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Prostheses For The Brain

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Prostheses for the Brain

Prostheses for the Brain Book
Author : Andrej Kral,Felix Aplin,Hannes Maier
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-04-03
ISBN : 0128188936
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Prostheses for the Brain: Introduction to Neuroprosthetics bridges the disciplines required in the field of neuroprosthetics and provides the interdisciplinary base required for understanding neuroprosthetic devices. It introduces basic aspects from the physical, bioengineering and medical perspectives, and forms a common knowledge base. It provides the entrance to the field and sets realistic expectations, both regarding potentials as well as limitations, for the devices in both design and outcomes. The book additionally reviews the technology behind the most frequently used and most clinically successful neuroprosthetic devices. It provides the physiological background for their function, as well as the technology behind them. Finally, the authors suggest future possible developments that may play crucial role in new prostheses for the brain. This gives the reader a comprehensive view on the principles and applications of neuroprostheses. This book has been built from the authors course they teach on neuroprostheses and is ideal for students, engineers and medical professionals in this field. Introduces the general principles of conductivity of electrolytes and the processes at the tissue–electrode interface Describes safety issues and regulatory rules, clarifies conceptual differences between stimulating and sensing electrodes Reviews stimulation strategies, tissue reactions, potential medical complications, brain adaptations and the clinically most successful applications of neuroprostheses

Neural Prostheses for Restoration of Sensory and Motor Function

Neural Prostheses for Restoration of Sensory and Motor Function Book
Author : John K Chapin,Karen A. Moxon
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-08-30
ISBN : 9780367398088
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The prospect of interfacing the nervous system with electronic devices to stimulate or record from neural tissue suggests numerous possibilities in the field of neuroprosthetics. While the creation of a "six million dollar man" may still be far into the future, neural prostheses are rapidly becoming viable theories for a broad range of patients with injury or disease of the nervous system. Neural Prostheses for Restoration of Sensory and Motor Function presents a general review of exciting scientific discoveries that show the feasibility of using electronic devices to restore motor function in paralyzed patients. The book is divided into two sections. The first section details some of the most successful sensory and motor prosthetic devices available. It pays particular attention to the present usefulness and future promise of these devices. It explores different approaches to the use of functional electrical stimulation for the restoration of motor control. The second section highlights the growing field of brain-implantable devices for the control of artificial prosthetic devices or neural prosthetics. It considers the possible scientific and clinical advantages of using implanted devices to record signals from the nervous system and the use of those signals for the restoration of neurological function. The book presents research data that relates to the feasibility of using brain-controlled neurorobotic devices. It offers a new perspective on the practice of combining neurochemical and neurophysiological information to create prosthetic control devices that restore chemical balance to the brain. Neural Prostheses for Restoration of Sensory and Motor Function examines several different types of neural prosthetic devices as well as recent advances in research for novel devices to restore sensory and motor function in patients with neural damage. It provides authoritative information on neural prosthetic techniques and applications - specifica

Toward Replacement Parts for the Brain

Toward Replacement Parts for the Brain Book
Author : Theodore W. Berger,Dennis Glanzman
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 2005
ISBN : 9780262025775
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The latest advances in research on intracranial implantation of hardware models of neural circuitry. The continuing development of implantable neural prostheses signals a new era in bioengineering and neuroscience research. This collection of essays outlines current advances in research on the intracranial implantation of devices that can communicate with the brain in order to restore sensory, motor, or cognitive functions. The contributors explore the creation of biologically realistic mathematical models of brain function, the production of microchips that incorporate those models, and the integration of microchip and brain function through neuron-silicon interfaces. Recent developments in understanding the computational and cognitive properties of the brain and rapid advances in biomedical and computer engineering both contribute to this cutting-edge research. The book first examines the development of sensory system prostheses--cochlear, retinal, and visual implants--as the best foundation for considering the extension of neural prostheses to the central brain region. The book then turns to the complexity of neural representations, offering, among other approaches to the topic, one of the few existing theoretical frameworks for modeling the hierarchical organization of neural systems. Next, it examines the challenges of designing and controlling the interface between neurons and silicon, considering the necessity for bidirectional communication and for multiyear duration of the implant. Finally, the book looks at hardware implementations and explores possible ways to achieve the complexity of neural function in hardware, including the use of VLSI and photonic technologies.

Neural Prostheses

Neural Prostheses Book
Author : William F. Agnew,Douglas B. McCreery
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1990
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Neural Prostheses book written by William F. Agnew,Douglas B. McCreery, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

What you need to know about Hippocampus Prosthesis A Cognitive Prosthesis to provide cure for AD other Hippocampus related Disorders

   What you need to know about Hippocampus Prosthesis      A Cognitive Prosthesis to provide cure for AD other Hippocampus related Disorders  Book
Author : DR. HAKIM. SABOOWALA
Publisher : Dr.Hakim Saboowala
Release : 2019-10-08
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A hippocampus prosthesis is a type of cognitive prosthesis (a prosthesis implanted into the nervous system in order to improve or replace the function of damaged brain tissue). · Prosthetic devices replace normal function of a damaged body part; this can be simply: § A structural replacement (e.g. reconstructive surgery or glass eye) or § A rudimentary, functional replacement (e.g. a pegleg or hook). However, prosthetics involving the brain have some special categories and requirements. "Input" prosthetics, such as retinal or cochlear implant, supply signals to the brain that the patient eventually learns to interpret as sight or sound. "Output" prosthetics use brain signals to drive a bionic arm, hand or computer device, and require considerable training during which the patient learns to generate the desired action via their thoughts. · Both of these types of prosthetics rely on the plasticity of the brain to adapt to the requirement of the prosthesis, thus allowing the user to "learn" the use of his new body part. Thus, such a device must be able to fully replace the function of a small section of the nervous system—using that section's normal mode of operation. I have endeavored in this Booklet to elucidate comprehensively several criteria of a viable Hippocampal Neural Prosthesis to provide a cure for Alzheimer’s Disease and other Hippocampus related disorders. ……Dr.H.K.Saboowala.M.B.(Bom) M.R.S.H.(London)

Prosthetics

Prosthetics Book
Author : Emma Huddleston
Publisher : North Star Editions, Inc.
Release : 2019-08-01
ISBN : 1641859741
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Introduces readers to the science behind prosthetics, including how and why the technology was created, current examples of the technology in action, and cutting-edge research advancing the technology. Eye-catching infographics, clear text, informative sidebars, and a “How It Works” special feature make this book an engaging introduction to this exciting technology.

Neural Prosthetics

Neural Prosthetics Book
Author : Walter Glannon
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2021-08-31
ISBN : 0192543636
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neural prosthetics are systems or devices implanted in or connected to the brain that influence the input and output of information. They modulate, bypass, supplement, or replace regions of the brain and its connections to parts of the body that are damaged, dysfunctional, or lost, whether from congenital conditions, brain injury, limb loss, or neurodegenerative disease. Neural prosthetics can restore sensory, motor, and cognitive functions in people with these conditions and enable them to regain functional independence and improve their quality of life. This book explores the neuroscientific and philosophical implications of neural prosthetics. Neuroscientific discussion focuses on how neural prosthetics can restore brain and bodily functions to varying degrees, looking at auditory and visual prosthetics, deep brain and responsive neurostimulation, brain-computer interfaces, brain-to-brain interfaces, and memory prosthetics. Philosophical discussion then considers the degree to which people with these prosthetics can benefit from or be harmed by them. Finally, it explores how these devices and systems can lead to a better understanding of the brain-mind relation, mental causation, and agency. This is an essential volume for anyone invested in the current and future directions of neural prosthetics, including neuroscientists, neurologists, neurosurgeons, neural engineers, psychologists, and psychiatrists, as well as philosophers, bioethicists, and legal theorists.

Brain Machine Interfaces

Brain Machine Interfaces Book
Author : Jens Schouenborg,Martin Garwicz,Nils Danielsen
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0444538151
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Few examples of the contribution of animal research for clinical application of Deep Brain Stimulation, Christelle Baunez 13. Deep Brain Stimulation- challenges and opportunities, Andres M. Lozano 14. Cochlear and retinal prostheses: an overview of safety and efficacy, neural rescue and brain plasticity studies, Rob Shepherd 15. Cochlear implants: Matching the prosthesis to the brain and facilitating desired plastic changes in brain function, Blake Wilson 16. Neural microstimulation parameters and interfacial quality effects, Kevin Otto 17. The Feasibility of a Cortically Based Visual Prosthesis: Stimulation and Recording in Monkey Visual Cortex with Chronically Implanted Microelectrode Arrays, Dick Normann 18. Physical and chemical factors influencing the biocompatibility of an implant, Lars Magnus Bjursten 19. A Biologically-based Design Strategy for Reducing the Foreign Body Response to Chronically Implanted Neural Interfaces, Patrick Tresco 20. Biocompatibility and CNS: need for standardization? Cecilia Eriksson Linsmeier 21. Reviving the CPG after spinal cord injury, Serge Rossignol 22. What does the brain control? Gerald E. Loeb 23. Advanced use of electrical stimulation for recovery of function, Dejan B. Popovic 24. Restoring Standing and Walking by the Reactivation of Central Neural Networks, Vivian Mushahwar 25. Reanimating the arm and hand with intraspinal stimulation, Andrew Jackson 26. Ethics of Control and Consent in Brain Stimulation for Parkinson Disease, Paul J. Ford 27. Neuroprosthetics and Neuromarkers, Apostolos P. Georgopoulos 28. Neural Signal Processing: At the Interface Between Basic and Clinical Neuroscience, Partha P. Mitra 29. Inference of hand movements from population activity in monkey and human sensorimotor cortex: Towards Brain-Machine Interfaces, Ad Aertsen 30. Semiconductor Chips with Ion Channels, Nerve Cells and Brain Tissue, Peter Fromherz 31. Interfacing Neurons with Carbon Nanotubes: (re)engineering single-neuron excitability and network connectivity in Cultured Brain Circuits 32. Nanomodified surfaces and neurite outgrowth, Martin Kanje 33. Nanochannels for cell biology and DNA analysis, Jonas Tegenfeldt 34. Establishing Reliable Communication Across the Glial Scar: In-Situ Polymerization of Conjugated Polymers in Living Cortex, David C. Martin.

Neuroprosthetics

Neuroprosthetics Book
Author : Kenneth W. Horch,Gurpreet S. Dhillon
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2004
ISBN : 9789812380227
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A study of neuroprosthetics. It is broadly divided into three sections which address: neuroanatomy and neurophysiology, biomaterials and biocompatibility, stimulation and recording techniques; clinical applications of neuroprosthetics; and future developments.

Implantable Neural Prostheses 1

Implantable Neural Prostheses 1 Book
Author : David Zhou,Elias Greenbaum
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-06-10
ISBN : 9780387772615
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Significant progress has been made in the development of neural prostheses to restore human functions and improve the quality of human life. Biomedical engineers and neuroscientists around the world are working to improve design and performance of existing devices and to develop novel devices for artificial vision, artificial limbs, and brain–machine interfaces. This book, Implantable Neural Prostheses 1: Devices and Applications,ispart one of a two-book series and describes state-of-the-art advances in techniques associated with implantable neural prosthetic devices and their applications. Devices covered include sensory prosthetic devices, such as visual implants, cochlear implants, auditory midbrain implants, and spinal cord stimulators. Motor prosthetic devices, such as deep brain stimulators, Bion microstimu- tors, the brain control and sensing interface, and cardiac electro-stimulation devices are also included. Progress in magnetic stimulation that may offer a non-invasive approach to prosthetic devices is introduced. Regulatory approval of implantable medical devices in the United States and Europe is also discussed.

Biosignal Processing and Computational Methods to Enhance Sensory Motor Neuroprosthetics

Biosignal Processing and Computational Methods to Enhance Sensory Motor Neuroprosthetics Book
Author : Mitsuhiro Hayashibe,David Guiraud,Jose L. Pons,Dario Farina
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2016-01-22
ISBN : 2889197182
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Though there have been many developments in sensory/motor prosthetics, they have not yet reached the level of standard and worldwide use like pacemakers and cochlear implants. One challenging issue in motor prosthetics is the large variety of patient situations, which depending on the type of neurological disorder. To improve neuroprosthetic performance beyond the current limited use of such systems, robust bio-signal processing and model-based control involving actual sensory motor state (with biosignal feedback) would bring about new modalities and applications, and could be a breakthrough toward adaptive neuroprosthetics. Recent advances of Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) now enable patients to transmit their intention of movement. However, the functionality and controllability of motor prosthetics itself can be further improved to take advantage of BCI interfaces. In this Research Topic we welcome contribution of original research articles, computational and experimental studies, review articles, and methodological advances related to biosignal processing that may enhance the functionality of sensory motor neuroprosthetics. The scope of this topic includes, but is not limited to, studies aimed at enhancing: 1) computational biosignal processing in EMG (Electromyography), EEG (Electroencephalography), and other modalities of biofeedback information; 2) the computational method in modeling and control of sensory motor neuroprosthetics; 3) the systematic functionality aiming to provide solutions for specific pathological movement disorders; 4) human interfaces such as BCI - but in the case of BCI study, manuscripts should be experimental studies which are applied to sensory/motor neuroprosthetics in patients with motor disabilities.

Adaptive Real Time Decoding of Brain Signals for Long Term Control of a Neuro Prosthetic Device

Adaptive Real Time Decoding of Brain Signals for Long Term Control of a Neuro Prosthetic Device Book
Author : Tushar Ashok Dharampal
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Changes in the statistical properties of neural signals recorded at the brain machine interface (BMI) pose significant challenges for accurate long-term control of prostheses interfaced directly with the brain by continuously altering the relationship between neural responses and desired action. In this thesis, we develop and test an adaptive decoding algorithm that can recover from changes in the statistical properties of neural signals within minutes. The adaptive decoding algorithm uses a Kalman filter as part of a dual-filter design to continuously optimize the relationship between the observed neural responses and the desired action of the prosthesis. Performance of the algorithm was evaluated by simulating the encoding of arm movement by neurons in the primary motor cortex under stationary conditions as well as nonstationary conditions depicting loss and/or replacement of neurons in the population. The time taken for the system to fully recover (3-12 minutes) was faster than other adaptive systems (Rotermund et al 2006) and resulted in errors that were well matched to the initial system performance. The algorithm adapts to the local properties of the stimulus and is able to decode movements with high accuracy outside the trained movement space. This implementation lends itself favorably toward a portable, robust long-term decoding approach at the brain machine interface capable of providing accurate real-time decoding of neural signals over periods of weeks to months without outside intervention.

Intervening in the Brain

Intervening in the Brain Book
Author : Reinhard Merkel,G. Boer,J. Fegert,T. Galert,D. Hartmann,B. Nuttin,S. Rosahl
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-07-28
ISBN : 3540464778
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The wealth of insights into the brain’s functioning gained by neuroscience in recent years led to the development of new possibilities for intervening in the brain such as neurotransplantation, neural prostheses and brain stimulation techniques. Moreover, new and safer classes of psychopharmaceutical drugs lend themselves to neuroenhancement applications, i.e. they could be used to enhance cognitive capacities or emotional well-being without therapeutic need. This book offers extensive state-of-the-art accounts for these novel kinds of intervention, indicates future developments, and discusses the relevant philosophical, ethical and legal issues.

Functional Electrical Stimulation

Functional Electrical Stimulation Book
Author : F. Terry Hambrecht,James B. Reswick
Publisher : Marcel Dekker Incorporated
Release : 1977
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Functional Electrical Stimulation book written by F. Terry Hambrecht,James B. Reswick, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Handbook of Neural Engineering

Handbook of Neural Engineering Book
Author : Metin Akay
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2007-01-09
ISBN : 0470068280
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An important new work establishing a foundation for future developments in neural engineering The Handbook of Neural Engineering provides theoretical foundations in computational neural science and engineering and current applications in wearable and implantable neural sensors/probes. Inside, leading experts from diverse disciplinary groups representing academia, industry, and private and government organizations present peer-reviewed contributions on the brain-computer interface, nano-neural engineering, neural prostheses, imaging the brain, neural signal processing, the brain, and neurons. The Handbook of Neural Engineering covers: Neural signal and image processing--the analysis and modeling of neural activity and EEG-related activities using the nonlinear and nonstationary analysis methods, including the chaos, fractal, and time-frequency and time-scale analysis methods--and how to measure functional, physiological, and metabolic activities in the human brain using current and emerging medical imaging technologies Neuro-nanotechnology, artificial implants, and neural prosthesis--the design of multi-electrode arrays to study how the neurons of human and animals encode stimuli, the evaluation of functional changes in neural networks after stroke and spinal cord injuries, and improvements in therapeutic applications using neural prostheses Neurorobotics and neural rehabilitation engineering--the recent developments in the areas of biorobotic system, biosonar head, limb kinematics, and robot-assisted activity to improve the treatment of elderly subjects at the hospital and home, as well as the interactions of the neuron chip, neural information processing, perception and neural dynamics, learning memory and behavior, biological neural networks, and neural control

The Hand and the Brain

The Hand and the Brain Book
Author : Göran Lundborg
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-09-11
ISBN : 1447153340
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents the human hand from an overall perspective – from the first appearance of hand-like structures in the fins of big fishes living millions of years ago to today ́s and the future’s mind-controlled artificial hands. Much focus is given to the extremely well-developed sensation of the hand, its importance and its linkage to brain plasticity mechanisms. How can active hands rapidly expand their representational area in the brain? How can the sense of touch substitute for other deficient senses, such as in Braille reading where hand sensation substitutes for missing vision? How can the mere observation of active hands, belonging to others, activate the hand area in the observer’s own brain and what is the importance of this phenomenon for learning by imitation and the understanding of other peoples’ actions, gestures and body language? Why are some of us left-handed and what are the consequences from cultural and physiological viewpoints? Why does phantom sensation and phantom pain occur after hand amputation, and what can we do about it? Why can salamanders regenerate new extremities while humans can not? Is it possible to transplant a hand from a diseased individual to an amputee? Can artificial robotic hands be controlled by our mind, and can they ever gain the role of a normal hand? What role did the hand and the brain play during evolution in tool construction and development of language and cognitive functions? The hand has a high symbolic value in religion, literature and art and our hands have a key role in gestures and body language. The Hand and the Brain is aimed at anybody with interest in life sciences, in the medical field especially hand surgeons, orthopaedic specialists, neurologists and general practitioners, and those working in rehabilitation medicine and pain treatment. The original Swedish version of The Hand and the Brain has also become very popular among physiotherapists, occupational therapists, psychologists, and among a general population with an interest in science.

Advances in Motor Neuroprostheses

Advances in Motor Neuroprostheses Book
Author : Ramana Vinjamuri
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-04-10
ISBN : 3030387402
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a comprehensive review of recent developments in the field of motor neuroprosthetics and brain-machine interfaces. Chapters in this book are provided by leading experts in the field and include topics such as the design and control of multidimensional prosthetics and exoskeletons, deep brain stimulation, functional electrical stimulation, deep learning for brain machine interfaces, biofeedback, and cognitive intent for adaptation of motor prostheses. This book is a great resource for undergraduate and graduate students, researchers, engineers from related disciplines, entrepreneurs, and anyone interested in the latest progress in the field of motor neuroprostheses.

Challenges of Neurorehabilitation and the Prosthetic Prescription for a Patient with an Anoxic Brain Injury Understanding how Neuropsychological Changes Affect Functional Rehabilitation

Challenges of Neurorehabilitation and the Prosthetic Prescription for a Patient with an Anoxic Brain Injury  Understanding how Neuropsychological Changes Affect Functional Rehabilitation Book
Author : Jenna Meriggi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Objectives: For amputees, the use of prostheses can be a vital part of their lives improving function and independence. Unfortunately, rejection and non-functional use of prostheses can be high especially in upper extremity amputees. Regardless of technological advances, motor learning is a fundamental principle of prosthetic integration that must be considered in the brain injured population. In brain inured patientsu2019 impairment in memory and executive control may account for difficulty applying procedural knowledge and independently using an upper limb prosthesis. In this case report we five factors that must be considered in the comprehensive rehabilitation of a brain injured upper extremity amputee: (1) Acceptance of adult functional role; (2) capacity of independent use; (3) learning, memory, and cognition; (4) functional performance; and (5) physical and mental health.Methods: 26-year-old male patient with no past medical history was working on a roof when he came in contact with a high-voltage electrical supply line and sustained electrocution and severe electrical burns to the bilateral hands and forearms, fell 20 feet off of the roof, and was found in ventricular fibrillation arrest and was successfully resuscitated by emergency medical services. Computed tomography imaging revealed bilateral loss of gray-white matter differentiation at the parieto-occipital regions and basal ganglia with progressive cerebral edema. There was no hemorrhagic focus or midline shift. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed symmetric T2/FLAIR hyperintensity involving the right occipital regions as well as the deep gray structures with associated diffusion restriction consistent with anoxic injury. Due to extent of his electrical burns he underwent bilateral below elbow amputations with skin grafting. He was subsequently fitted for bilateral body powered upper limb prostheses that he was unable to use. He was referred to the Brain Injury Medicine service for cognitive evaluation. Results: The patient was admitted to acute inpatient rehabilitation with a goal of training the patient to use his prostheses. In regard to learning, memory, and cognition, the results of neuropsychological battery indicated that the patientu2019s memory and executive functioning were impaired. Impairments in executive control may account for the patientu2019s difficulty applying procedural knowledge. While the patient had good memory in a structed environment he had memory failures during unstructured, novel, or complex task. These were all barriers that led to the patientu2019s poor functional performance with prostheses use. To facilitate improvement in memory the patient was started on Donepezil 5 mg nightly and titrated up to 10 mg nightly after one week. The patient demonstrated improvements with procedural memory with using his prostheses with donepezil combined with comprehensive therapy and task specific training. The patientu2019s health problems profoundly affected his rehabilitation course with frequent debilitating anxiety, post-traumatic stress, and agitation. The patient continued Effexor and was prescribed Depakote and propranolol. The patient was also started on gabapentin for neuropathic residual limb pain. Improvements in pain, mood, and anxiety facilitated participation in rehabilitation. Over the course of the patientu2019s injury he had developed a reliance on others with a tendency to rely on others rather than complete tasks independently. This reliance on others impacted the patientu2019s ability to independently utilize his prostheses. The patient was not ready to accept an adult independent functional role with limited adoption of normative adult roles. Over the course of rehabilitation, the patient demonstrated that he could perform basic device functions but his poor ability to trouble-shoot spontaneously and over reliance on others raise doubts of his ability to independently manage his prosthesis at home.Conclusions: The findings suggest that the prosthetic prescription should be considered within the context of a larger plan to address the patientu2019s health and disability. Through this case we identified five measures that may provide critical information useful for clinical decision making. Neuropsychologic testing and early brain injury medicine consultation to medically optimize the patient using our five measures should be considered prior to writing the prosthetic prescription.

The NeuroProcessor

The NeuroProcessor Book
Author : Yevgeny Perelman,Ran Ginosar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-08-20
ISBN : 1402087268
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Understanding brain structure and principles of operation is one of the major challengesofmodernscience.SincetheexperimentsbyGalvanionfrogmuscle contraction in 1792, it is known that electrical impulses lie at the core of the brain activity. The technology of neuro-electronic interfacing, besides its importance for neurophysiological research, has also clinical potential, so called neuropr- thetics. Sensory prostheses are intended to feed sensory data into patient’s brain by means of neurostimulation. Cochlear prostheses [1] are one example of sensory prostheses that are already used in patients. Retinal prostheses are currently under research [2]. Recent neurophysiological experiments [3, 4] show that brain signals recorded from motor cortex carry information regarding the movement of subject’s limbs (Fig. 1.1). These signals can be further used to control ext- nal machines [4] that will replace missing limbs, opening the ?eld of motor prosthetics, devices that will restore lost limbs or limb control. Fig. 1.1. Robotic arm controlled by monkey motor cortex signals. MotorLab, U- versity of Pittsburgh. Prof Andy Schwartz, U. Pitt 2 1 Introduction Another group of prostheses would provide treatment for brain diseases, such as prevention of epileptic seizure or the control of tremor associated with Parkinson disease [5]. Brain implants for treatment of Epilepsy and Parkinson symptoms (Fig. 1.2) are already available commercially [6, 7]. Fig. 1.2. Implantable device for Epilepsy seizures treatment [7]. Cyberonics, Inc.

Neural Prostheses

Neural Prostheses Book
Author : Robert J. Maciunas
Publisher : Thieme
Release : 2000
ISBN : 9781879284739
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Neural prostheses have been used for centuries as structural replacements, in particular for injuries to the cranium. And today, neural prostheses are designed to restore a broad range of nervous system functions previously lost due to trauma or disease. While their complexity may vary from nerve conduits to prosthetic brain implants, neural devices have improved the lives of patients and broadened the scope of disabilities that can be treated. Neural Prostheses is the first comprehensive book to look at the history and recent, state-of-the-art developments of neural prostheses. Dr. Maciunas has gathered the country's leading experts in structural and functional protheses development to provide a look at the history, current use and the future of prostheses in the areas of: Spinal instrumentation as implanted neural prostheses Cranial reconstruction Angioplasty and stenting The use of indwelling of radioisotopes Chemodes Slow-release polymers for chemotherapy Cell transplantation for movement disorders Gene therapy for the treatment of CNS disease Microelectrode prostheses Cochlear implants -The use of robotics (Distributed by Thieme for the American Association of Neurological Surgeons)