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Pressure Retarded Osmosis

Pressure Retarded Osmosis Book
Author : Khaled Touati,Fernando Tadeo,Joon Ha Kim,Oscar Andres Alvarez Silva
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-05-16
ISBN : 012812315X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pressure Retarded Osmosis: Renewable Energy Generation and Recovery offers the first comprehensive resource on this method of generating renewable energy. Dr. Khaled Touati and the team of editors combine their expertise with contributions from other leaders in the field to create this well-rounded resource, which discusses and analyses this novel method of creating a controllable renewable energy. The promises of the PRO technique are first clearly presented and explained, and the authors then provide a comprehensive analysis of the issues that remain such as Concentration Polarization, Membrane Deformation, and Reverse Salt Diffusion. Possible solutions to these issues which often restrict industrial implementation are then discussed to mitigate these detrimental effects, and there is also an emphasis on the recovery of energy from desalination processes using PRO, which is able to reduce energy consumption and make it more economically and environmentally efficient. Combines research with experience to deliver a complete resource on Pressure Retarded Osmosis Discusses all areas of PRO in detail Offers solutions to problems commonly experienced and summarizes each method with a clear and concise conclusion Includes case studies from the Great Salt Lake (U.S.A) and Dead Sea (Asia), as well as other rivers from America, Europe, and Asia

Membrane Technology for Osmotic Power Generation by Pressure Retarded Osmosis

Membrane Technology for Osmotic Power Generation by Pressure Retarded Osmosis Book
Author : Tai-Shung Chung,Chun Feng Wan
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2020-02-24
ISBN : 100002783X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Osmotic energy can be effectively harvested through pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) which is the most widely investigated technology due to its greater efficiency and higher power density output and effective membranes are the heart of the PRO technology. This book will cover a broad range of topics, including PRO membranes, fouling, module fabrication, process design, process operation and maintenance. It summarizes the progress in PRO researches in the last decade, and points out the directions for future R&D and commercialization of PRO. It will be of great interest to membrane researcher, company and operators to understand and get insights into the state-of-the-art PRO technologies.

Power from Salinity Gradients Using Pressure Retarded Osmosis

Power from Salinity Gradients Using Pressure Retarded Osmosis Book
Author : Walter Harold Yourstone
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1978
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Power from Salinity Gradients Using Pressure Retarded Osmosis book written by Walter Harold Yourstone, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Power Generation Using Pressure Retarded Osmosis

Power Generation Using Pressure Retarded Osmosis Book
Author : Bader Shafaqa Al-Anzi,Ashly Thomas,Jenifer Fernandes
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017-03-30
ISBN : 9783330847408
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Power Generation Using Pressure Retarded Osmosis book written by Bader Shafaqa Al-Anzi,Ashly Thomas,Jenifer Fernandes, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Pressure Retarded Osmosis as a Means of Waste Heat Recovery

Pressure Retarded Osmosis as a Means of Waste Heat Recovery Book
Author : Khan Anjum Akmal
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1979
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Pressure Retarded Osmosis as a Means of Waste Heat Recovery book written by Khan Anjum Akmal, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Optimizing of a Pressure retarded Osmosis Power Generation System

Optimizing of a Pressure retarded Osmosis Power Generation System Book
Author : Ari Seppälä,Markku J. Lampinen
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1998
ISBN : 9789512242047
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Optimizing of a Pressure retarded Osmosis Power Generation System book written by Ari Seppälä,Markku J. Lampinen, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Beneficial Use of Produced Water Via Pressure Retarded Osmosis

Beneficial Use of Produced Water Via Pressure Retarded Osmosis Book
Author : Adam Martinez
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Beneficial Use of Produced Water Via Pressure Retarded Osmosis book written by Adam Martinez, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Ammonia Carbon Dioxide Forward Osmosis Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis

Ammonia   Carbon Dioxide Forward Osmosis Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis Book
Author : Robert L. McGinnis
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Ammonia Carbon Dioxide Forward Osmosis Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis book written by Robert L. McGinnis, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Pressure Dependency of the Membrane Structure Parameter and Implications in Pressure Retarded Osmosis PRO

Pressure Dependency of the Membrane Structure Parameter and Implications in Pressure Retarded Osmosis  PRO  Book
Author : Torleif Holt
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) can be used to exploit the mixing energy e.g. between river water and sea water. A PRO membrane must be highly permeable for water, whereas salt ions should be retained. Furthermore, the structure parameter of the membrane support and backing structure must be low. This paper summarises an assessment of the pressure dependency of the structure parameter for flat sheet membranes, and a transport model for PRO and procedures for determination of the pressure dependency of the structure parameter are presented. The results from laboratory experiments show that that the structure parameter increases significantly with increasing trans-membrane pressure. The increase in the structure parameter was observed to depend on both characteristics of the membrane and the fresh water spacer. Using a finely textured tricot spacer reduced the pressure dependency on the structure parameter, compared to a coarser spacer. Applying a non-woven backing material between the membrane and the fresh water spacer also reduced the impact of pressure. The results show that membranes suitable for river water/sea water PRO must have a sufficiently low structure parameter and additionally resist severe deformation at relevant operating pressures.

Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients

Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients Book
Author : Andrea Cipollina,Giorgio Micale
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2016-03-01
ISBN : 0081003234
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Salinity gradient energy, also known as blue energy and osmotic energy, is the energy obtainable from the difference in salt concentration between two feed solutions, typically sea water and river water. It is a large-scale renewable resource that can be harvested and converted to electricity. Efficient extraction of this energy is not straightforward, however. Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients provides a comprehensive review of resources, technologies and applications in this area of fast-growing interest. Key technologies covered include pressure retarded osmosis, reverse electrodialysis and accumulator mixing. Environmental and economic aspects are also considered, together with the possible synergies between desalination and salinity gradient energy technologies. Sustainable Energy from Salinity Gradients is an essential text for R&D professionals in the energy & water industry interested in salinity gradient power and researchers in academia from post-graduate level upwards. For more than ten years the Editors have been sharing substantial research activities in the fields of renewable energy and desalination, successfully participating to a number of European Union research projects and contributing to the relevant scientific literature with more than 100 papers and 2 books on Desalination technologies and their coupling with Renewable Energy. They are intensely working in the field of Salinity Gradient Power, carrying out research with specific focus o.n open-loop and closed-loop reverse electrodialysis and pressure retarded osmosis. Covers applications of pressure retarded osmosis, reverse electrodialysis, and capacitive mixing for salinity gradient power in one convenient volume Presents the environmental aspects and economics of salinity gradient energy Explores possible synergies between desalination and salinity gradient energy

Osmosis Engineering

Osmosis Engineering Book
Author : Nidal Hilal,Ahmad Fauzi Ismail,Mohamed Khayet Souhaimi,Daniel Johnson
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-04-23
ISBN : 0128231882
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Osmosis Engineering provides a comprehensive overview of the state-of-the-art surrounding osmosis-based research and industrial applications. The book covers the underpinning theories, technology developments and commercial applications. Sections discuss innovative and advanced membranes and modules for osmosis separation processes (e.g., reverse osmosis, forward osmosis, pressure retarded osmosis, osmotic membrane distillation), different application of these osmosis separation processes for energy and water separation, such as the treatment of radioactive waste, oily wastewater and heavy metal removal, draw solutions, pretreatment technologies, fouling effects, the use of renewable energy driven osmotic processes, computational, environmental and economic studies, and more. Covers state-of-the-art osmotic engineering technologies and applications Presents multidisciplinary topics in engineered osmosis, including both fundamental and applied EO concepts Includes major challenges such as fouling mitigation, membrane development, pre-treatment and energy usage

Technoeconomic Analysis of Pressure retarded Osmosis

Technoeconomic Analysis of Pressure retarded Osmosis Book
Author : Hyung Won Chung
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) is a renewable method of power production from salinity gradients which has generated significant academic and commercial interest. Because PRO is a non-intermittent technology (i.e., the energy output can be actively controlled) and it has huge global capacity (1.4-2.6 TW global salinity gradient power potential), a successful commercialization of PRO can significantly impact the global energy landscape. However, the current status quo has too low energy efficiency and too high capital cost for PRO to be successfully implemented on a large scale. A broad objective of this thesis is to analyze PRO from a system-level perspective to identify major bottlenecks and propose methods to remove these bottlenecks and improve system-level performance. Economic analysis is necessary to ascertain the practical viability of a PRO system for power production, but high complexity and the lack of large scale data has limited such work. Ve provide two methods to overcome such difficulty. First, we investigate lower bound cost scenarios for power generation with PRO to evaluate its economic viability. We build an economic model for PRO with assumptions that minimize the cost of power production, thereby conclusively identifying the operating conditions that are not economically viable. Second, we develop a simple yet powerful economic framework to relate the lower bound of levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) to net power density. A set of simplifying assumptions are used to develop an inverse linear relationship between net power density and LCOE. While net power density can be inferred based on experimentally measured power density, LCOE can be used to judge the economic viability of the PRO system. The minimum required net power density for PRO system to achieve an LCOE of $0.074/kWh (the capacity-weighted average LCOE of solar PV in the U.S.) is found to be 56.4 W/m2 Finally, we investigate multistage configurations of PRO as a viable way to improve net power density. We develop a unifying framework to classify and analyze various multistage designs in the literature. Then we identify the optimal multistage configuration that achieves most of the benefit of multistaging without significantly increasing the design complexity.

Membrane Based Salinity Gradient Processes for Water Treatment and Power Generation

Membrane Based Salinity Gradient Processes for Water Treatment and Power Generation Book
Author : Sarper Sarp,Nidal Hilal
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2018-07-25
ISBN : 0444639624
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Membrane-Based Salinity Gradient Processes for Water Treatment and Power Generation focuses on the various types of membrane- based salinity gradient processes that can be applied for desalination. Topics cover salinity gradient processes for desalination, such as Forward Osmosis (FO) and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO), with chapters selected exclusively from a number of world-leading experts in various disciplines and from different continents. Sections include discussions on the theoretical and fundamental approaches to salinity gradient processes, various types of membrane materials and development, i.e., flat sheet and hollow fiber, various salinity water sources for an economically feasible process, and large-scale applications. Finally, the book focuses on economically feasible process optimization when both operational and capital costs are considered. Features specific details on salinity gradient techniques for various desalination applications of industrial and academic interest Contains unique discussions on membrane development and process optimization that normally only appear briefly in research articles Includes examples of internationally best practices for the evaluation of several system parameters, including thermodynamic optimization, high power density membrane development, and more Discusses large-scale applications and provides examples of such implementations, such as Statkraft, Japanese Megaton, and Korean GMVP

Using Pressure Retarded Osmosis Technology to Generate Salinity Gradient Energy Osmotic Power as a New Renewable Energy Source

Using Pressure Retarded Osmosis Technology to Generate Salinity Gradient Energy  Osmotic Power  as a New Renewable Energy Source Book
Author : Elham Abbasi-Garravand
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As the population increases, the demand for electricity has also increased. Most of the required electricity is produced by burning fossil fuels at power stations all over the world which has dangerous influences on climate. Therefore, it is important to produce new renewable and maintainable energy sources to decrease the use of fossil fuels. Osmotic power is a renewable source of energy that is generated by using salt and fresh waters. Pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) is a membrane based technology that can produce osmotic power. One of the main challenges for generating osmotic power by using PRO technology is the membrane fouling which reduces the permeate flux and consequently increases the cost and decreases the osmotic power generation. In this research, various pretreatment methods such as different types of ultrafiltration systems and a sand filter were used for removing total organic carbon (TOC), turbidity, and hardness from raw water. Moreover, different feed waters with various qualities were used to investigate the effect of fouling on a commercial membrane in PRO mode in continuous conditions. In addition, two physical and chemical cleaning methods were used to investigate and determine the desirable cleaning methods in PRO processes in order to control and reduce the membrane fouling. Most of the tests were performed at LTE Hydro Québec located at Shawinigan and the rest were performed at Concordia University. Based on the results, highest removal efficiency of turbidity occurred at 3.72 NTU and was 100% and 68.6% for ultrafiltration and the multimedia sand filter, respectively. Maximum TOC removal in ultrafiltration multimedia sand filter was 41% and 1.5% at 6.62 mg/L TOC initial concentration respectively. According to the results, the fouling rate when the draw solution was synthetic salt water followed the order of: untreated river water > multimedia sand filter > microfiltration > ultrafiltration effluents. It was observed that complete blocking, cake filtration and cake enhanced osmotic pressure were the main fouling mechanisms that governed the membrane fouling. The main inorganic foulants using synthetic salt water were iron, aluminum, calcium, sodium, and silica and when sea water was used as the draw solution, iron, aluminum, silica, magnesium, calcium, sodium and potassium were detected as inorganic foulants. The organic foulants were humic substances, polysaccharides and proteins from use of both synthetic salt water and sea water as draw solutions. The successful cleaning method was chemical cleaning using a combination of acidic and basic cleaners. This research indicates that using appropriate pretreatment and membrane cleaning methods can decrease the membrane fouling in PRO processes and consequently can improve the osmotic power generation.

Modeling and Simulation of the Dual Stage Pressure Retarded Osmosis Systems

Modeling and Simulation of the Dual Stage Pressure Retarded Osmosis Systems Book
Author : Roghayeh Soltani
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Utilization of renewable energy sources, as an approach to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, have been globally popular in the last few decades. Among renewable energy sources, pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) has been scrutinized by scientists since the mid 70's. However, even today, the existing river-sea PRO systems can only marginally meet the generally approved criterion of 5 W/m2 power density, a threshold for an economically feasible PRO system. As an approach to increase the performance of PRO systems, multi-staging of PRO modules are investigated. A mathematical model of the scaled up PRO process is proposed with consideration for internal and external concentration polarization, reverse salt flux, and spatial variations along the membrane. A thermodynamic model is also developed with consideration for entropy generation and losses in the process. It predicts the percentile of each work loss source compared to the net work in the system. Several confi gurations of dual stage PRO system are presented and compared to single stage PRO. The comparison is based on three proposed target functions of power density (PD), specifi c energy (SE), and work per drawn freshwater (Wdrawn). Applied hydraulic pressures and flow rates of draw and feed solutions are optimized for maximizing the target functions. The results indicate that overall performance of the system could be improved by up to 8 % with a dual stage PRO in the case of SE. The system performance is not improved by depressurizing the draw solution before the second module in cases of SE and Wdrawn. The thermodynamic analysis demonstrate the contribution of each work loss and justify the reason of diminishing the net work over the losses. The effect of membrane area and membrane characteristics on the SE target function is also investigated. The distribution of membrane area in each module depends on the selected con figuration and inlet draw solution. In the dual stage systems, the SE value increases up to 14% by improving the membrane characteristics. Reducing the salt rejection coefficient (B) is the most e ective membrane characteristic in our con figurations. Replacing seawater with RO brine in draw solution results in a signifi cant improvement in SE values.

Production of Energy from Concentrated Brines by Pressure retarded Osmosis

Production of Energy from Concentrated Brines by Pressure retarded Osmosis Book
Author : Sidney Loeb,Fred Van Hessen,Dina Shahaf
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1975
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Production of Energy from Concentrated Brines by Pressure retarded Osmosis book written by Sidney Loeb,Fred Van Hessen,Dina Shahaf, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Energy Analysis and Cost Evaluation for Multi staged Reverse Osmosis and Pressure Retarded Osmosis Desalination Process

Energy Analysis and Cost Evaluation for Multi staged Reverse Osmosis and Pressure Retarded Osmosis Desalination Process Book
Author : 澤木直美
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Energy Analysis and Cost Evaluation for Multi staged Reverse Osmosis and Pressure Retarded Osmosis Desalination Process book written by 澤木直美, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Modelling Optimisation and Control of Osmotic Energy Extraction from Natural Salinity Gradients Using Pressure Retarded Osmosis

Modelling  Optimisation and Control of Osmotic Energy Extraction from Natural Salinity Gradients Using Pressure Retarded Osmosis Book
Author : Wei He
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Modelling Optimisation and Control of Osmotic Energy Extraction from Natural Salinity Gradients Using Pressure Retarded Osmosis book written by Wei He, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Osmotically Driven Membrane Processes

Osmotically Driven Membrane Processes Book
Author : Hongbo Du,Audie Thompson,Xinying Wang
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-03-28
ISBN : 9535139215
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMPs) including forward osmosis (FO) and pressure-retarded osmosis (PRO) have attracted increasing attention in fields such as water treatment, desalination, power generation, and life science. In contrast to pressure-driven membrane processes, e.g., reverse osmosis, which typically employs applied high pressure as driving force, ODMPs take advantages of naturally generated osmotic pressure as the sole source of driving force. In light of this, ODMPs possess many advantages over pressure-driven membrane processes. The advantages include low energy consumption, ease of equipment maintenance, low capital investment, high salt rejection, and high water flux. In the past decade, over 300 academic papers on ODMPs have been published in a variety of application fields. The number of such publications is still rapidly growing. The ODMPs' approach, fabrications, recent development and applications in wastewater treatment, power generation, seawater desalination, and gas absorption are presented in this book.

Membrane Distillation

Membrane Distillation Book
Author : Kang-Jia Lu,Tai-Shung Chung
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-10-28
ISBN : 1000690660
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book aims to elaborate the basics and recent advances of membrane distillation (MD) as the same shows promise for seawater desalination and wastewater treatment. Starting with fundamentals of MD processes, including the heat and mass transfer analysis, energy evaluation and mathematical modelling, text includes engineering and molecular design of MD membranes. Various types of hybrid systems, including freeze desalination (FD)-MD, MD-crystallization (MDC), pressure retarded osmosis (PRO)-MD and forward osmosis (FO)-MD, will be discussed in this book. Further, it summarizes the future of MD from both industrial and academic perspectives along with energy sources and economic analysis.