that myosin Vb-mediated trafficking of GluR1 required an interaction with the GTPase Rab11. These results reveal a novel mechanism for the transport of a specific glutamate receptor subunit mediated by myosin Vb and Rab11. As an alternative approach to identify myosin Va binding partners in the brain, we conducted a yeast-two hybrid screen of a rat brain cDNA library using the cargo binding domain of myosin Va. Among the proteins identified in our screen, I selected a protein of unknown function previously identified as Rab-lysosomal-interacting protein like 2 (RILPL2) and further assessed its function. I found that RILPL2 expression in non-neuronal cells resulted in morphological changes and activation of the Rho GTPase Rac1. In developing neurons, gain or loss of RILPL2 function altered the density of dendritic spine protrusions and increased phosphorylation of the Rac1 effector Pak. These findings uncover a novel role for the myosin Va-interacting protein, RILPL2, in regulati.

The Neuronal Cytoskeleton Motor Proteins and Organelle Trafficking in the Axon

The Neuronal Cytoskeleton  Motor Proteins  and Organelle Trafficking in the Axon Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2016-01-12
ISBN : 0128033541
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Neuronal Cytoskeleton, Motor Proteins, and Organelle Trafficking in the Axon, a new volume in the Methods in Cell Biology series continues the legacy of this premier serial with quality chapters authored by leaders in the field. This volume covers research methods in neuronal cells, and includes sections on such topics as actin transport in axons and neurofilament transport. Covers an increasingly appreciated field in cell biology Includes both established and new technologies Contributed by experts in the field

Protein Kinesis

Protein Kinesis Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : CSHL Press
Release : 1995
ISBN : 9780879690694
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Investigators provide an account of how cells control and repair the folding of newly synthesized proteins and transport them correctly to membranes, mitochondria and other cellular addresses. It also provides information on synaptic function, cell movement and other cellular functions.

Membrane Trafficking in Neuron Regulated by New Syntaxin 13 interacting Proteins

Membrane Trafficking in Neuron Regulated by New Syntaxin 13 interacting Proteins Book
Author : Pascal Steiner
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Membrane Trafficking in Neuron Regulated by New Syntaxin 13 interacting Proteins book written by Pascal Steiner, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Trafficking of Prion Protein in Adult Sensory Neurons

Trafficking of Prion Protein in Adult Sensory Neurons Book
Author : Celia J. Parkyn,King's College London. Guy's, King's and St. Thomas's School of Medicine
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Trafficking of Prion Protein in Adult Sensory Neurons book written by Celia J. Parkyn,King's College London. Guy's, King's and St. Thomas's School of Medicine, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Protein Sorting and Trafficking by Neuronal Adaptor Proteins

Protein Sorting and Trafficking by Neuronal Adaptor Proteins Book
Author : Jeremy Charles Chaufty
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Protein Sorting and Trafficking by Neuronal Adaptor Proteins book written by Jeremy Charles Chaufty, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Intracellular Traffic and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Intracellular Traffic and Neurodegenerative Disorders Book
Author : Peter H. St.George-Hyslop,William C. Mobley
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-02-03
ISBN : 3540879412
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Many adult onset neurodegenerative diseases arise from the accumulation of misfolded peptides. This book examines the role sub-cellular trafficking pathways play in the pathological accumulation of these misfolded proteins and in attempts to clear them.

Trafficking Inside Cells

Trafficking Inside Cells Book
Author : Nava Segev
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-05-30
ISBN : 038793877X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book covers the past, present and future of the intra-cellular trafficking field, which has made a quantum leap in the last few decades. It details how the field has developed and evolved as well as examines future directions.

Synaptojanin1 is Involved in Endolysosomal Trafficking in Cone Photoreceptors

Synaptojanin1 is Involved in Endolysosomal Trafficking in Cone Photoreceptors Book
Author : Ashley Amelia George
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cells require the ability to properly sort and traffic proteins to their correct subcellular destination. The production of new proteins must be balanced by the turnover of old and damaged proteins. A breakdown in this process is detrimental to any cell; however highly polarized, non-proliferating cells, such as neurons, are particularly vulnerable to defects in protein turnover. Photoreceptors are highly polarized, specialized neurons that have high protein trafficking demands. At one end of the photoreceptor is the outer segment; the site of photon detection and phototransduction. The outer segment requires a constant supply of new proteins and membranes to maintain proper function. At the opposite end of the cell is the site of synaptic transmission. The synapse also undergoes large amounts of membrane trafficking and turnover due to the release of neurotransmitter and subsequent synaptic vesicle recycling. Although both ends of the photoreceptor require efficient membrane trafficking, the majority of studies of protein trafficking in photoreceptors have focused on the outer segment. In addition, photoreceptors do not need to degrade old and damaged proteins and membranes from the outer segment; the retinal pigment epithelium phagocytoses outer segment discs. Therefore the focus on outer segment trafficking has resulted in a deficit in our understanding of the process of protein degradation in photoreceptor cells. In this study we establish that the zebrafish nrca14 mutant has a specific defect in endolysosomal and autophagic trafficking and can therefore be used as a model to understand these processes in cone photoreceptors. The trafficking defects in the nrca14 cones begin early in photoreceptor development. The accumulation of autophagosomes in the nrca14 mutant is due, at least in part, to impaired autophagosome maturation that is not caused by a decrease in autophagosome mobility. The causative mutation in the nrca14mutant is in the gene encoding a polyphosphoinositide phosphatase Synaptojanin1; highlighting the importance of the phosphoinositide lipids in protein degradation pathways. We analyzed the distribution of the phosphoinositides PI(3)P, PI(4)P, PI(3,5)P2 and PI(4,5)P2 in wild type and nrca14 photoreceptors. We found that the distribution of these lipids in wild type photoreceptors is the same as in non-neuronal cell types; PI(3)P on endosomes, PI(4)P on the Golgi, PI(3,5)P2 on late endosomes/lysosomes and PI(4,5)P2 in the plasma membrane. We found no gross change in the distribution of these phosphoinositides in nrca14 mutant photoreceptors. Further, we use the nrca14 mutant phenotypes to discover that the Synaptojanin1 dephosphorylates a PIP species with a 5'phosphate to regulate autophagy and endolysosomal trafficking. Collectively, my work has generated a large tool set for studying membrane trafficking in zebrafish cone photoreceptors and has defined a specific role for Synaptojanin1 in regulating autophagy and degradative trafficking pathways in cones.

GRIF 1 a Novel Neuronal Trafficking Protein

GRIF 1  a Novel Neuronal Trafficking Protein Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download GRIF 1 a Novel Neuronal Trafficking Protein book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

                          Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1978
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Intracellular Traffic and Neurodegenerative Disorders

Intracellular Traffic and Neurodegenerative Disorders Book
Author : Peter H. St.George-Hyslop,William C. Mobley
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2009-08-29
ISBN : 9783540881018
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Many adult onset neurodegenerative diseases arise from the accumulation of misfolded peptides. This book examines the role sub-cellular trafficking pathways play in the pathological accumulation of these misfolded proteins and in attempts to clear them.

Trafficking of Scaffolding and Adhesion Proteins

Trafficking of Scaffolding and Adhesion Proteins Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Part One: Role of a pre-formed scaffolding complex in excitatory synapse formation. In order to determine the role of non-synaptic clusters of postsynaptic proteins we monitored the trafficking of several candidate proteins implicated in synaptogenesis, when non-synaptic clusters of scaffold proteins are most abundant. We found a protein complex consisting of two populations that differ in their content, mobility, and involvement in synapse formation. One subpopulation is mobile and relies on actin transport for delivery to nascent and existing synapses. These mobile clusters contain the scaffolding proteins PSD-95, GKAP, and Shank. The second group consists of stationary non-synaptic scaffold complexes that mainly contain neuroligin-1, can recruit synaptophysin-containing axonal transport vesicles, and are readily transformed to functional presynaptic contacts that recycle the vital dye FM 4-64. These results postulate a mechanism whereby preformed scaffold protein complexes serve as predetermined postsynaptic hotspots for establishment of new functional excitatory synapses. Part Two: Neuroligin trafficking in live neurons. The mechanisms that govern the differential trafficking and retention of neuroligin-1 to glutamatergic synapses and neuroligin-2 to GABAergic synapses remain unclear. In order to monitor the recruitment/retention of neuroligin-1 and -2 to synaptic sites, a site-specific biotinylation-based approach was utilized that allows for the visualization of surface proteins in live neurons with monovalent streptavidin. To quantify these changes, FRAP (fluorescence recovery after photo beaching) showed similar recovery rates for GFP-tagged neuroligins (representative of the total pool) compared to AP-tagged neuroligins (representative of the surface pool). The mobile pool of neuroligin-1 clusters was significantly larger than neuroligin-2 clusters and was depressed in older neurons. The mobility of neuroligin-1 clusters was influenced by the expression of.

Regulation of Dynein dependent Neuronal Transport and Trafficking by CDK5

Regulation of Dynein dependent Neuronal Transport and Trafficking by CDK5 Book
Author : Eva Klinman
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neurons have a distinct structure; they are the only cells in the body whose proximal and distal ends can be separated by more than a meter. This leads to unique challenges for the neuron, specifically, how proteins, organelles, and other cargo synthesized in the cell body are specifically trafficked from the soma to the distal end of the axon, and how degradative cargo and signaling factors are transported from the terminal to the cell body. Using primary cultured central and peripheral neurons isolated from the brains and spinal cords of rats or mice, we sought to determine if a neuronal-specific kinase, cyclin dependent kinase 5 (CDK5) regulates the motility of cargo moving along the axon, and if this kinase also regulates the localized exclusion of somatodendritic cargo from the axon. Within the mid-axon, we observed that baseline CDK5 activity was not required to regulate axonal transport, but pathological activation of CDK5 via a stress-associated activator disrupted both anterograde (outward) and retrograde (inward) motility. In contrast, within the axon initial segment (AIS), inhibition of normal CDK5 activity disrupted cytoskeletal structure and compromised axonal and dendritic sorting, aberrantly permitting the entry of somatodendritic cargos into the axon. We determined that both roles of CDK5 in axonal regulation were dependent on phosphorylation of target Ndel1, a protein that regulates the interaction of the retrograde microtubule-based motor dynein with its cofactor Lis1. In the mid-axon, high levels of CDK5 activity causes dynein to tightly bind along the microtubule interrupting processive motility, while in the AIS, CDK5 activity is required to initiate dynein-driven return of somatodendritic cargo to the cell body. Together theses studies demonstrate the importance of CDK5 activity in the regulation of transport within the neuron.

The Distribution and Regulation of Sodium proton Exchanger 9 NHE9 in the Mouse Hippocampus

The Distribution and Regulation of Sodium proton Exchanger 9  NHE9  in the Mouse Hippocampus Book
Author : Micaela Das Gupta
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Mutations in sodium/proton exchanger 9 (NHE9) and NHE6 have been associated with early developmental neurological disorders. These exchangers are thought to help regulate the luminal pH of vesicles within the endocytic pathway, a critical determinant of protein trafficking. We have previously shown that NHE6 localizes to recycling endosomes in neurons and undergoes activity-dependent redistribution in dendritic spines. Moreover, impaired NHE6 function results in reduced neuronal arborization and disrupts endocytic trafficking in developing neurons. NHE9 has previously been found to localize to endosomal compartments in non-neuronal cell lines where it is thought to be important for gradual acidification of the endocytic pathway, suggesting that it may help regulate protein trafficking and degradation. However, the distribution and function of NHE9 in the brain is unknown. Thus, we wished to investigate whether NHE9 may also be involved in neuronal endocytic trafficking. During synaptic plasticity, structural remodelling of dendritic spines, the post-synaptic compartment of excitatory neurons, enables changes in neurotransmission. In particular, the local trafficking of AMPA ([alpha]-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid)-type glutamate receptors to and from the post-synaptic membrane regulates long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD), two cellular models of learning and memory. We have previously shown that NHE6 and the GluA1 subunit of the AMPA receptor colocalize in a subset of endosomes within dendritic spines, suggesting that NHE6 helps to regulate AMPA receptor trafficking during synaptic plasticity. Thus, we also wanted to determine whether or not NHE9 may be similarly involved in activity-dependent AMPA receptor trafficking within dendritic spines.We developed an NHE9-specific antibody in order to examine NHE9 distribution and function in the brain; in particular an area of the brain known to be important for learning and memory, the hippocampus. We found that NHE9 distribution intensified in the developing hippocampus. In mature hippocampal cultures, NHE9 was distributed within axonal and dendritic processes of CA1 pyramidal neurons, as well as within protoplasmic astrocytes. Specifically, we found that NHE9 colocalized to a high degree with established markers of the endocytic pathway, and within a subgroup of endosomes containing the GluA1 subunit of the AMPA receptor, in dendritic spines. Furthermore, NHE9 and GluA1 formed a complex in neurons, and were simultaneously redistributed within the spine head in response to NMDA receptor-dependent LTP and LTD induction. Specifically, NHE9 together with GluA1 were increased within the spine head when challenged with LTP, whereas LTD induction resulted in reduced NHE9 and GluA1 distribution within the spine head. Thus, our findings suggest a role for NHE9 in the regulation of receptor trafficking during synaptic plasticity, and highlight an important cellular mechanism which may contribute to the development of certain neurological disorders." --

Identification and Characterization of Components of Rab 6 mediated Trafficking in Caenorhabditus Elegans

Identification and Characterization of Components of Rab 6 mediated Trafficking in Caenorhabditus Elegans Book
Author : James William Sanner
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Membrane trafficking in neurons is an important mechanism used to regulate signaling. Controlling the abundance of AMPA-type receptors at the synapse is important for synaptic plasticity and influences processes involved in learning, memory formation, and motor control (Greger and Esteban, 2007; Shepherd and Huganir, 2007). In Caenorhabditis elegans, recycling of the AMPA receptor subunit GLR-1 has been demonstrated to be one method by which synaptic signaling mechanisms can be controlled. Rab GTPases 6.1 and 6.2 have been profiled for their role in trafficking of GLR-1 in neurons. RAB-6.2 plays a role in the retrograde trafficking of the AMPA-type glutamate receptor GLR-1 (Zhang et al., 2012). Activated Rab GTPases regulate membrane trafficking by recruiting multiple effectors, including proteins that modify phospholipid membrane composition, motor proteins that tether membranes to the cytoskeleton, and scaffolding proteins that bind to specific proteins within membranes (Stenmark, 2009). In order to understand RAB-6.2 function, we used a yeast two-hybrid approach to screen for candidate effector molecules. Herein, we discuss the screen performed and detail candidates of interest. We identified one particularly compelling candidate, a phosphoinositol-5-phosphatase named SAC-2, which we hypothesize to be involved in vesicle uncoating and/or in modifying membrane phospholipids. SAC-2::GFP is localized to punctate structures along the ventral nerve cord and in the neuron soma. SAC-2::GFP localization to puncta in the soma is enhanced in rab-6.2(ok2254) null mutant animals, which is opposite to our expectation for RAB-6.2 retrograde cargo or effector molecules. Additionally, we assessed the overlap in functions between RAB-6.1 and RAB-6.2, and delineating their pathways. In agreement with previous data from our lab, our findings suggest that the two RAB-6 isoforms perform similar trafficking functions, but do so independently of each other.