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Poly lactic acid

Poly lactic acid  Book
Author : Rafael A. Auras,Loong-Tak Lim,Susan E. M. Selke,Hideto Tsuji
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2011-03-08
ISBN : 9781118088135
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes the synthesis, properties, and processing methods of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), an important family of degradable plastics. As the need for environmentally-friendly packaging materials increases, consumers and companies are in search for new materials that are largely produced from renewable resources, and are recyclable. To that end, an overall theme of the book is the biodegradability, recycling, and sustainability benefits of PLA. The chapters, from a base of international expert contributors, describe specific processing methods, spectroscopy techniques for PLA analysis, and and applications in medical items, packaging, and environmental use.

Polylactic Acid

Polylactic Acid Book
Author : Lee Tin Sin,Abdul Razak Rahmat,Wan A. W. A. Rahman
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2012
ISBN : 1437744591
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Annotation An essential reference for engineers, scientists and product designers that already work with polymers and plastics who wish to convert to a sustainable plastic. It covers the properties, synthesis and polymerisation of PLA and processing techniques involved in fabricating parts from this polymer.

Polylactic Acid Production Cost Analysis PLA E11A

Polylactic Acid Production   Cost Analysis   PLA E11A Book
Author : Intratec
Publisher : Intratec
Release : 2019-09-17
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report presents a cost analysis of Polylactic Acid (PLA) production from lactic acid using a melt-phase polymerization process. The process examined is similar to a process developed by Natureworks, in which poly(lactic acid) is produced from a 88 wt% lactic acid solution in water via the ring opening polymerization chemical pathway. In this process lactic acid is first oligomerized and then depolymerized into lactide, a cyclic dimer of lactic acid, which is then polymerized to yield Poly(lactic acid). This report was developed based essentially on the following reference(s): (1) US Patent 8674056, issued to NatureWorks in 2014 (2) EP Patent 1247808, issued to Cargill in 2003 Keywords: Lactide, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Dow, Biodegradable Polymer

HDPE Production via Gas Phase Process Cost Analysis HDPE E12A

HDPE Production via Gas Phase Process   Cost Analysis   HDPE E12A Book
Author : Intratec
Publisher : Intratec Solutions
Release : 2016-05-01
ISBN : 1945324694
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report presents a cost analysis of High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) bimodal production from polymer grade (PG) ethylene and 1-butene using a gas phase process. The process examined is similar to Univation UNIPOL process. This report examines one-time costs associated with the construction of a United States-based plant and the continuing costs associated with the daily operation of such a plant. More specifically, it discusses: * Capital Investment, broken down by: - Total fixed capital required, divided in production unit (ISBL); infrastructure (OSBL) and contingency - Alternative perspective on the total fixed capital, divided in direct costs, indirect costs and contingency - Working capital and costs incurred during industrial plant commissioning and start-up * Production cost, broken down by: - Manufacturing variable costs (raw materials, utilities) - Manufacturing fixed costs (maintenance costs, operating charges, plant overhead, local taxes and insurance) - Depreciation and corporate overhead costs * Raw materials consumption, products generation and labor requirements * Process block flow diagram and description of industrial site installations (production unit and infrastructure) Keywords: Ethene, PE, Butylene, Copolymer

Polylactic Acid Production from Corn Cost Analysis PLA E41A

Polylactic Acid Production from Corn   Cost Analysis   PLA E41A Book
Author : Intratec
Publisher : Intratec
Release : 2017-06-01
ISBN : 1641480521
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report presents a cost analysis of Polylactic Acid (PLA) production starting from corn The first section of the examined process is similar to Cargill process for lactic acid production, while the second section is similar to the NatureWorks process for polymerization of lactic acid. In this process, shelled corn is passed through a wet milling process to form corn starch, which, in turn, is hydrolyzed to dextrose, the feed for the fermentation process that generates lactic acid . Lactic Acid recovery from the fermentation broth is carried out via trialkylamine solvent extraction in the presence of carbon dioxide. A L-Lactic Acid solution in water is formed and further polymerized to form Polylactic Acid. The conversion of corn into dextrose forms some residues that are sold as by-product. This report was developed based essentially on the following reference(s): (1) US Patent 6472559, issued to Cargill in 2002 (2) US Patent 8674056, issued to NatureWorks in 2014 (3) EP Patent 1247808, issued to Cargill in 2003 Keywords: Corn, Corn Starch, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Anaerobic Fermentation, Trialkyl Amine, Sodium Carbonate, Lactide, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Dow, Biodegradable Polymer

Polylactic Acid

Polylactic Acid Book
Author : Vincenzo Piemonte
Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release : 2014-01-19
ISBN : 9781629481487
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes the synthesis, properties and applications of PLA through fourteen original chapters that will guide the reader through a fascinating journey into the world of PLA, providing interesting insights for those who intend to use this polymer for innovative applications, or simply those who want to learn more about this very important biodegradable and bio-based plastic. PLA biodegradability introduces this polymer in a world of eco-friendly and human-friendly applications in several technological fields. In short, this book will appeal to all the readers who not only want to have a reference book of consolidated notions on PLA, but also, and especially, to those who want to discover new potentials and new application fields of this unique biodegradable polymer.

Polylactic Acid Production from Glucose Cost Analysis PLA E21A

Polylactic Acid Production from Glucose   Cost Analysis   PLA E21A Book
Author : Intratec
Publisher : Intratec
Release : 2019-09-17
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report presents a cost analysis of Polylactic Acid (PLA) production starting from glucose syrup. The first section of the examined processis similar to Cargill process for lactic acid production, while the second section is similar to the NatureWorks process for polymerization of lactic acid. In this process, a 70 wt% glucose-water syrup is used as raw material. Lactic Acid recovery from the fermentation broth is realized by trialkylamine solvent extraction in the presence of carbon dioxide. An 88 wt% Lactic Acid solution in water is generated and further polymerized to form Polylactic Acid. This report was developed based essentially on the following reference(s): (1) US Patent 6472559, issued to Cargill in 2002 (2) US Patent 8674056, issued to NatureWorks in 2014 (3) EP Patent 1247808, issued to Cargill in 2003 Keywords: Dextrose, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Anaerobic Fermentation, Trialkyl Amine, Sodium Carbonate, Lactide, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Dow, Biodegradable Polymer

Polylactic Acid for Surgical Implants

Polylactic Acid for Surgical Implants Book
Author : R. K. Kulkarni
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1960
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Polylactic Acid for Surgical Implants book written by R. K. Kulkarni, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

I The Configurational Statistics of Polylactic Acid

I  The Configurational Statistics of Polylactic Acid Book
Author : Alan E. Tonelli
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1968
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download I The Configurational Statistics of Polylactic Acid book written by Alan E. Tonelli, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Development of Polylactic Acid based Materials Through Reactive Modification

Development of Polylactic Acid based Materials Through Reactive Modification Book
Author : Alison Camille Fowlks
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Development of Polylactic Acid based Materials Through Reactive Modification book written by Alison Camille Fowlks, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Development of Polylactic Acid PLA Based Blends and Their Nanocomposites for Packaging Applications

Development of Polylactic Acid  PLA  Based Blends and Their Nanocomposites for Packaging Applications Book
Author : Mariappan Chidambarakumar
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Development of Polylactic Acid PLA Based Blends and Their Nanocomposites for Packaging Applications book written by Mariappan Chidambarakumar, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Polylactic Acid Production from Raw Sugar Cost Analysis PLA E31B

Polylactic Acid Production from Raw Sugar   Cost Analysis   PLA E31B Book
Author : Intratec
Publisher : Intratec
Release : 2017-06-01
ISBN : 1641480440
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report presents a cost analysis of Polylactic Acid (PLA) production starting from raw sugar The first section of the examined processis similar to Cargill process for lactic acid production, while the second section is similar to the NatureWorks process for polymerization of lactic acid. In this process, raw sugar (sucrose) is diluted and sucrose is hydrolyzed into glucose and fructose (invert sugars). The invert sugars are then fermented to produce lactic acid. Lactic Acid recovery from the fermentation broth is done by trialkylamine solvent extraction in the presence of carbon dioxide. An 88 wt% Lactic Acid solution in water is generated and further polymerized to form Polylactic Acid. This report was developed based essentially on the following reference(s): (1) US Patent 6472559, issued to Cargill in 2002 (2) US Patent 8674056, issued to NatureWorks in 2014 (3) EP Patent 1247808, issued to Cargill in 2003 Keywords: Dextrose, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Anaerobic Fermentation, Trialkyl Amine, Sodium Carbonate, Lactide, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Dow, Biodegradable Polymer

Plasticized Polylactic Acid cellulose Nanocomposites Prepared Using Melt extrusion and Liquid Feeding Mechanical Thermal and Optical Properties

Plasticized Polylactic Acid cellulose Nanocomposites Prepared Using Melt extrusion and Liquid Feeding  Mechanical  Thermal and Optical Properties Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: Plasticized polylactic acid (PLA) and its nanocomposite based on cellulose nanofibers (CNF) and glycerol triacetate (GTA) were prepared using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. GTA was used as a plasticizer, a processing aid to facilitate nanofiber dispersion and as a liquid medium for their feeding. The optical, thermal and mechanical properties were characterized and the toughening mechanism was studied. The addition of GTA (20%) and CNF (1%) resulted in increased degree of crystallinity and decreased optical transparency. Furthermore, these additives showed a positive effect on the elongation at break and toughness, which increased from 2% to 31% and from 1 to 8 MJ/m 3, respectively. The combination of slippage of the nanofiber–matrix interface and a massive crazing effect as a result of the presence of CNF is suggested for PLA toughening. CNF were expected to restrict the spherulite growth and therefore enhance the craze nucleation.

Synthesis Structure and Properties of Poly lactic acid

Synthesis  Structure and Properties of Poly lactic acid  Book
Author : Maria Laura Di Lorenzo,René Androsch
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-10-20
ISBN : 3319642308
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The series Advances in Polymer Science presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in polymer and biopolymer science. It covers all areas of research in polymer and biopolymer science including chemistry, physical chemistry, physics, material science.The thematic volumes are addressed to scientists, whether at universities or in industry, who wish to keep abreast of the important advances in the covered topics.Advances in Polymer Science enjoys a longstanding tradition and good reputation in its community. Each volume is dedicated to a current topic, and each review critically surveys one aspect of that topic, to place it within the context of the volume. The volumes typically summarize the significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years and discuss them critically, presenting selected examples, explaining and illustrating the important principles, and bringing together many important references of primary literature. On that basis, future research directions in the area can be discussed. Advances in Polymer Science volumes thus are important references for every polymer scientist, as well as for other scientists interested in polymer science - as an introduction to a neighboring field, or as a compilation of detailed information for the specialist.Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Single contributions can be specially commissioned.Readership: Polymer scientists, or scientists in related fields interested in polymer and biopolymer science, at universities or in industry, graduate students

Polylactic Acid

Polylactic Acid Book
Author : Esmat Jalalvandi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Polylactic Acid book written by Esmat Jalalvandi, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Poly lactic acid Science and Technology

Poly lactic acid  Science and Technology Book
Author : Alfonso Jiménez,Mercedes Peltzer,Roxana Ruseckaite
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2014-11-13
ISBN : 1849738793
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodegradable polymers from renewable resources are sought after for many purposes, from packaging materials in food to biomedical applications. Poly (lactic acid) (PLA) is a well-known biopolymer derived from corn starch or sugar cane used in different food packaging and artificial bones and scaffolds. Poly(lactic acid) Science and Technology first introduces the basic concepts of PLA and then covers PLA synthesis and polymerization, processing, characterization and physical properties of PLA, PLA-based nano-biocomposites, the main applications in active packaging and as biomaterials for tissue engineering, degradation and biodegradation of PLA and finally industrial and legislative issues. This interdisciplinary approach provides readers with a general overview of all relevant aspects related to PLA including fundamental issues, innovative applications, new types of processing and emerging applications, modification of PLA, life cycle assessment, bio-additives, bio/degradation and sustainability and international regulations. Experts provide a complete resource and whole perspective on PLA covering scientific, ecological, social and economic issues. The book will appeal to chemists, food technologists and materials engineers as well as researchers interested in bio-based and biodegradable polymers and composites.

Green Composites of Polylactic Acid Filled with Natural Fiber for Biodegradation Application

Green Composites of Polylactic Acid Filled with Natural Fiber for Biodegradation Application Book
Author : Chamaiporn Yamoum
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This research focuses on how to use natural fibers available from agricultural residues to produce biodegradable materials such as mulch films. Green composites were prepared from natural fibers (peanut shell and bagasse fiber) and polylactic acid (PLA) together with plasticizers. The presence of plasticizers improved PLA molecular mobility as seen by the reduction of glass transition, cold crystallization, and melting temperatures. The addition of natural fibers into PLA brought down decomposition temperature when compared to PLA. The morphological study of the composites showed poor interfacial adhesion between natural fibers and PLA matrix. Moreover, the loading of plasticizers improved distribution of natural fibers in PLA matrix. The composites revealed that tensile strength decreased while Young’s modulus increased with increasing natural fibers content. The added plasticizers into the composites showed increase elongation at break and impact strength. Thermo−mechanical properties revealed improvement of PLA performance at high temperature use by the addition of natural fibers together with plasticizers due to cold crystallization at a high temperature, which developed high storage modulus. The composites showed low water vapor permeability which reduced moisture loss by evaporation and increased the efficiency of water use. The enhancements in degradation of the composites were due to the presence of natural fibers. Furthermore, the study of chemical crosslinking PLA in the presence of crosslinking agent showed that the optimum of thermal, thermo–mechanical, and rheological properties were at 5 phr crosslinking agent content.

Polylactic Acid Functionalization with Maleic Anhydride and Its Use as Coupling Agent in Natural Fiber Biocomposites a Review

Polylactic Acid Functionalization with Maleic Anhydride and Its Use as Coupling Agent in Natural Fiber Biocomposites  a Review Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Abstract: Due to its renewability and biodegradability, biopolymers have developed interest in order to substitute oil-derived plastics. In particular, polylactic acid (PLA) is a promising biopolymer in terms of mechanical and biodegradable properties that is used for different applications. Nevertheless, PLA has some disadvantages like brittleness and processing instability. In order to overcome these drawbacks, it has been blended with natural fibers, leading to a fully biodegradable biocomposite material with enhanced properties. However, blending a hydrophobic biopolymer with hydrophilic fibers leads to poor interfacial adhesion producing interfacial voids, cavities and defects and consequently low performance properties. In this sense, this article reviews different strategies of biopolymer functionalization to improve compatibility in biocomposite materials. First, the effect of different parameters on biopolymers functionalization via melt and reactive extrusion processes is discussed. Finally, coupling efficiency of functionalized biopolymers is analyzed in terms of mechanical and thermal properties. Abstract :

New Developments in Polylactic Acid Research

New Developments in Polylactic Acid Research Book
Author : Courtney Winthrop
Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release : 2014-11-25
ISBN : 9781634630542
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polylactic acid (PLA) is a synthetic and biodegradable polymer. PLA can have important applications in tissue engineering as three-dimensional porous structures. Biodegradable polymers are used in medicine to replace and increase the volume of tissues, as tissue supports and also for controlled drug release. One of the most widely used biodegradable polymers is polylactic acid (PLA), as it is easily biodegraded. This material is used as microspheres or microcapsules to host a broad diversity of drugs, such as antiinflamatory, anticonceptives, narcotics antagonists, local anesthetics and vaccines. This book discusses new developments in the research of polylactic acid.

Steam Hydrolysis and Anaerobic Digestion of Biodegradable polylactic Acid Packaging Waste

Steam Hydrolysis and Anaerobic Digestion of Biodegradable  polylactic Acid  Packaging Waste Book
Author : Cesar M. Moreira
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In all cases studied, loss in mass and degradation of polymer was observed. It was most noticeable when 2.5 grams and 7.5 grams of sample was exposed for 120 minutes at 160 \U+00ba\C. At the end of the treatment no solids were present, and the molecular weight average (MW) reduced to 900 and 1217 respectively. Previous work done in our laboratory discovered that it was possible to digest PLA in a thermophilic anaerobic digester and this would serve to eliminate waste while producing methane. In this work benefits of anaerobic digestion of PLA using an adapted microbial flora were studied. Results of this work suggest that PLA can be directly digested anaerobically without need for hydrolysis pretreatment. The digestion of hydrolyzed PLA was very fast, and depending on the time of exposure the lag time was between 0.64 and 3.5 days, when compared to a lag time of 25 days when using raw PLA. Anaerobic digestion yielded 94 -98% of theoretical methane yield, indicating almost complete biogasification of the material.