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Practical Design And Application Of Model Predictive Control

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Practical Design and Application of Model Predictive Control

Practical Design and Application of Model Predictive Control Book
Author : Nassim Khaled,Bibin Pattel
Publisher : Butterworth-Heinemann
Release : 2018-05-04
ISBN : 0128139196
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Practical Design and Application of Model Predictive Control is a self-learning resource on how to design, tune and deploy an MPC using MATLAB® and Simulink®. This reference is one of the most detailed publications on how to design and tune MPC controllers. Examples presented range from double-Mass spring system, ship heading and speed control, robustness analysis through Monte-Carlo simulations, photovoltaic optimal control, and energy management of power-split and air-handling control. Readers will also learn how to embed the designed MPC controller in a real-time platform such as Arduino®. The selected problems are nonlinear and challenging, and thus serve as an excellent experimental, dynamic system to show the reader the capability of MPC. The step-by-step solutions of the problems are thoroughly documented to allow the reader to easily replicate the results. Furthermore, the MATLAB® and Simulink® codes for the solutions are available for free download. Readers can connect with the authors through the dedicated website which includes additional free resources at www.practicalmpc.com. Illustrates how to design, tune and deploy MPC for projects in a quick manner Demonstrates a variety of applications that are solved using MATLAB® and Simulink® Bridges the gap in providing a number of realistic problems with very hands-on training Provides MATLAB® and Simulink® code solutions. This includes nonlinear plant models that the reader can use for other projects and research work Presents application problems with solutions to help reinforce the information learned

Predictive Control for Linear and Hybrid Systems

Predictive Control for Linear and Hybrid Systems Book
Author : Francesco Borrelli,Alberto Bemporad,Manfred Morari
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2017-06-22
ISBN : 1108158293
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Model Predictive Control (MPC), the dominant advanced control approach in industry over the past twenty-five years, is presented comprehensively in this unique book. With a simple, unified approach, and with attention to real-time implementation, it covers predictive control theory including the stability, feasibility, and robustness of MPC controllers. The theory of explicit MPC, where the nonlinear optimal feedback controller can be calculated efficiently, is presented in the context of linear systems with linear constraints, switched linear systems, and, more generally, linear hybrid systems. Drawing upon years of practical experience and using numerous examples and illustrative applications, the authors discuss the techniques required to design predictive control laws, including algorithms for polyhedral manipulations, mathematical and multiparametric programming and how to validate the theoretical properties and to implement predictive control policies. The most important algorithms feature in an accompanying free online MATLAB toolbox, which allows easy access to sample solutions. Predictive Control for Linear and Hybrid Systems is an ideal reference for graduate, postgraduate and advanced control practitioners interested in theory and/or implementation aspects of predictive control.

Predictive Control

Predictive Control Book
Author : Yugeng Xi,Dewei Li
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2019-09-16
ISBN : 1119119545
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is a comprehensive introduction to model predictive control (MPC), including its basic principles and algorithms, system analysis and design methods, strategy developments and practical applications. The main contents of the book include an overview of the development trajectory and basic principles of MPC, typical MPC algorithms, quantitative analysis of classical MPC systems, design and tuning methods for MPC parameters, constrained multivariable MPC algorithms and online optimization decomposition methods. Readers will then progress to more advanced topics such as nonlinear MPC and its related algorithms, the diversification development of MPC with respect to control structures and optimization strategies, and robust MPC. Finally, applications of MPC and its generalization to optimization-based dynamic problems other than control will be discussed. Systematically introduces fundamental concepts, basic algorithms, and applications of MPC Includes a comprehensive overview of MPC development, emphasizing recent advances and modern approaches Features numerous MPC models and structures, based on rigorous research Based on the best-selling Chinese edition, which is a key text in China Predictive Control: Fundamentals and Developments is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate students and researchers specializing in control technologies. It is also a useful reference for industry professionals, engineers, and technicians specializing in advanced optimization control technology.

Multivariable Predictive Control

Multivariable Predictive Control Book
Author : Sandip K. Lahiri
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-10-23
ISBN : 1119243602
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A guide to all practical aspects of building, implementing, managing, and maintaining MPC applications in industrial plants Multivariable Predictive Control: Applications in Industry provides engineers with a thorough understanding of all practical aspects of multivariate predictive control (MPC) applications, as well as expert guidance on how to derive maximum benefit from those systems. Short on theory and long on step-by-step information, it covers everything plant process engineers and control engineers need to know about building, deploying, and managing MPC applications in their companies. MPC has more than proven itself to be one the most important tools for optimising plant operations on an ongoing basis. Companies, worldwide, across a range of industries are successfully using MPC systems to optimise materials and utility consumption, reduce waste, minimise pollution, and maximise production. Unfortunately, due in part to the lack of practical references, plant engineers are often at a loss as to how to manage and maintain MPC systems once the applications have been installed and the consultants and vendors’ reps have left the plant. Written by a chemical engineer with two decades of experience in operations and technical services at petrochemical companies, this book fills that regrettable gap in the professional literature. Provides a cost-benefit analysis of typical MPC projects and reviews commercially available MPC software packages Details software implementation steps, as well as techniques for successfully evaluating and monitoring software performance once it has been installed Features case studies and real-world examples from industries, worldwide, illustrating the advantages and common pitfalls of MPC systems Describes MPC application failures in an array of companies, exposes the root causes of those failures, and offers proven safeguards and corrective measures for avoiding similar failures Multivariable Predictive Control: Applications in Industry is an indispensable resource for plant process engineers and control engineers working in chemical plants, petrochemical companies, and oil refineries in which MPC systems already are operational, or where MPC implementations are being considering.

Model Based Predictive Control

Model Based Predictive Control Book
Author : J.A. Rossiter
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-07-12
ISBN : 135198859X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Model Predictive Control (MPC) has become a widely used methodology across all engineering disciplines, yet there are few books which study this approach. Until now, no book has addressed in detail all key issues in the field including apriori stability and robust stability results. Engineers and MPC researchers now have a volume that provides a complete overview of the theory and practice of MPC as it relates to process and control engineering. Model-Based Predictive Control, A Practical Approach, analyzes predictive control from its base mathematical foundation, but delivers the subject matter in a readable, intuitive style. The author writes in layman's terms, avoiding jargon and using a style that relies upon personal insight into practical applications. This detailed introduction to predictive control introduces basic MPC concepts and demonstrates how they are applied in the design and control of systems, experiments, and industrial processes. The text outlines how to model, provide robustness, handle constraints, ensure feasibility, and guarantee stability. It also details options in regard to algorithms, models, and complexity vs. performance issues.

Model Predictive Control mit MATLAB und Simulink

Model Predictive Control mit MATLAB und Simulink Book
Author : Rainer Dittmar
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2019-12-04
ISBN : 1838800956
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Modellbasierte prädiktive Regelungen dienen der Lösung anspruchsvoller Aufgaben der Mehrgrößenregelung mit Beschränkungen der Stell- und Regelgrößen. Sie werden in der Industrie in vielen Bereichen erfolgreich eingesetzt. Mit der MPC ToolboxTM des Programmsystems MATLAB®/Simulink® steht ein Werkzeug zur Verfügung, das sowohl in der industriellen Praxis als auch an Universitäten und Hochschulen verwendet wird. Das vorliegende Buch gibt eine Übersicht über die Grundideen und Anwendungsvorteile des MPC-Konzepts. Es zeigt, wie mit Hilfe der Toolbox MPC-Regelungen entworfen, eingestellt und simuliert werden können. Ausgewählte Beispiele aus dem Bereich der Verfahrenstechnik demonstrieren mögliche Vorgehensweisen und vertiefen das Verständnis. Das Buch richtet sich an in der Industrie tätige Ingenieure, die MPC-Regelungen planen, entwickeln und betreiben, aber auch an Studierende technischer Fachdisziplinen, die in das Arbeitsgebiet MPC einsteigen wollen. Model Predictive Control (MPC) is used to solve challenging multivariable-constrained control problems. MPC systems are successfully applied in many different branches of industry. The MPC ToolboxTM of MATLAB®/Simulink® provides powerful tools for industrial MPC application, but also for education and research at technical universities. This book gives an overview of the basic ideas and advantages of the MPC concept. It shows how MPC systems can be designed, tuned, and simulated using the MPC Toolbox. Selected process engineering benchmark examples are used to demonstrate typical design approaches and help deepen the understanding of MPC technologies. The book is aimed at engineers in industry interested in the development and application of MPC systems, as well as students of different technical disciplines seeking an introduction into this field.This book gives an overview of the basic ideas and advantages of the MPC concept. It shows how MPC systems can be designed, tuned, and simulated using the MPC Toolbox. Selected process engineering benchmark examples are used to demonstrate typical design approaches and help deepen the understanding of MPC technologies. The book is aimed at engineers in industry interested in the development and application of MPC systems, as well as students of different technical disciplines seeking an introduction into this field.

Economic Model Predictive Control

Economic Model Predictive Control Book
Author : Matthew Ellis,Jinfeng Liu,Panagiotis D. Christofides
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-07-27
ISBN : 331941108X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents general methods for the design of economic model predictive control (EMPC) systems for broad classes of nonlinear systems that address key theoretical and practical considerations including recursive feasibility, closed-loop stability, closed-loop performance, and computational efficiency. Specifically, the book proposes: Lyapunov-based EMPC methods for nonlinear systems; two-tier EMPC architectures that are highly computationally efficient; and EMPC schemes handling explicitly uncertainty, time-varying cost functions, time-delays and multiple-time-scale dynamics. The proposed methods employ a variety of tools ranging from nonlinear systems analysis, through Lyapunov-based control techniques to nonlinear dynamic optimization. The applicability and performance of the proposed methods are demonstrated through a number of chemical process examples. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for the design of economic model predictive control systems for chemical processes.In addition to being mathematically rigorous, these methods accommodate key practical issues, for example, direct optimization of process economics, time-varying economic cost functions and computational efficiency. Numerous comments and remarks providing fundamental understanding of the merging of process economics and feedback control into a single framework are included. A control engineer can easily tailor the many detailed examples of industrial relevance given within the text to a specific application. The authors present a rich collection of new research topics and references to significant recent work making Economic Model Predictive Control an important source of information and inspiration for academics and graduate students researching the area and for process engineers interested in applying its ideas.

Model Predictive Control System Design and Implementation Using MATLAB

Model Predictive Control System Design and Implementation Using MATLAB   Book
Author : Liuping Wang
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2010-10-21
ISBN : 9781849968362
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Model Predictive Control System Design and Implementation Using MATLAB® proposes methods for design and implementation of MPC systems using basis functions that confer the following advantages: - continuous- and discrete-time MPC problems solved in similar design frameworks; - a parsimonious parametric representation of the control trajectory gives rise to computationally efficient algorithms and better on-line performance; and - a more general discrete-time representation of MPC design that becomes identical to the traditional approach for an appropriate choice of parameters. After the theoretical presentation, coverage is given to three industrial applications. The subject of quadratic programming, often associated with the core optimization algorithms of MPC is also introduced and explained. The technical contents of this book is mainly based on advances in MPC using state-space models and basis functions. This volume includes numerous analytical examples and problems and MATLAB® programs and exercises.

Model Predictive Control

Model Predictive Control Book
Author : Ridong Zhang,Anke Xue,Furong Gao
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-08-14
ISBN : 9811300836
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This monograph introduces the authors’ work on model predictive control system design using extended state space and extended non-minimal state space approaches. It systematically describes model predictive control design for chemical processes, including the basic control algorithms, the extension to predictive functional control, constrained control, closed-loop system analysis, model predictive control optimization-based PID control, genetic algorithm optimization-based model predictive control, and industrial applications. Providing important insights, useful methods and practical algorithms that can be used in chemical process control and optimization, it offers a valuable resource for researchers, scientists and engineers in the field of process system engineering and control engineering.

Fighter Aircraft Maneuver Limiting Using MPC Theory and Application

Fighter Aircraft Maneuver Limiting Using MPC  Theory and Application Book
Author : Daniel Simon
Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
Release : 2017-09-12
ISBN : 9176854507
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Flight control design for modern fighter aircraft is a challenging task. Aircraft are dynamical systems, which naturally contain a variety of constraints and nonlinearities such as, e.g., maximum permissible load factor, angle of attack and control surface deflections. Taking these limitations into account in the design of control systems is becoming increasingly important as the performance and complexity of the aircraft is constantly increasing. The aeronautical industry has traditionally applied feedforward, anti-windup or similar techniques and different ad hoc engineering solutions to handle constraints on the aircraft. However these approaches often rely on engineering experience and insight rather than a theoretical foundation, and can often require a tremendous amount of time to tune. In this thesis we investigate model predictive control as an alternative design tool to handle the constraints that arises in the flight control design. We derive a simple reference tracking MPC algorithm for linear systems that build on the dual mode formulation with guaranteed stability and low complexity suitable for implementation in real time safety critical systems. To reduce the computational burden of nonlinear model predictive control we propose a method to handle the nonlinear constraints, using a set of dynamically generated local inner polytopic approximations. The main benefit of the proposed method is that while computationally cheap it still can guarantee recursive feasibility and convergence. An alternative to deriving MPC algorithms with guaranteed stability properties is to analyze the closed loop stability, post design. Here we focus on deriving a tool based on Mixed Integer Linear Programming for analysis of the closed loop stability and robust stability of linear systems controlled with MPC controllers. To test the performance of model predictive control for a real world example we design and implement a standard MPC controller in the development simulator for the JAS 39 Gripen aircraft at Saab Aeronautics. This part of the thesis focuses on practical and tuning aspects of designing MPC controllers for fighter aircraft. Finally we have compared the MPC design with an alternative approach to maneuver limiting using a command governor.

Advanced Model Predictive Control

Advanced Model Predictive Control Book
Author : Tao Zheng
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2011-07-05
ISBN : 9533072989
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Model Predictive Control (MPC) refers to a class of control algorithms in which a dynamic process model is used to predict and optimize process performance. From lower request of modeling accuracy and robustness to complicated process plants, MPC has been widely accepted in many practical fields. As the guide for researchers and engineers all over the world concerned with the latest developments of MPC, the purpose of "Advanced Model Predictive Control" is to show the readers the recent achievements in this area. The first part of this exciting book will help you comprehend the frontiers in theoretical research of MPC, such as Fast MPC, Nonlinear MPC, Distributed MPC, Multi-Dimensional MPC and Fuzzy-Neural MPC. In the second part, several excellent applications of MPC in modern industry are proposed and efficient commercial software for MPC is introduced. Because of its special industrial origin, we believe that MPC will remain energetic in the future.

Intelligent Manufacturing and Energy Sustainability

Intelligent Manufacturing and Energy Sustainability Book
Author : A. N. R. Reddy
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-07-28
ISBN : 9813344431
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Intelligent Manufacturing and Energy Sustainability book written by A. N. R. Reddy, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Economic Model Predictive Control

Economic Model Predictive Control Book
Author : Matthew Ellis,Jinfeng Liu,Panagiotis D. Christofides
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-08-09
ISBN : 9783319411071
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents general methods for the design of economic model predictive control (EMPC) systems for broad classes of nonlinear systems that address key theoretical and practical considerations including recursive feasibility, closed-loop stability, closed-loop performance, and computational efficiency. Specifically, the book proposes: Lyapunov-based EMPC methods for nonlinear systems; two-tier EMPC architectures that are highly computationally efficient; and EMPC schemes handling explicitly uncertainty, time-varying cost functions, time-delays and multiple-time-scale dynamics. The proposed methods employ a variety of tools ranging from nonlinear systems analysis, through Lyapunov-based control techniques to nonlinear dynamic optimization. The applicability and performance of the proposed methods are demonstrated through a number of chemical process examples. The book presents state-of-the-art methods for the design of economic model predictive control systems for chemical processes.In addition to being mathematically rigorous, these methods accommodate key practical issues, for example, direct optimization of process economics, time-varying economic cost functions and computational efficiency. Numerous comments and remarks providing fundamental understanding of the merging of process economics and feedback control into a single framework are included. A control engineer can easily tailor the many detailed examples of industrial relevance given within the text to a specific application. The authors present a rich collection of new research topics and references to significant recent work making Economic Model Predictive Control an important source of information and inspiration for academics and graduate students researching the area and for process engineers interested in applying its ideas.

Networked and Distributed Predictive Control

Networked and Distributed Predictive Control Book
Author : Panagiotis D. Christofides,Jinfeng Liu,David Muñoz de la Peña
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-04-07
ISBN : 9780857295828
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Networked and Distributed Predictive Control presents rigorous, yet practical, methods for the design of networked and distributed predictive control systems – the first book to do so. The design of model predictive control systems using Lyapunov-based techniques accounting for the influence of asynchronous and delayed measurements is followed by a treatment of networked control architecture development. This shows how networked control can augment dedicated control systems in a natural way and takes advantage of additional, potentially asynchronous and delayed measurements to maintain closed loop stability and significantly to improve closed-loop performance. The text then shifts focus to the design of distributed predictive control systems that cooperate efficiently in computing optimal manipulated input trajectories that achieve desired stability, performance and robustness specifications but spend a fraction of the time required by centralized control systems. Key features of this book include: • new techniques for networked and distributed control system design; • insight into issues associated with networked and distributed predictive control and their solution; • detailed appraisal of industrial relevance using computer simulation of nonlinear chemical process networks and wind- and solar-energy-generation systems; and • integrated exposition of novel research topics and rich resource of references to significant recent work. A full understanding of Networked and Distributed Predictive Control requires a basic knowledge of differential equations, linear and nonlinear control theory and optimization methods and the book is intended for academic researchers and graduate students studying control and for process control engineers. The constant attention to practical matters associated with implementation of the theory discussed will help each of these groups understand the application of the book’s methods in greater depth.

MPC Based Reference Governors

MPC Based Reference Governors Book
Author : Martin Klaučo,Michal Kvasnica
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2019-05-21
ISBN : 3030174050
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This monograph focuses on the design of optimal reference governors using model predictive control (MPC) strategies. These MPC-based governors serve as a supervisory control layer that generates optimal trajectories for lower-level controllers such that the safety of the system is enforced while optimizing the overall performance of the closed-loop system. The first part of the monograph introduces the concept of optimization-based reference governors, provides an overview of the fundamentals of convex optimization and MPC, and discusses a rigorous design procedure for MPC-based reference governors. The design procedure depends on the type of lower-level controller involved and four practical cases are covered: PID lower-level controllers; linear quadratic regulators; relay-based controllers; and cases where the lower-level controllers are themselves model predictive controllers. For each case the authors provide a thorough theoretical derivation of the corresponding reference governor, followed by illustrative examples. The second part of the book is devoted to practical aspects of MPC-based reference governor schemes. Experimental and simulation case studies from four applications are discussed in depth: control of a power generation unit; temperature control in buildings; stabilization of objects in a magnetic field; and vehicle convoy control. Each chapter includes precise mathematical formulations of the corresponding MPC-based governor, reformulation of the control problem into an optimization problem, and a detailed presentation and comparison of results. The case studies and practical considerations of constraints will help control engineers working in various industries in the use of MPC at the supervisory level. The detailed mathematical treatments will attract the attention of academic researchers interested in the applications of MPC.

Model Predictive Control System Design and Implementation Using MATLAB

Model Predictive Control System Design and Implementation Using MATLAB   Book
Author : Liuping Wang
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-03-04
ISBN : 1848823304
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Model Predictive Control System Design and Implementation Using MATLAB® proposes methods for design and implementation of MPC systems using basis functions that confer the following advantages: - continuous- and discrete-time MPC problems solved in similar design frameworks; - a parsimonious parametric representation of the control trajectory gives rise to computationally efficient algorithms and better on-line performance; and - a more general discrete-time representation of MPC design that becomes identical to the traditional approach for an appropriate choice of parameters. After the theoretical presentation, coverage is given to three industrial applications. The subject of quadratic programming, often associated with the core optimization algorithms of MPC is also introduced and explained. The technical contents of this book is mainly based on advances in MPC using state-space models and basis functions. This volume includes numerous analytical examples and problems and MATLAB® programs and exercises.

Digital Twin Development and Deployment on the Cloud

Digital Twin Development and Deployment on the Cloud Book
Author : Nassim Khaled,Bibin Pattel,Affan Siddiqui
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-05-24
ISBN : 0128216468
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Digital Twin Development and Deployment in the Cloud: Developing Cloud-Friendly Dynamic Models Using Simulink®/SimscapeTM and Amazon AWS promotes a physics-based approach to the field of digital twins. Through the use of multiphysics models running in the cloud, significant improvement to the diagnostics and prognostic of systems can be attained. The book draws a clear definition of digital twins, helping business leaders clearly identify the value it brings. In addition, it outlines the key elements needed for deployment, including the hardware and software tools needed. Special attention is paid to the process of developing and deploying the multi-physics models of the digital twins. Provides a high-level overview of digital twins and their underutilization in the field of asset management and maintenance Proposes a streamline process to create digital twins for a wide variety of applications using MATLAB® SimscapeTM Deploys developed digital twins on Amazon Web Services Includes MATLAB and Simulink codes available for free download on MATLAB central Covers popular prototyping hardwares, such as Arduino and Raspberry Pi

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Combustion Engines

Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Combustion Engines Book
Author : Thivaharan Albin Rajasingham
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-07-28
ISBN : 303068010X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Nonlinear Model Predictive Control of Combustion Engines book written by Thivaharan Albin Rajasingham, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Dynamic Modeling and Predictive Control in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

Dynamic Modeling and Predictive Control in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Book
Author : Biao Huang,Yutong Qi,A. K. M. Monjur Murshed
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2013-02-18
ISBN : 0470973919
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"A timely treatment of the modeling and advanced control of the most promising fuel cell technology - SOFC (solid oxide fuel cells) - from cell to system levelDynamic Modeling and Predictive Control in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells: Delivers comprehensive coverage of SOFC dynamic models and modeling approach from first principles, bringing together many aspects of SOFC technology in one book for the first time Provides parameters for all models developed for easy reference and reproducing of the results Discusses lumped model and distributed model from cell level to system level Applications to the state-of-the-art unscented Kalman filter, model predictive control, and monitoring techniques to SOFC systems Uses NMPC, which is well understood by both industry and academia Essential reading for Graduate students and researchers in the area of fuel cells, process systems engineering, control systems engineering, process control and electrochemical engineering"--

Lasso MPC Predictive Control with l1 Regularised Least Squares

Lasso MPC     Predictive Control with l1 Regularised Least Squares Book
Author : Marco Gallieri
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-03-31
ISBN : 3319279637
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This thesis proposes a novel Model Predictive Control (MPC) strategy, which modifies the usual MPC cost function in order to achieve a desirable sparse actuation. It features an l1-regularised least squares loss function, in which the control error variance competes with the sum of input channels magnitude (or slew rate) over the whole horizon length. While standard control techniques lead to continuous movements of all actuators, this approach enables a selected subset of actuators to be used, the others being brought into play in exceptional circumstances. The same approach can also be used to obtain asynchronous actuator interventions, so that control actions are only taken in response to large disturbances. This thesis presents a straightforward and systematic approach to achieving these practical properties, which are ignored by mainstream control theory.