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Pretreatment For Reverse Osmosis Desalination

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Pretreatment for Reverse Osmosis Desalination

Pretreatment for Reverse Osmosis Desalination Book
Author : Nikolay Voutchkov
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2017-05-29
ISBN : 0128099453
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pretreatment for Reverse Osmosis Desalination is a comprehensive reference on all existing and emerging seawater pretreatment technologies used for desalination. The book focuses on reverse osmosis membrane desalination, which at present is the most widely applied technology for the production of fresh drinking water from highly saline water sources (brackish water and seawater). Each chapter contains examples illustrating various pretreatment technologies and their practical implementation. Provides in-depth overview of the key theoretical concepts associated with desalination pre-treatment Gives insight into the latest trends in membrane separation technology Incorporates analytical methods and guidelines for monitoring pretreatment systems

Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination

Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Book
Author : Sergio G. Salinas-Rodriguez,Gary Amy,I. S. Kim,J. C. Schippers,Maria D. Kennedy
Publisher : IWA Publishing
Release : 2019-10-15
ISBN : 9781780409856
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This textbook covers the fundamentals of fouling and scaling in reverse osmosis systems. It includes theory and practice of pre-treatment, fouling and scaling in reverse osmosis applied for drinking and industrial water production. The impact of the water source – seawater, river water, brackish groundwater and (treated domestic) waste water – will be discussed in depth. The book presents the knowledge and experience gained at IHE Delft over the last 25 years during the implementation of the master programme in Water Supply Engineering and during the implementation of state-of-the-art research in understanding and solving operational problems in full scale desalination plants. It presents the expert knowledge of IHE Delft in the areas of pre-treatment for reverse osmosis systems, assessment of water quality with respect to fouling potential, development of methods for quality assessment, modified fouling index ultrafiltration at constant flux, transparent exopolymer particles, antiscalant dose optimization, biological growth potential), algal blooms, scaling control. The book will be used in the annual master programme at IHE Delft and it will be of interest for students, academics, engineers and managers in drinking water facilities all over the world.

Constructive Engineering of Large Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants

Constructive Engineering of Large Reverse Osmosis Desalination Plants Book
Author : Author: Pedro Maria Gonzalez Olabarria
Publisher : Chemical Publishing Company
Release : 2015-11-02
ISBN : 0820602086
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

1. REVERSE OSMOSIS BASIC CONCEPTS - 2. FEED WATER TYPE AND ANALYSIS - 3. RAW WATER REQUIREMENTS - 4. SEA WATER INTAKE - 5. SEA WATER DOSING SYSTEMS - 6. REVERSE OSMOSIS PRETREATMENT CONVENTIONAL PRETREATMENT - 7. REVERSE OSMOSIS PRETREATMENT MICROFILTRATION and ULTRAFILTRATION - 8. MATERIALS - 9. REVERSE OSMOSIS MEMBRANES - 10. PRESSURE VESSELS AND RACKS - 11. REVERSE OSMOSIS PUMPS - 12. RECOVERY SYSTEMS - 13. REVERSE OSMOSIS RACKS CONTROL - 14. REVERSE OSMOSIS RACKS EQUIPMENT - 15. RACKS CLEANING SYSTEM and FLUSHING - 16. TREATED WATER CONDITIONING - 17. TREATED WATER DEPOSIT AND PUMPING - 18. NEUTRALIZATION, EFFLUENTS TREATMENT AND BRINE DISCHARGE - 19. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT - 20. CONTROL SYSTEMS - 21. VARIOUS EQUIPMENT - 22. COST EVALUATION OF DESALINATION PLANTS - BISAC: 1: TEC005050 Technology & Engineering : Construction - HVAC 2: TEC009070 Technology & Engineering : Mechanical 3: TEC010030 Technology & Engineering : Environmental - Water Supply

Assessing Bacterial Growth Potential in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Pretreatment

Assessing Bacterial Growth Potential in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Pretreatment Book
Author : Almotasembellah Abushaban
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-01-21
ISBN : 1000034704
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Seawater desalination is increasingly being used as a means to augment freshwater supplies in regions with high water stress, and reverse osmosis is increasingly the technology of choice because of the low energy consumption. However, seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems suffer from various types of fouling, which can increase energy consumption and the use of chemicals during SWRO operation. In practice, pre-treatment systems are put in place to reduce the particulate and biological fouling potential of SWRO feed water. However, simple, reliable and accurate methods to assess the extent to which biological fouling potential is reduced during pre-treatment are not available for seawater. This research developed a new method to measure bacterial growth potential (BGP) using the native bacterial consortium in seawater. New reagents to extract and detect ATP in microbial cells were specifically developed for seawater. The new lysis and detection reagents overcame the salt interference in seawater and allow low detection of total ATP, free ATP and microbial ATP in seawater. Incorporating a filtration step further increased the sensitivity of the method six fold, enabling ATP detection of ultra-low levels of microbial ATP in seawater. The newly developed ATP-based BGP method was applied to monitor and assess the pre-treatment of five full-scale seawater desalination plants around the world. A good correlation was observed between BGP measured in SWRO feed water and the pressure drop increase in the SWRO systems, suggesting the applicability of using the ATP-based BGP method as a biofouling indicator in SWRO. Furthermore, a safe level of BGP ( In the future, on-line monitoring of BGP in SWRO feed water may further reduce the consumption of chemicals and energy and improve the overall sustainability of seawater desalination by reverse osmosis.

Coagulation and Ultrafiltration in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Pretreatment

Coagulation and Ultrafiltration in Seawater Reverse Osmosis Pretreatment Book
Author : S. Assiyeh Alizadeh Tabatabai
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-07-09
ISBN : 9781138026865
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This study investigates the role of coagulation in enhancing hydraulic performance and permeate quality of UF membranes and provides insight into options for minimizing or ideally eliminating coagulation from UF pre-treatment to SWRO. Results show that coagulation improves UF hydraulic performance mainly by reducing non-backwashable fouling of the membranes. This can be achieved at very low coagulant dose (~ 0.5 mg Fe/L) by coating the membranes with sub-micron particles. Additionally, the work highlights the applicability of UF membranes with low molecular weight cut-off as the coagulant free future of SWRO pre-treatment. Major benefits in terms of reduced environmental impact is expected when applying membranes with low molecular weight cut-off, as the need for coagulation is eliminated while ensuring longevity of downstream SWRO membranes. In general terms, the research indicates that coagulant consumption can be significantly reduced in UF pre-treatment of SWRO by optimizing operational parameters and applying alternative solutions.

Desalination Engineering Planning and Design

Desalination Engineering  Planning and Design Book
Author : Nikolay Voutchkov
Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
Release : 2012-12-18
ISBN : 0071777156
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An in-depth guide to reverse osmosis desalination This Water Environment Federation and WateReuse Association publication provides comprehensive information on the planning and engineering of brackish and seawater desalination projects for municipal water supplies. After a brief overview of widely used desalination technologies, Desalination Engineering focuses on reverse osmosis desalination. The book discusses basic principles, planning and environmental review of projects, design and selection of key desalination plant components, desalinated water posttreatment, and concentrate management. Guidelines on sizing and cost estimation of desalination plant facilities are also included in this practical resource. COVERAGE INCLUDES: Source water quality characterization Fundamentals of reverse osmosis desalination Planning considerations Environmental review and permitting Intakes for source water collection Intake pump stations Source water screening and conditioning Sand removal, sedimentation, and dissolved air flotation Pretreatment by granular media filtration Pretreatment by membrane filtration Comparison of granular media and membrane pretreatment Reverse osmosis separation Post-treatment of desalinated water Desalination plant discharge management Desalination project cost estimates

Expanding Issues in Desalination

Expanding Issues in Desalination Book
Author : Robert Y. Ning
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2011-09-22
ISBN : 9533076240
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

For this book, the term "desalination" is used in the broadest sense of the removal of dissolved, suspended, visible and invisible impurities in seawater, brackish water and wastewater, to make them drinkable, or pure enough for industrial applications like in the processes for the production of steam, power, pharmaceuticals and microelectronics, or simply for discharge back into the environment. This book is a companion volume to "Desalination, Trends and Technologies", INTECH, 2011, expanding on the extension of seawater desalination to brackish and wastewater desalination applications, and associated technical issues. For students and workers in the field of desalination, this book provides a summary of key concepts and keywords with which detailed information may be gathered through internet search engines. Papers and reviews collected in this volume covers the spectrum of topics on the desalination of water, too broad to delve into in depth. The literature citations in these papers serve to fill in gaps in the coverage of this book. Contributions to the knowledge-base of desalination is expected to continue to grow exponentially in the coming years.

Pretreatment Technologies for Membrane Seawater Desalination

Pretreatment Technologies for Membrane Seawater Desalination Book
Author : Nikolay Voutchkov
Publisher :
Release : 2008
ISBN : 9781921335051
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work presents critical overview of key processes, technologies and equipment used for seawater pretreatment, and discusses their areas of application, past track record, advantages and disadvantages. The work describes the typical causes and mechanisms of reverse osmosis membrane fouling and presents most recent developments in pretreatment technology and science.

Desalination Engineering Operation and Maintenance

Desalination Engineering  Operation and Maintenance Book
Author : Nikolay Voutchkov
Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
Release : 2014-04-05
ISBN : 0071804226
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

THE DEFINITIVE GUIDE TO DESALINATION PLANT OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE This Water Environment Federation and WateReuse Association publication describes state-of-the art operation, maintenance, and troubleshooting methods for reverse osmosis brackish and seawater desalination plants for municipal water supplies. All plant components are discussed in detail, from intake and pretreatment to discharge management. Best practices for maintaining plant equipment are also provided. Real-world examples illustrating the latest technologies and their practical implementation are included throughout this authoritative resource. Desalination Engineering covers: Source water open and subsurface intakes Source water pretreatment -- chemical conditioning, dissolved air flotation clarifiers, and granular media, membrane, and cartridge filters Reverse osmosis system operation Reverse osmosis system troubleshooting Post-treatment -- lime and carbon dioxide, calcite conditioning, remineralization, and disinfection Desalination plant discharge management Equipment maintenance -- pumps, air blowers, motors, bearings, valves, mechanical seals, mechanical drives, chemical feed systems, automatic samplers

Particulate and Organic Matter Fouling of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Systems

Particulate and Organic Matter Fouling of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Systems Book
Author : Sergio G. Salinas Rodriguez
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2011-09-28
ISBN : 0415620929
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Characterizing bulk organic matter in seawater and bay water by various analytical techniques and linking these measurements with fouling in membrane systems. Furthermore, it aimed for the development of the Modified Fouling Index - ultrafiltration (MFI-UF) at constant flux filtration as an accurate test to measure the particulate fouling potential of a feed water and predict the rate of fouling in reverse osmosis systems. A new semi-portable set-up has been successfully developed to perform MFI-UF tests at constant flux filtration. A significant effect of the filtration flux on the fouling potential was found. Consequences of this effect for reverse osmosis systems are that the fouling potential at low flux drops dramatically; for ultrafiltration systems it implicates that the rate of fouling increases at high fluxes. The observed effect of flux on the fouling potential has significant implications for fouling potential measurements. Deposition factors in RO systems varied between 0 and 1, depending on location and MFI pore size, which indicates differences in properties of the particles present. Fouling potential results in RO fouling rates of 0.2-1 bar/month depending on the pore size of the membranes used for MFI measurements. The fouling potential of the analysed raw waters is substantially reduced by conventional pre-treatment systems and ultrafiltration: for conventional pre-treatment 37 % - 74 % and ultrafiltration 60 % - 95 %, depending on the location and the MFI pore size.

Intakes and Outfalls for Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Facilities

Intakes and Outfalls for Seawater Reverse Osmosis Desalination Facilities Book
Author : Thomas M. Missimer,Burton Jones,Robert G. Maliva
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-04-07
ISBN : 3319132032
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book assembles the latest research on new design techniques in water supplies using desalinated seawater. The authors examine the diverse issues related to the intakes and outfalls of these facilities. They clarify how and why these key components of the facilities impact the cost of operation and subsequently the cost of water supplied to the consumers. The book consists of contributed articles from a number of experts in the field who presented their findings at the "Desalination Intakes and Outfalls" workshop held at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia in October, 2013. The book integrates coverage relevant to a wide variety of researchers and professionals in the general fields of environmental engineering and sustainable development.

Membrane based Desalination

Membrane based Desalination Book
Author : Enrico Drioli,Alessandra Criscuoli,Francesca Macedonio
Publisher : IWA Publishing
Release : 2011
ISBN : 1843393212
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reverse Osmosis is the dominant technology in water desalination. However, some critical issues remain open: improvement of water quality, enhancement of the recovery factor, reduction of the unit water cost, minimizing the brine disposal impact. This book aims to solve these problems with an innovative approach based on the integration of different membrane operations in pre-treatment and post-treatment stages. Membrane-Based Desalination: An Integrated Approach (acronym MEDINA) has been a three years project funded by the European Commission within the 6th Framework Program. The project team has developed a work programme aiming to improve the current design and operation practices of membrane systems used for water desalination, trying to solve or, at least, to decrease the critical issues of sea and brackish water desalination systems. In the book, the main results achieved in the nine Work Packages constituting the project will be described, and dismissed by the leaders of the various WPs. The following areas are explored in the book: -the development of advanced analytical methods for feed water characterization, appropriate fouling indicators and prediction tools, procedures and protocols at full-scale desalination facilities; -the identification of optimal seawater pre-treatment strategies by designing advanced hybrid membrane processes (submerged hollow fibre filtration/reaction, adsorption/ion exchange/ozonation) and comparison with conventional methods; -the optimisation of RO membrane module configuration, cleaning strategies, reduction of scaling potential by NF; -the development of strategies aiming to approach the concept of Zero Liquid Discharge (increasing the water recovery factor up to 950/0 by using Membrane Distillation - MD; bringing concentrates to solids by Membrane Crystallization or Wind Intensified Enhanced Evaporation) and to reduce the brine disposal environmental impact and cost; -increase the sustainability of desalination process by reducing energy consumption(evaluation of MD, demonstration of a new energy recovery device for SWRO installations)and use of renewable energy (wind and solar).

Investigation of Seawater Desalination Reverse Osmosis Membrane Biofouling

Investigation of Seawater Desalination Reverse Osmosis Membrane Biofouling Book
Author : Siqian Huang
Publisher :
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9781124224725
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

One of the challenges the seawater desalination industry faces today is reverse osmosis (RO) membrane biofouling. Currently, Seawater pretreatment methods such as oxidant-based disinfection, ultraviolet irradiation, and coagulation followed by granular media or membrane filtration could reduce the number of bacteria in feed seawater, but would typically not eliminate biofilm formation on the RO membranes. Traditional water quality parameters recommended by the membrane manufacturers are often inadequate at protecting the membrane from biofouling. This research investigated alternative seawater desalination RO membrane biofouling indicators in a Southern California desalination plant. Environmental and water quality parameters were collected onsite over two years and were analyzed statistically. The results of this study indicated that biofouling was significantly correlated with changes of water quality parameters including TOC, UV254, chlorophyll fluorescence in raw seawater, and suggest that they can be used to predict the membrane biofouling events. In an effort to mitigate SWRO membrane biofouling, different concepts of alternative pretreatment strategies are explored and evaluated. The concept of balancing the carbon, nitrogen and phosphate concentration in RO feed water was explored and showed to reduce biofilm formation during the period of high fouling potential. In-situ assessment of biofouling potential of subsurface intake seawater also demonstrated the feasibility of the intake design to reduce membrane biofouling.

Desalination of Seawater

Desalination of Seawater Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : American Water Works Association
Release : 2011
ISBN : 1583218335
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The use of seawater desalination is an increasingly sought after alternative for new drinking water supplies in coastal areas, particularly as desalination becomes more economical. This new manual of practice parlays lessons learned from recent studies and global seawater desalination projects into guidance for desalination facilities that are reliable, economical, and environmentally sound. This new manual is specifically designed to help water utility managers and design engineers understand desalination–the technologies, the infrastructure, and the costs–to make informed decisions from planning through treatment plant construction. It explains environmental and ecological impacts of desalination plants, seawater intakes, and the disposal of concentrate discharges back into the ocean. Chapters describe the minerals and other constituents that determine source water quality and, therefore, treatment approaches.

Reverse Osmosis Treatment of Drinking Water

Reverse Osmosis Treatment of Drinking Water Book
Author : Talbert N. Eisenberg,E. Joe Middlebrooks
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 1483102688
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reverse Osmosis Treatment of Drinking Water discusses the use of reverse osmosis in the treatment of drinking water, as well as the applications of reverse osmosis on industrial and municipal wastewater. The book covers topics such as the general principles of reverse osmosis; the removal of inorganic wastes, organic wastes, and microorganisms by reverse osmosis; the membranes of the reverse osmosis system, and its cleaning and maintenance. The book also includes topics such as the pretreatment for reverse osmosis installations; the approval criteria of regulatory agencies for reverse osmosis installations; and future possible developments in the use of reverse osmosis treatment. The text is recommended for those in water treatments who would like to know more about the processes involved in reverse osmosis treatment.