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Practical Aspects Of Vaccine Development

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Practical Aspects of Vaccine Development

Practical Aspects of Vaccine Development Book
Author : Parag Kolhe,Satoshi Ohtake
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-09-24
ISBN : 0128143576
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Formulation, Development and Manufacturing of Vaccines: The Practical Aspects provides an industry perspective on vaccine product development and manufacture that covers their formulation development, manufacture and delivery/in-use considerations of vaccine production. With the increasing complexity of vaccine products in development, there is a need for a comprehensive review of the current state of the industry and its challenges. While formulation scientists working in biotherapeutic development may be familiar with proteins, vaccines present unique challenges, including the wide range of vaccine components that may comprise proteins, polysaccharides, protein-polysaccharide conjugates, adjuvants, etc. and the varying stability and behavior of solution- and suspension-based systems. This book is an essential resource for formulation scientists, researchers in vaccine development throughout medical and life sciences, and advanced students. Includes formulation considerations for various vaccine types, including proteins, polysaccharides, conjugates and live vaccines Considers process development for solution, suspension and lyophilized products Explores the future potential of vaccines, including multi-component vaccines and novel delivery mechanisms/devices

Mucosal Vaccines

Mucosal Vaccines Book
Author : Hiroshi Kiyono
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1996-10-23
ISBN : 9780080537054
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This comprehensive, authoritative treatise covers all aspects of mucosal vaccines including their development, mechanisms of action, molecular/cellular aspects, and practical applications. The contributing authors and editors of this one-of-a-kind book are very well known in their respective fields. Mucosal Vaccines is organized in a unique format in which basic, clinical, and practical aspects of the mucosal immune system for vaccine development are described and discussed. This project is endorsed by the Society for Mucosal Immunology. Provides the latest views on mucosal vaccines Applies basic principles to the development of new vaccines Links basic, clinical, and practical aspects of mucosal vaccines to different infectious diseases Unique and user-friendly organization

Vaccinology and Methods in Vaccine Research

Vaccinology and Methods in Vaccine Research Book
Author : Rebecca Ashfield,Angus Nnamdi Oli,Charles Esimone,Linda Onyeka Anagu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2022-03-15
ISBN : 9780323911467
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Vaccinology and Methods in Vaccine Research is a combination of cutting-edge methodologies, experimental approaches and literature reviews. The book covers all aspects of vaccine development, including basic immunology (focusing on the stimulation of adaptive immunity, which is required for vaccine efficacy), approaches to vaccine design and target validation, vaccine biomanufacturer and clinical development. Existing vaccinology resources are theoretical reference books, whereas this book provides a practical handbook for use in the research lab and classroom by those working in vaccinology and training others in the field. It is authored and edited by scientists actively engaged in vaccine research and development for day-to-day teaching/methodological advice. Addresses how to design a vaccine for an emerging disease, from a practical point-of -view, with chapters written by scientists who are grappling with these questions Provides new approaches to vaccine development. including vaccine targeting and virus-like-particle vaccines Gives up-to-date information and methodologies in use for vaccine adjuvants

Molecular Vaccines

Molecular Vaccines Book
Author : Matthias Giese
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-08
ISBN : 3319009788
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This title discusses all aspects of non-infectious and non-cancer– so called NINC – vaccines. Hypertension, diabetes and allergy vaccine development are referred to as well as the use of adjuvants and nanotechnology in vaccine development. The way of novel vaccines from bench to preclinical to clinical studies and launch to the market under EMEA (European Medicines Agency) and FDA (Food and Drug Administration) guidelines are described in-depth. The book is therefore of interest for researchers and clinicians engaged in vaccine development and molecular vaccine application.

Vaccine Manual The Production and Quality Control of Veterinary Vaccines for Use in Developing Countries

Vaccine Manual  The Production and Quality Control of Veterinary Vaccines for Use in Developing Countries Book
Author : Noel Mowat
Publisher : Daya Books
Release : 1999
ISBN : 9788170352174
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In December 1991, at FAO Headquarters in Rome, the Animal Production and Health Division held an Expert Consultation in the Quality Control of Veterinary Vaccines in Developing Countries. The purpose of the consultation was to bring together experts in various aspects of vaccine production and quality control, to consider existing problems and likely future developments in the application of vaccines for the control of animal disease and to make recommendations in this important field. The consultation recommended that FAO lead the way in forging a closer cooperation among international organizations in the development of a more coherent approach to vaccine quality control; this manual is FAO s response to that recommendation. Written by some of the most highly regarded international experts in the field, the manual is principally concerned with providing guidelines and recommendations for the application of modern methods of vaccine production and evaluation, and also presents information on the state of veterinary vaccine development. Contents: Part I: Overview: The Present State of Veterinary Vaccine Development Chapter 1: The Introduction of Immunity by Veterinary Immunoprophylactics by W I Morrison, Chapter 2: Genetically Engineered Vaccines by B W J Mahy, Chapter 3: Viral Vaccines by F Brown, Chapter 4: Bacterial Vaccines by P D Walker, Chapter 5: Mycoplasmal Vaccines by A Provost, Chapter 6:Protozoal and Rickettsial Vaccines by A J DeVos, E Pipano, F Muissi and W K Jorgenesn, Chapter 7: Multicellular Parasite Vaccines by J B McKeand and D P Knox, Poultry Vaccines (1) Chapter 8: Conventional Vaccines by J B McFerran, Poultry Vaccines (2) Chapter 9: Special Requirements for Village Chickens by R P Spradbrow, Chapter 10: Fish Vaccines by A Adams, K D Thompson and R J Roberts, Chapter 11: Role of the Office International des Epizooties and International Organizations in Vaccine Quality Standardization by M Truszcynski and J Blancou. Part II: Planning and Management of Vaccine Production Chapter 12: Registration, Licensing, Controls and Practical Issues Related to Veterinary Vaccines by P Vannier, Chapter 13: The Role of Private Industry in the Transfer of Vaccine Tecnology to Developing Countries by A J B Haigh, Chapter 14: General Design and Operating Requirements for Vaccine Manufacturing Establishments by P J Radlett, Chapter 15: Design, Repair and Maintenance of Vaccine Manufacturing Establishments and Equipment by J Estefanell and L Mesopir, Chapter 16: Aspects of Financial Management of Vaccine Manufacturing Operations in Developing Countries by P deGreve, Chapter 17: The Logistics of Vaccine Manufacture in Developing Countries by P Hunter. Part III: Production Operations Chapter 18: Basic Laboratory Services and Media Preparation for Vaccine Production by E E Worrall, Chapter 19: Modern Cell Culture Technology for Vaccine Manufacture by P J Radlett, Chapter 20: Fermentation Technology for the Production of Bacterial Vaccines by F Bover, Chapter 21: The Use of Lyophilization in the Manufacture of Vaccines by J C Mariner, Inactivation of Antigents for Veterinary Vaccines (1) Chapter 22: Viral Vaccines by H G Bahnemann, Inactivation of Antigents for Veterinary Vaccines (2) Chapter 23: Bacterial Vaccines, Chapter 24: Adjuvants in Veterinary Vaccines by R Bomford, Chapter 25: Bottling, Labelling and Packaging of Vaccines by V A Srinivasan, A P Kariath and P B V P Bangar Raju. Part IV: Quality Assurance and Quality Control Chapter 26: Quality Assurance and Good Manufacturing Practice by J P Soulebot, V J Palya, M Rweyemamu and D Sylla, Chapter 27: The Principles of Good Laboratory Practices, Including Safety in Vaccines Production and Quality Control by C A Mebus, Chapter 28: The Role of Reference and Regional Laboratories by A I Donaldson and V Astudillo, Chapter 29: Description and Documentation of Production and Quality Control of Veterinary Vaccines by S Ullah and G Blocks, Chapter 30: Assessment of Potency in Bacterial Vaccines by P A Knight, Chapter 31: Potency Control of Modified Live Viral Vaccines by C Terpstra, Chapter 32: Potency Assessment of Inactivated Viral Vaccines by T R Doel, Chapter 33: In Vitro Potency Testing of Inactivated Biologics: Current Situation in the European Union by J P Soulebot, F Milward and P Prevost, Chapter 34: Sterility Management and Testing of Vaccines and Raw Materials for Adventitious Agents by G Blocks.

Vaccinology

Vaccinology Book
Author : Gregg N. Milligan,Alan D. T. Barrett
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-02-16
ISBN : 0470656166
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Vaccinology: An Essential Guide outlines in a clear, practical format the entire vaccine development process, from conceptualization and basic immunological principles through to clinical testing and licensing of vaccines. With an outstanding introduction to the history and practice of vaccinology, it also guides the reader through the basic science relating to host immune responses to pathogens. Covering the safety, regulatory, ethical, and economic and geographical issues that drive vaccine development and trials, it also presents vaccine delivery strategies, novel vaccine platforms (including experimental vaccines and pathogens), antigen development and selection, vaccine modelling, and the development of vaccines against emerging pathogens and agents of bioterror. There are also sections devoted to veterinary vaccines and associated regulatory processes. Vaccinology: An Essential Guide is a perfect tool for designed for undergraduate and graduate microbiologists and immunologists, as well as residents, fellows and trainees of infectious disease and vaccinology. It is also suitable for all those involved in designing and conducting clinical vaccine trials, and is the ideal companion to the larger reference book Vaccinology: Principles and Practice.

Vaccines

Vaccines Book
Author : Gregory Gregoriadis,Brenda McCormack,Anthony C. Allison
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1996-02-29
ISBN : 9780306452833
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

During the last decade or so vaccine development has been facilitated by rapid advances in molecular and cell biology. These have laid the foundations of a new generation of vaccines exemplified by subunit vaccines produced through gene cloning and by synthetic peptides mimicking small regions of proteins on the outer coat of viruses. Such peptide~ are capable of eliciting virus-neutralizing antibodies. Unfortunately, subunit and peptide vaccines are only weakly or non immunogenic in the absence of immunological adjuvants that are known to augment specific cell-mediated immune responses to the antigens and to promote the formation of protective antibodies. This book contains the proceedings of the 4th NATO Advanced Studies Institute (ASI) "Vaccines: New Generation Immunological Adjuvants" held at Cape Sounion Beach, Greece, during 24 June -5 . July 1994 and deals in depth with both theoretical and practical aspects of vaccinology. These include the role of antigen presenting cells in the induction of immune responses. immunopotentiation by a variety of new generation immunological adjuvants and vaccine carriers. and recent advances and perspectives in experimental vaccines as well as vaccinatioll with nucleic acids. We express our appreciation to Dr. K. Dalsgaard and Dr. J. L. Virelizier for their cooperatioll in planning the ASI and to Mrs. Concha Pening for her excellent production of the manuscripts. The ASI was held under the sponsorship of NATO Scientific Affairs Division and generously co-sponsored by SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals (Philadelphia).

Vaccine Design

Vaccine Design Book
Author : Sunil Thomas
Publisher : Humana
Release : 2021-10-14
ISBN : 9781071618912
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume provides a practical guide providing step-by-step methods and protocols on vaccine development and production. Divided into three volumes, Volume 3: Resources for Vaccine Development guides readers through chapters on vaccine adjuvants, vaccine vectors, production, vaccine delivery systems, vaccine bioinformatics, vaccine regulation, and intellectual property. Written in the format of the highly successful Methods in Molecular Biology series, each chapter includes an introduction to the topic, lists necessary materials and reagents, includes tips on troubleshooting and known pitfalls, and step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols. Authoritative and practical, Vaccine Design: Methods and Protocols, Second Edition, Volume 3: Resources for Vaccine Development aims to be a useful practical guide to researchers to help further their study in this field.

Genetically Engineered Plants as a Source of Vaccines Against Wide Spread Diseases

Genetically Engineered Plants as a Source of Vaccines Against Wide Spread Diseases Book
Author : Sergio Rosales-Mendoza
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-06-21
ISBN : 1493908502
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genetically Engineered Plants as a Source of Vaccines Against Wide Spread Diseases: An Integrated View provides an integrated outlook of the disciplines involved in the development of plant-based vaccines as well as an updated compilation of the successful developments in the field. The volume covers immunological aspects of mucosal vaccine design, molecular approaches to attain high levels of the recombinant antigens, the rationale of using bioreactor to expand plant biomass, and pharmaceutical technology approaches that have been applied to the development of plant-based vaccine formulations. Practical figures and tables are presented to facilitate reading and identification of key points. Perspectives for this field are also discussed. Written by authorities in the field, Genetically Engineered Plants as a Source of Vaccines Against Wide Spread Diseases: An Integrated View is a comprehensive resource for researchers and students interested in plant genetics and breeding, immunology, and genetic engineering.

Ranking Vaccines

Ranking Vaccines Book
Author : National Academy of Engineering,Institute of Medicine,Board on Global Health,Board on Population Health and Public Health Practice,Committee on Identifying and Prioritizing New Preventive Vaccines for Development, Phase III
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2015-02-20
ISBN : 0309304067
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

SMART Vaccines - Strategic Multi-Attribute Ranking Tool for Vaccines - is a prioritization software tool developed by the Institute of Medicine that utilizes decision science and modeling to help inform choices among candidates for new vaccine development. A blueprint for this computer-based guide was presented in the 2012 report Ranking Vaccines: A Prioritization Framework: Phase I. The 2013 Phase II report refined a beta version of the model developed in the Phase I report. Ranking Vaccines: Applications of a Prioritization Software Tool: Phase III: Use Case Studies and Data Framework extends this project by demonstrating the practical applications of SMART Vaccines through use case scenarios in partnership with the Public Health Agency of Canada, New York State Department of Health, and the Serum Institute of India. This report also explores a novel application of SMART Vaccines in determining new vaccine product profiles, and offers practical strategies for data synthesis and estimation to encourage the broader use of the software.

Practical Aspects of Trapped Ion Mass Spectrometry Volume IV

Practical Aspects of Trapped Ion Mass Spectrometry  Volume IV Book
Author : Raymond E. March,John F.J. Todd
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2010-05-25
ISBN : 9781420083729
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reflecting the substantial increase in popularity of quadrupole ion traps and Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometers, Practical Aspects of Trapped Ion Mass Spectrometry, Volume IV: Theory and Instrumentation explores the historical origins of the latest advances in this expanding field. It covers new methods for trapping ions, such as the OrbitrapTM, the digital ion trap (DIT), the rectilinear ion trap (RIT), and the toroidal ion trap; the development and application of the quadrupole ion trap (QIT) and the quadrupole linear ion trap (LIT); and the introduction of high-field asymmetric waveform ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS). After a combined appreciation and historical survey of mass spectrometry and a discussion of how improved capabilities for microfabrication have led to interest in arrays of ion traps, the book examines the theory and practice of the Orbitrap mass analyzer, the rectangular waveform-driven DIT mass spectrometer, FAIMS, and ion traps with circular geometries. It next discusses ion accumulation for increasing sensitivity in FT-ICR spectrometry, a radio frequency-only-mode event for Penning traps in FT MS, and an FT operating mode applied to a 3D-QIT. The text then presents three behavioral aspects of quadrupole rod sets, before illustrating the development of the 3D-QIT in recent years. The final chapters explore photodissociation in ion traps and the chemical and photochemical studies of metal dication complexes in a 3D-QIT. In this volume that spans twenty-one chapters, a stellar panel of leading experts and up-and-coming researchers presents a cohesive, global, and up-to-date view of the practical aspects of using trapped ion devices. A companion to Volume V: Applications of Ion Trapping Devices, the book authoritatively covers the theory involved as well as the instrumentation currently used in this dynamic field.

Enteric Infections and Immunity

Enteric Infections and Immunity Book
Author : Lois J. Paradise,Mauro Bendinelli,Herman Friedman
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-22
ISBN : 1489903135
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

As we approach the end of this millennium, enteric diseases remain impor tant public health problems. In many parts of the world, sanitary measures have advanced little over the last century, although some of the governments in those areas are striving to improve facilities for sanitation and to educate their people in proper handling of food, water, sewage, and other modes of transmission of pathogenic microbes. Even in highly developed countries, outbreaks of diarrheal diseases occur today. Globally, the annual morbidity from enteric infections is estimated at several billion and deaths at several million per year. In this volume, descriptions of some of these diseases, of immunity that results from them, of clinical studies that promote under standing of individual and community immunity, of molecular factors of pathogenesis, and/or of advances in vaccine development have been pro vided by leading researchers. At present, the application of molecular methods is enhancing the identification of protective antigens of many microorganisms. In addition, new methods for design and delivery of vac cines are being devised. Perhaps then more effective tools for reducing at least some of these diseases will be available within the next decade. Lois J. Paradise Herman Friedman Mauro Bendinelli vii Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv LOIS J. PARADISE 1. Indigenous Microorganisms as a Host Defense 1 KENNETH H. WILSON 1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2. Composition of Intestinal Biota. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3. Molecular Approaches to Determine Composition of the Biota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 4. Role of the Host in Determining the Composition of the Biota . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Biologics 2000

Biologics 2000 Book
Author : Fred Brown,Anthony S. Lubiniecki,Genesio Murano
Publisher : S Karger Ag
Release : 2002
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Reviews current scientific developments and regulatory issues relating to establishing comparability of biological products when manufactured within a single company or jointly with other companies.

Marine Fisheries Review

Marine Fisheries Review Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1978
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Marine Fisheries Review book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Nanovaccines

Nanovaccines Book
Author : Sergio Rosales-Mendoza,Omar González-Ortega
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2019-11-07
ISBN : 3030316688
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides a compilation of the current developments in mucosal nanovaccines, which are an attractive approach to fight against infectious and non-communicable diseases. Since nanomaterials possess unique properties; many of them have a positive effect on vaccine efficacy when used as antigen carriers and have been applied in vaccinology with significant advances over the past years. This book addresses the methodologies for mucosal nanovaccines synthesis; based on the following nanomaterials: gold, PLGA, silica, and chitosan nanoparticles; as well as nanogels, carbon nanotubes, liposomes, and Virus-like particles. A description of the immunogenic properties of the mucosal nanovaccines is presented, highlighting the improvements achieved with this approach when compared to conventional formulations. Mucosal vaccines constitute the most practical immunization approach since they are easy to administer (promoting patient ́s comfort and increasing compliance), allow triggering relevant immune responses at both the site of administration and distant compartments, and thus may protect the main entry portal for pathogens (oral, nasal, and genital mucosae). In this context, the potential of nanovaccines to result in new mucosal formulations in the benefit of global health is analyzed. Covers the synthesis and functionalization of nanomaterials for the development of nanovaccines; Discusses the underlying mechanisms involved in the induction of immune responses through mucosal compartments and the advantages of nanomaterials in the formulation of nanovaccines; Transmits the state of the art for the development of mucosal nanovaccines; Provides routes for the design and evaluation of mucosal nanovaccines; Presents key perspectives for the field of mucosal vaccine development.

Commercial Fisheries Review

Commercial Fisheries Review Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1978
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Commercial Fisheries Review book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Fish Health News

Fish Health News Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1978
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Fish Health News book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Vaccinology

Vaccinology Book
Author : Gregg N. Milligan,Alan D. T. Barrett
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-12-04
ISBN : 1118636287
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Vaccinology: An Essential Guide outlines in a clear,practical format the entire vaccine development process, fromconceptualization and basic immunological principles through toclinical testing and licensing of vaccines. With anoutstanding introduction to the history and practice ofvaccinology, it also guides the reader through the basic sciencerelating to host immune responses to pathogens. Covering the safety, regulatory, ethical, and economicand geographical issues that drive vaccine development and trials,it also presents vaccine delivery strategies, novel vaccineplatforms (including experimental vaccines and pathogens), antigendevelopment and selection, vaccine modelling, and the developmentof vaccines against emerging pathogens and agents of bioterror.There are also sections devoted to veterinary vaccines andassociated regulatory processes. Vaccinology: An Essential Guide is a perfect tool fordesigned for undergraduate and graduate microbiologists andimmunologists, as well as residents, fellows and trainees ofinfectious disease and vaccinology. It is also suitable for allthose involved in designing and conducting clinical vaccine trials,and is the ideal companion to the larger reference bookVaccinology: Principles and Practice.

ADME and Translational Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics of Therapeutic Proteins

ADME and Translational Pharmacokinetics   Pharmacodynamics of Therapeutic Proteins Book
Author : Honghui Zhou,Frank-Peter Theil
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2015-10-26
ISBN : 111889880X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With an emphasis on the fundamental and practical aspects of ADME for therapeutic proteins, this book helps readers strategize, plan and implement translational research for biologic drugs. • Details cutting-edge ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion) and PKPD (pharmacokinetic / pharmacodynamics) modeling for biologic drugs • Combines theoretical with practical aspects of ADME in biologic drug discovery and development and compares innovator biologics with biosimilar biologics and small molecules with biologics, giving a lessons-learned perspective • Includes case studies about leveraging ADME to improve biologics drug development for monoclonal antibodies, fusion proteins, pegylated proteins, ADCs, bispecifics, and vaccines • Presents regulatory expectations and industry perspectives for developing biologic drugs in USA, EU, and Japan • Provides mechanistic insight into biodistribution and target-driven pharmacokinetics in important sites of action such as tumors and the brain

Vaccine Development in Trypanosomiasis

Vaccine Development in Trypanosomiasis Book
Author : I. Muriithi,R. M. Kovatch,B. T. Wellde,W. T. Hockmeyer,ARMY MEDICAL RESEARCH UNIT (Kenya)
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1977
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This program sought to develop an effective, practical vaccine against African trypanosomiasis, useful to both military and civilian agencies. Related benefits include acquisition of knowledge pertaining to trypanosome immunity, host response and pathology of infection. Experiments conducted at WRAIR and in Kenya have demonstrated that experimental animals can be successfully immunized with irradiated trypanosomes. Rodents, cattle and monkeys can be rendered completely resistant to a challenging infection of T. rhodesiense. Partial immunity has been achieved against T. congolense. Continuing studies in Lambwe Valley, Western Kenya, show that 18 of 31 and 21 of 29 isolates from humans over a 7-year period are neutralized by two antisera, respectively. Five of 27 isolates from bovines also were neutralized by one antiserum. This indicates that stability of antigenic types has persisted throughout this period and that cattle are a reservoir host in the valley. Complete resistence to T. congolense has been achieved by repeated infection and cure. This immunity appears to be maintained after both syringe and tsetse fly challenge.