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Polylactic Acid

Polylactic Acid Book
Author : Lee Tin Sin
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2012-12-31
ISBN : 1437744605
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polylactic Acid (PLA) is the first viable thermoplastic that can be produced from a plant-based feedstock such as corn or sugar cane, and yet be processed by the conventional melt processing technologies. At the same time, Polylactic Acid is produced at the largest industrial scale of all biodegradable polymers. It is being used in biomedical applications, for bottle production and in compostable food packaging. It is also being evaluated as a material for tissue engineering. Mass production has tremendously reduced the cost of PLA production, making it an economically viable choice for fabrication of domestic containers, plastic bags, and fibers. Commercial-scale plants today produce hundreds of thousand tons of PLA per year. This book provides a practical guide for the engineers and scientists involved in working with PLA and developing the many new products that are emerging for this important biopolymer. The current market situation for PLA and biodegradable polymers is described as well as applications across a range of market sectors, and the mechanical, chemical, thermal, rheology, and degradation properties of PLA. An essential reference for engineers, scientists and product designers considering switching to a sustainable plastic. Covers the properties, synthesis and polymerization of PLA, and processing techniques involved in fabricating parts from this polymer.

Polylactic Acid Production Cost Analysis PLA E11A

Polylactic Acid Production   Cost Analysis   PLA E11A Book
Author : Intratec
Publisher : Intratec
Release : 2019-09-17
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report presents a cost analysis of Polylactic Acid (PLA) production from lactic acid using a melt-phase polymerization process. The process examined is similar to a process developed by Natureworks, in which poly(lactic acid) is produced from a 88 wt% lactic acid solution in water via the ring opening polymerization chemical pathway. In this process lactic acid is first oligomerized and then depolymerized into lactide, a cyclic dimer of lactic acid, which is then polymerized to yield Poly(lactic acid). This report was developed based essentially on the following reference(s): (1) US Patent 8674056, issued to NatureWorks in 2014 (2) EP Patent 1247808, issued to Cargill in 2003 Keywords: Lactide, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Dow, Biodegradable Polymer

Polylactic Acid

Polylactic Acid Book
Author : Lee Tin Sin,Bee Soo Tueen
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2019-06
ISBN : 9780128144725
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polylactic Acid: A Practical Guide for the Processing, Manufacturing, and Applications of PLA, Second Edition, provides a practical guide for engineers and scientists working in PLA and on the development of emerging new products. The current market situation for PLA and biodegradable polymers is described, along with applications across a range of market sectors. In addition, the mechanical, chemical, thermal, rheology and degradation properties are included. Updates include new chapters covering various processing methods, as well as recycling methods, and additives and processing aids. New applications cover a range of products (including 3D Printing), and an environmental assessment, including regulatory aspects. The book is not only a useful introduction to this topic, but also a practical, readily applicable reference book that will support decision-making in the plastics industry. Presents an essential reference for engineers, scientists and product designers considering switching to a sustainable plastic Covers the properties, synthesis and polymerization of PLA, along with processing techniques involved in fabricating parts from this polymer Includes critical new chapters on processing, additives, recycling and environmental considerations relating to PLA

Polylactic Acid Production from Raw Sugar Cost Analysis PLA E31B

Polylactic Acid Production from Raw Sugar   Cost Analysis   PLA E31B Book
Author : Intratec
Publisher : Intratec
Release : 2017-06-01
ISBN : 1641480440
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report presents a cost analysis of Polylactic Acid (PLA) production starting from raw sugar The first section of the examined processis similar to Cargill process for lactic acid production, while the second section is similar to the NatureWorks process for polymerization of lactic acid. In this process, raw sugar (sucrose) is diluted and sucrose is hydrolyzed into glucose and fructose (invert sugars). The invert sugars are then fermented to produce lactic acid. Lactic Acid recovery from the fermentation broth is done by trialkylamine solvent extraction in the presence of carbon dioxide. An 88 wt% Lactic Acid solution in water is generated and further polymerized to form Polylactic Acid. This report was developed based essentially on the following reference(s): (1) US Patent 6472559, issued to Cargill in 2002 (2) US Patent 8674056, issued to NatureWorks in 2014 (3) EP Patent 1247808, issued to Cargill in 2003 Keywords: Dextrose, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Anaerobic Fermentation, Trialkyl Amine, Sodium Carbonate, Lactide, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Dow, Biodegradable Polymer

Polylactic Acid

Polylactic Acid Book
Author : Lee Tin Sin,Bee Soo Tueen
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2019-06-15
ISBN : 0128144734
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polylactic Acid: A Practical Guide for the Processing, Manufacturing, and Applications of PLA, Second Edition, provides a practical guide for engineers and scientists working in PLA and on the development of emerging new products. The current market situation for PLA and biodegradable polymers is described, along with applications across a range of market sectors. In addition, the mechanical, chemical, thermal, rheology and degradation properties are included. Updates include new chapters covering various processing methods, as well as recycling methods, and additives and processing aids. New applications cover a range of products (including 3D Printing), and an environmental assessment, including regulatory aspects. The book is not only a useful introduction to this topic, but also a practical, readily applicable reference book that will support decision-making in the plastics industry. Presents an essential reference for engineers, scientists and product designers considering switching to a sustainable plastic Covers the properties, synthesis and polymerization of PLA, along with processing techniques involved in fabricating parts from this polymer Includes critical new chapters on processing, additives, recycling and environmental considerations relating to PLA

Polylactic Acid Production from Glucose Cost Analysis PLA E21A

Polylactic Acid Production from Glucose   Cost Analysis   PLA E21A Book
Author : Intratec
Publisher : Intratec
Release : 2019-09-17
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report presents a cost analysis of Polylactic Acid (PLA) production starting from glucose syrup. The first section of the examined processis similar to Cargill process for lactic acid production, while the second section is similar to the NatureWorks process for polymerization of lactic acid. In this process, a 70 wt% glucose-water syrup is used as raw material. Lactic Acid recovery from the fermentation broth is realized by trialkylamine solvent extraction in the presence of carbon dioxide. An 88 wt% Lactic Acid solution in water is generated and further polymerized to form Polylactic Acid. This report was developed based essentially on the following reference(s): (1) US Patent 6472559, issued to Cargill in 2002 (2) US Patent 8674056, issued to NatureWorks in 2014 (3) EP Patent 1247808, issued to Cargill in 2003 Keywords: Dextrose, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Anaerobic Fermentation, Trialkyl Amine, Sodium Carbonate, Lactide, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Dow, Biodegradable Polymer

Polylactic Acid Production from Corn Cost Analysis PLA E41A

Polylactic Acid Production from Corn   Cost Analysis   PLA E41A Book
Author : Intratec
Publisher : Intratec
Release : 2017-06-01
ISBN : 1641480521
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report presents a cost analysis of Polylactic Acid (PLA) production starting from corn The first section of the examined process is similar to Cargill process for lactic acid production, while the second section is similar to the NatureWorks process for polymerization of lactic acid. In this process, shelled corn is passed through a wet milling process to form corn starch, which, in turn, is hydrolyzed to dextrose, the feed for the fermentation process that generates lactic acid . Lactic Acid recovery from the fermentation broth is carried out via trialkylamine solvent extraction in the presence of carbon dioxide. A L-Lactic Acid solution in water is formed and further polymerized to form Polylactic Acid. The conversion of corn into dextrose forms some residues that are sold as by-product. This report was developed based essentially on the following reference(s): (1) US Patent 6472559, issued to Cargill in 2002 (2) US Patent 8674056, issued to NatureWorks in 2014 (3) EP Patent 1247808, issued to Cargill in 2003 Keywords: Corn, Corn Starch, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Anaerobic Fermentation, Trialkyl Amine, Sodium Carbonate, Lactide, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Dow, Biodegradable Polymer

Polylactic Acid Production from Raw Sugar Cost Analysis PLA E31B

Polylactic Acid Production from Raw Sugar   Cost Analysis   PLA E31B Book
Author : Intratec
Publisher : Intratec Solutions
Release : 2019-09-17
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report presents a cost analysis of Polylactic Acid (PLA) production starting from raw sugar. The first section of the examined processis similar to Cargill process for lactic acid production, while the second section is similar to the NatureWorks process for polymerization of lactic acid. In this process, raw sugar (sucrose) is diluted and sucrose is hydrolyzed into glucose and fructose (invert sugars). The invert sugars are then fermented to produce lactic acid. Lactic Acid recovery from the fermentation broth is done by trialkylamine solvent extraction in the presence of carbon dioxide. An 88 wt% Lactic Acid solution in water is generated and further polymerized to form Polylactic Acid. This report was developed based essentially on the following reference(s): (1) US Patent 6472559, issued to Cargill in 2002 (2) US Patent 8674056, issued to NatureWorks in 2014 (3) EP Patent 1247808, issued to Cargill in 2003 Keywords: Dextrose, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Anaerobic Fermentation, Trialkyl Amine, Sodium Carbonate, Lactide, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Dow, Biodegradable Polymer

Polylactic Acid Production Cost Analysis PLA E11A

Polylactic Acid Production   Cost Analysis   PLA E11A Book
Author : Intratec
Publisher : Intratec Solutions
Release : 2016-05-01
ISBN : 1945324996
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report presents a cost analysis of Polylactic Acid (PLA) production from lactic acid using a melt process. The process examined is similar to NatureWorks process. In this process, an 88 wt% lactic acid solution in water is used as raw material. This report examines one-time costs associated with the construction of a United States-based plant and the continuing costs associated with the daily operation of such a plant. More specifically, it discusses: * Capital Investment, broken down by: - Total fixed capital required, divided in production unit (ISBL); infrastructure (OSBL) and contingency - Alternative perspective on the total fixed capital, divided in direct costs, indirect costs and contingency - Working capital and costs incurred during industrial plant commissioning and start-up * Production cost, broken down by: - Manufacturing variable costs (raw materials, utilities) - Manufacturing fixed costs (maintenance costs, operating charges, plant overhead, local taxes and insurance) - Depreciation and corporate overhead costs * Raw materials consumption, products generation and labor requirements * Process block flow diagram and description of industrial site installations (production unit and infrastructure) This report was developed based essentially on the following reference(s): (1) US Patent 8674056, issued to NatureWorks in 2014; (2) EP Patent 1247808, issued to Cargill in 2003 Keywords: Lactide, 2-Hydroxypropanoic Acid, Dow, Biodegradable Polymer

Synthesis Structure and Properties of Poly lactic acid

Synthesis  Structure and Properties of Poly lactic acid  Book
Author : Maria Laura Di Lorenzo,René Androsch
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-10-20
ISBN : 3319642308
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The series Advances in Polymer Science presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in polymer and biopolymer science. It covers all areas of research in polymer and biopolymer science including chemistry, physical chemistry, physics, material science.The thematic volumes are addressed to scientists, whether at universities or in industry, who wish to keep abreast of the important advances in the covered topics.Advances in Polymer Science enjoys a longstanding tradition and good reputation in its community. Each volume is dedicated to a current topic, and each review critically surveys one aspect of that topic, to place it within the context of the volume. The volumes typically summarize the significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years and discuss them critically, presenting selected examples, explaining and illustrating the important principles, and bringing together many important references of primary literature. On that basis, future research directions in the area can be discussed. Advances in Polymer Science volumes thus are important references for every polymer scientist, as well as for other scientists interested in polymer science - as an introduction to a neighboring field, or as a compilation of detailed information for the specialist.Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Single contributions can be specially commissioned.Readership: Polymer scientists, or scientists in related fields interested in polymer and biopolymer science, at universities or in industry, graduate students

Industrial Applications of Poly lactic acid

Industrial Applications of Poly lactic acid  Book
Author : Maria Laura Di Lorenzo,René Androsch
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-08-22
ISBN : 3319754599
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The series Advances in Polymer Science presents critical reviews of the present and future trends in polymer and biopolymer science. It covers all areas of research in polymer and biopolymer science including chemistry, physical chemistry, physics, material science.The thematic volumes are addressed to scientists, whether at universities or in industry, who wish to keep abreast of the important advances in the covered topics.Advances in Polymer Science enjoys a longstanding tradition and good reputation in its community. Each volume is dedicated to a current topic, and each review critically surveys one aspect of that topic, to place it within the context of the volume. The volumes typically summarize the significant developments of the last 5 to 10 years and discuss them critically, presenting selected examples, explaining and illustrating the important principles, and bringing together many important references of primary literature. On that basis, future research directions in the area can be discussed. Advances in Polymer Science volumes thus are important references for every polymer scientist, as well as for other scientists interested in polymer science - as an introduction to a neighboring field, or as a compilation of detailed information for the specialist.Review articles for the individual volumes are invited by the volume editors. Single contributions can be specially commissioned.Readership: Polymer scientists, or scientists in related fields interested in polymer and biopolymer science, at universities or in industry, graduate students.

Preparation and Properties of Polylactic Acid and Cassava Starch Blends Using Citrates and Formamide

Preparation and Properties of Polylactic Acid and Cassava Starch Blends Using Citrates and Formamide Book
Author : Khwanjit Rukshad
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Formulation and method for preparation of biodegradable plastics by blending of poly (lactic acid) (PLA) with at least 50% of low cost cassava starch are investigated using a single screw extruder. Formamide and water are tested as a plasticizer for cassava starch to form low crystallinity thermoplastic starch (TPS) while triethyl citrate and tributylacetyl citrate are used as a compatibilizer for the PLA/TPS blends. The tensile strength and DSC thermograms suggest that pure formamide is better than aqueous formamide solution for the preparation of amorphous TPS. The TPS/PLA blends generally have poorer mechanical properties and lower deformation temperature comparing to virgin PLA. The SEM images reveal that there is some phase separation between PLA and starch in the blends, especially at higher starch contents. The interfacial modification of PLA/TPS blends by using tributylacetyl citrate is better than triethyl citrate in promoting the miscibility between the starch and PLA that is important for improving the mechanical properties of the blends to acceptable level. However, increases the used amount of the citrate compatibilizers significantly decrease the deformation temperature of the blends.

Polylactic Acid

Polylactic Acid Book
Author : Vincenzo Piemonte
Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release : 2014-01-19
ISBN : 9781629481487
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book describes the synthesis, properties and applications of PLA through fourteen original chapters that will guide the reader through a fascinating journey into the world of PLA, providing interesting insights for those who intend to use this polymer for innovative applications, or simply those who want to learn more about this very important biodegradable and bio-based plastic. PLA biodegradability introduces this polymer in a world of eco-friendly and human-friendly applications in several technological fields. In short, this book will appeal to all the readers who not only want to have a reference book of consolidated notions on PLA, but also, and especially, to those who want to discover new potentials and new application fields of this unique biodegradable polymer.

Advances in Biodegradable Polymers

Advances in Biodegradable Polymers Book
Author : G. F. Moore,S. M. Saunders
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release : 1998-02
ISBN : 9781859571187
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this report the factors which influence biodegradation are first explained. Methods of testing and evaluating biodegradation are then described and compared. The principles, relative costs and practical applications of specific tests are outlined together with the position with respect to recognised standards. The range of biodegradable polymers and polymer blends is then described, including natural and synthetic products. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database provides useful references for further reading.

Food Packaging Applications of Polylactic Acid

Food Packaging Applications of Polylactic Acid Book
Author : Kojo Afrifah
Publisher : LAP Lambert Academic Publishing
Release : 2014-07-18
ISBN : 9783659575747
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides basic understanding of the use of polylactic acid (PLA) as a food packaging material. It covers the properties of PLA and relates these properties to its use as a food packaging material. The challenges that militates against PLA application to food packaging as well as the strategies and research attempts to address them have been presented. This book is intended for students and teachers of polymer science, material science and packaging. Researchers and packaging professionals responsible for designing, fabricating, testing, and controlling the quality of plastic materials may also find this book useful.

Development of a Polylactic Acid PLA Polymer with an Acid sensitive N ethoxybenzylimidazole NEBI Crosslinker as a Drug Delivery System

Development of a Polylactic Acid  PLA  Polymer with an Acid sensitive N ethoxybenzylimidazole  NEBI  Crosslinker as a Drug Delivery System Book
Author : Leibniz Fangtinq Hang
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 9781267904348
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This thesis describes the development of an alkyne-functionalized poly-lactic acid (PLA) polymer with an acid-sensitive N-ethoxybenzylimidazole (NEBI) linker conjugated to doxorubicin as a drug delivery system (DDS). It also entails the specific qualities of the drug delivery system as a chemotherapeutic regiment. Chapter 1 introduces why drug delivery systems are needed and their desirable properties. In particularly, chapter 1 discusses the roles of [polymeric] carriers and linkers in drug delivery. It also covers some of the drug-delivery strategies specific to chemotherapy. Chapter 2 presents the synthetic route and methodology to produce functionalized PLA, specifically with terminal alkyne moieties. It also covers different strategies to synthesize lactide derivatives with different functional groups. Chapter 3 introduces the synthetic scheme to producing bi-functional N-ethoxybenzylimidazole (NEBI) derivatives. These novel linkers previously displayed accelerated rates of hydrolysis at lower pH. NEBI derivatives also serve as acid-sensitive linkers in the synthesis of my drug delivery system. Chapter 4 discusses the characteristics of my drug delivery system including incorporation percentages, payload, hydrolysis rate and cytotoxicity. The future directions of this project are also elaborated on in that chapter.

Enzymatic Transformation

Enzymatic Transformation Book
Author : Soundar Divakar
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-18
ISBN : 8132208730
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Transformations using enzymes have been extensively investigated in the last two decades and the results promise great potential for this growing field, especially in the area of synthetic organic chemistry mainly due to of its many advantages. Accordingly, this book has attempted to bring out the advantages of using enzymes involving complex underivatized and unprotected substrates in non-polar media under homogenous and heterogeneous reaction conditions. Merits and demerits of using enzymes in terms of yields and selectivity/specificity are presented without any prejudice. Almost all the reactions dealt with are from the author’s laboratory comprising diverse substrates, and the catalysis involves two important hydrolyzing enzymes, extensively examined for the reverse reactions. Thus, esterification involving lipses and glycosylation involving glycosidases were investigated with respect to various strategies like optimization of reaction conditions, response surface methodology and kinetics, carrying out reactions under solvent, non-solvent and super critical carbon dioxide conditions. In short, the work presented is to ensure the comprehension of the problems faced by the researchers in this area so as to work out further efficient strategies for carrying out enzymatic transformations in the laboratory successfully with better yields and specificity.

Polylactic Acid for Surgical Implants

Polylactic Acid for Surgical Implants Book
Author : R. K. Kulkarni
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1960
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Polylactic Acid for Surgical Implants book written by R. K. Kulkarni, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

New Developments in Polylactic Acid Research

New Developments in Polylactic Acid Research Book
Author : Courtney Winthrop
Publisher : Nova Science Pub Incorporated
Release : 2014-11-25
ISBN : 9781634630542
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polylactic acid (PLA) is a synthetic and biodegradable polymer. PLA can have important applications in tissue engineering as three-dimensional porous structures. Biodegradable polymers are used in medicine to replace and increase the volume of tissues, as tissue supports and also for controlled drug release. One of the most widely used biodegradable polymers is polylactic acid (PLA), as it is easily biodegraded. This material is used as microspheres or microcapsules to host a broad diversity of drugs, such as antiinflamatory, anticonceptives, narcotics antagonists, local anesthetics and vaccines. This book discusses new developments in the research of polylactic acid.

Development of Polylactic Acid PLA Based Blends and Their Nanocomposites for Packaging Applications

Development of Polylactic Acid  PLA  Based Blends and Their Nanocomposites for Packaging Applications Book
Author : Mariappan Chidambarakumar
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Development of Polylactic Acid PLA Based Blends and Their Nanocomposites for Packaging Applications book written by Mariappan Chidambarakumar, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.