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Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites

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Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites

Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites Book
Author : Ali Nabipour Chakoli,Alexander Seifalian
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2021-11-15
ISBN : 9780128168660
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Fabrication, and Applications takes an innovative approach to the design, preparation, and processing of polylactic acid nanocomposites, for the latest cutting-edge applications. The book begins by introducing polylactic acid nanocomposites, and their physical and chemical properties. The third chapter describes the use of each reinforcing filler in detail, covering carbon nanotubes, clay, graphene and graphene oxide, metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, nanocellulose, polyhedral oligomericsilsesquioxanes (POSS), silica nanoparticles, and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. This is followed by in-depth chapters unlocking the potential of shape-memory properties, and explaining advanced fabrication techniques, such as casting, electrospinning, and 3D printing. The book then focuses on the ground-breaking advanced biomedical applications, as well as further application possibilities in agriculture, food processing, and other industries, before finally considering important environmental and human health factors in the final chapter. Polylactic Acid Nanocomposites: Synthesis, Fabrication, and Applications is an essential guide to polylactic acid nanocomposites, and their current or potential applications, for academic researchers, scientists and students across biopolymer science, polymer chemistry, polymer nanocomposites, plastics engineering, biomaterials, materials science, biomedical engineering, and medicine. It is also a highly valuable resource for those in industry, including scientists and R&D professionals looking to utilize PLA or to develop products that will utilize PLA nanocomposites. Provides systematic coverage of the reinforcing fillers used in the synthesis of polylactic acid nanocomposites, including carbon nanotubes, clay, graphene, metal oxide nanocomposites, and many more Focuses on advanced biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, nano and microcapsules for drug delivery, and cancer therapy Presents the very latest developments in the field, including 3D printing of PLA nanocomposites, and shape-memory effect

Poly lactic Acid Nanocomposites

Poly lactic Acid  Nanocomposites Book
Author : Bowen Tan
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Poly lactic Acid Nanocomposites book written by Bowen Tan, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Development of Polylactic Acid PLA Based Blends and Their Nanocomposites for Packaging Applications

Development of Polylactic Acid  PLA  Based Blends and Their Nanocomposites for Packaging Applications Book
Author : Mariappan Chidambarakumar
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Development of Polylactic Acid PLA Based Blends and Their Nanocomposites for Packaging Applications book written by Mariappan Chidambarakumar, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biodegradable Poly lactic Acid Clay Nanocomposite by Melt Intercalation

Biodegradable Poly  lactic Acid   Clay Nanocomposite by Melt Intercalation Book
Author : Nasobah Ahmad
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polymer nanocomposites have highly improvement in mechanical properties compared to conventional polymer. In this project, polylactic acid was reinforced with the organoclay (Cloisite 20A) as nanofiller by using twin screw extruder at 210°C and 100 rpm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to identify the attendance of nanoparticle in polymer matrix. The mechanical properties were evaluated by measuring their tensile stress, Modulus Young's and hardness. In FT-IR results, PLA/ C20A nanocomposite shows the peak between 1580 cm -1 and 1610 cm-1 which is representing amine group of Cloisite 20A. However, in pure polylactic acid matrix the peak is absent. Mechanical studies indicate that a significant increasing by 70.5% in tensile stress and 394.3% in Modulus Young's shows in PLA/1 wt. % C20A. It is expected because this behaviour is mainly due to high stiffness and modulus of nanoclay that reinforce the blend matrix. Further, PLA/ 1 wt. % C20A also give the high increasing by 3.23% in hardness testing because the strong interfacial interaction between nanofiller and polymer matrix. As a conclusion, an addition of Cloisite 20A significantly improves mechanical properties of polylactic acid matrix and PLA/ 1 wt. % C20A had the higher increasing in tensile strength, Modulus Young's and hardness.

Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials Nanocomposites

Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials  Nanocomposites Book
Author : Vijay Kumar Thakur,Manju Kumari Thakur,Michael R. Kessler
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-03-29
ISBN : 1119224500
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Handbook of Composites From Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The handbook covers a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials. Together, the 8 volumes total at least 5000 pages and offers a unique publication. This 8th volume of the Handbook is solely focused on the Nanocomposites: Advanced Applications. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: virgin and recycled polymers applied to advanced nanocomposites; biodegradable polymer-carbon nanotube composites for water and wastewater treatment; eco-friendly nanocomposites of chitosan with natural extracts, antimicrobial agents and nanometals; controllable generation of renewable nanofibrils from green materials and their application in nanocomposites; nanocellulose and nanocellulose composites; poly (lactic acid) biopolymer composites and nanocomposites for biomedical and biopackaging applications; impact of nanotechnology in water treatment: carbon nanotube and graphene; nanomaterials in energy generation; sustainable green nanocomposites from bacterial bioplastics for food packaging applications; PLA-nanocomposites: a promising material for future from renewable resources; bio-composites from renewable resources: preparation and applications of chitosan-clay nanocomposites; nano materials: an advanced and versatile nano additive for kraft and paper industries; composites and nanocomposites based on polylactic acid obtaining; cellulose-containing scaffolds fabricated by electrospinning: applications in tissue engineering and drug delivery; biopolymer-based nanocomposites for environmental applications; calcium phosphate nanocomposites for biomedical and dental applications: recent developments; chitosan-metal nanocomposites: synthesis, characterization and applications; multi-carboxyl functionalized nano-cellulose/nano-bentonite composite for the effective removal and recovery of metal ions; biomimetic gelatin nanocomposite as a scaffold for bone tissue repair; natural starches-blended ionotropically-gelled microparticles/beads for sustained drug release and ferrogels: smart materials for biomedical and remediation applications.

Development of Graphene based Poly lactic Acid Nanocomposites

Development of Graphene based Poly lactic Acid  Nanocomposites Book
Author : Buong Woie Chieng
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Development of Graphene based Poly lactic Acid Nanocomposites book written by Buong Woie Chieng, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biodegradable Poly lactic Acid Nanocomposites

Biodegradable Poly lactic Acid  Nanocomposites Book
Author : Yonghui Li
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biobased polymers derived from renewable resources are increasingly important due to acute concerns about the environmental issues and limited petroleum resources. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) is such a polymer that has shown great potential to produce biodegradable plastics. However, low glass transition temperature (Tg), low thermal stability, slow biodegradation rate, and high cost limit its broad applications. This dissertation seeks to overcome these limitations by reinforcing PLA with inorganic nanoparticles and low-cost agricultural residues. We first synthesized PLA nanocomposites by in situ melt polycondensation of L-lactic acid and surface-hydroxylized nanoparticles (MgO nanocrystals and TiO2 nanowires) and investigated the structure-property relationships. PLA grafted nanoparticles (PLA-g-MgO, PLA-g-TiO2) were isolated from the bulk nanocomposites via repeated dispersion/centrifugation processes. The covalent grafting of PLA chains onto nanoparticle surface was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and thermalgravimetric analysis (TGA). Transmission electron microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results also sustained the presence of the third phase. Morphological images showed uniform dispersion of nanoparticles in the PLA matrix and demonstrated a strong interfacial interaction between them. Calculation based on TGA revealed that more than 42.5% PLA was successfully grafted into PLA-g-MgO and more than 30% was grafted into PLA-g-TiO2. Those grafted PLA chains exhibited significantly increased thermal stability. The Tg of PLA-g-TiO2 was improved by 7 °C compared with that of pure PLA. We also reinforced PLA with low-value agricultural residues, including wood flour (WF), soy flour (SF), and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by thermal blending. Tensile measurements and morphological images indicated that methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) was an effective coupling agent for PLA/WF and PLA/DDGS systems. MDI compatibilized PLA/WF and PLA/DDGS composites showed comparable tensile strength and elongation at break as pure PLA, with obviously increased Young's modulus. Increased crystallinity was observed for PLA composites with SF and DDGS. Such PLA composites have similar or superior properties compared with pure PLA, especially at a lower cost and higher biodegradation rate than pure PLA. The results from this study are promising. These novel PLA thermoplastic composites with enhanced properties have potential for many applications, such as packaging materials, textiles, appliance components, autoparts, and medical implants.

Development of a Novel Organoclay for Poly Lactic Acid Nanocomposites

Development of a Novel Organoclay for Poly Lactic Acid  Nanocomposites Book
Author : Andrew Robert McLauchlin
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2009
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Development of a Novel Organoclay for Poly Lactic Acid Nanocomposites book written by Andrew Robert McLauchlin, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Permeability Characterization Study of polylactic Acid PLA modified NA Nanocomposites for Packaging Application

Permeability   Characterization Study of  polylactic Acid  PLA modified NA  Nanocomposites for Packaging Application Book
Author : Siti Amirah Nor Effendi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

One of the most versatile polymers is poly-lactic acid (PLA) which is well known as its biodegradable, high molecular weight, aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources which is environmentally benign and good processability. In this study, a series of PLA nanocomposite with a different percentage of modified Na+ with an addition of Polyethylene glycol (PEG) were prepared using the solution intercalation method. The modification of Na+ was done via an ion exchange method by using Copper (II) Chloride as an ion exchange solution with different type of solvent which are water, ethanol and methanol. The existence of the ion exchange between the modifications was confirmed through Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS). The structure of the polymer was examined through X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) while their morphology was illustrated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The modification of the Na+ for every type of solvent was found to be successful where they show their existence of the Transition Metal Ions (TMIs) through AAS and the highest d-spacing was obtained in methanol through XRD with d=14.74 Å. A barrier properties of the film were examined to investigate the amount of water vapor transmit per unit area and time. The permeability of the film was found to decrease with the increase of Na+ content since 3% of the clay content without an exhibition of Polyethylene Glycole (PEG) shows the lowest Water Vapor Transmission Rate (WVTR). An exfoliation behavior was also found in the structure of PLA with 3% of the clay without the presence of PEG with no peak was detected through XRD.This study indicates that PLA with a modified Na+ as a filler is better than pure matrix in terms of structure, barrier properties and configuration also could be served as effective nanocomposite for packaging application.

Polylactic Acid

Polylactic Acid Book
Author : Lee Tin Sin,Bee Soo Tueen
Publisher : William Andrew
Release : 2019-06-15
ISBN : 0128144734
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polylactic Acid: A Practical Guide for the Processing, Manufacturing, and Applications of PLA, Second Edition, provides a practical guide for engineers and scientists working in PLA and on the development of emerging new products. The current market situation for PLA and biodegradable polymers is described, along with applications across a range of market sectors. In addition, the mechanical, chemical, thermal, rheology and degradation properties are included. Updates include new chapters covering various processing methods, as well as recycling methods, and additives and processing aids. New applications cover a range of products (including 3D Printing), and an environmental assessment, including regulatory aspects. The book is not only a useful introduction to this topic, but also a practical, readily applicable reference book that will support decision-making in the plastics industry. Presents an essential reference for engineers, scientists and product designers considering switching to a sustainable plastic Covers the properties, synthesis and polymerization of PLA, along with processing techniques involved in fabricating parts from this polymer Includes critical new chapters on processing, additives, recycling and environmental considerations relating to PLA

In situ Polymerization of Polylactic Acid montmorillonite Nanocomposites

In situ Polymerization of Polylactic Acid montmorillonite Nanocomposites Book
Author : Matthew Wayne McKinney
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download In situ Polymerization of Polylactic Acid montmorillonite Nanocomposites book written by Matthew Wayne McKinney, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Manufacturing Characterisation and Properties of Advanced Nanocomposites

Manufacturing  Characterisation and Properties of Advanced Nanocomposites Book
Author : Yu Dong,Alokesh Pramanik,Dongyan Liu,Rehan Umer
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2018-09-13
ISBN : 303897188X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is a printed edition of the Special Issue "Manufacturing, Characterisation and Properties of Advanced Nanocomposites" that was published in J. Compos. Sci.

Modification Of Halloysite Nanotubes Reinforced Polylactic Acid Bionanocomposites

Modification Of Halloysite Nanotubes Reinforced Polylactic Acid Bionanocomposites Book
Author : Abdulkader Mohamed Alakrach
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2019
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In this work, four main routes were undertaken to produce a bionanocomposite films for food packaging applications. The first scope was the selection of halloysite nanotubes from five different localities (Camel Lake, Jarrahdale, Imery Matauri Bay, Dragonite and Ultra HalloPure) with different HNTs loading (0-10 wt.%) to investigate the impact of their different characteristics on the PLA nanocomposites properties, thus select the best type of HNTs that gives PLA/HNTs with optimum properties for food packaging applications. In the second step and during film preparation, multiple kinds of plasticizers had been used to plasticize the PLA/HNTs with optimum properties. These included both polyethylene glycol and sesame oil. A specific concentration range of (0 – 30 %)was adopted to enhance PLA films' properties and also overcome brittleness issue. The third step was exposing the PLA/HNTs nanocomposite films to electron beam irradiation with different doses (0-60 kGy) to examine the effect of the radiation on the films during the sterilization processes for food packaging applications. The last step was modifying HNTs in deep eutectic solvents (N,N-Diethylene ethanol ammonium chloride (DEAC) with Glycerine (Gly)) to increase the hydrogen bonds on HNTs surface, therefore, to develop the interaction between PLA and HNTs, in addition to improve the dispersion of HNTs filler into PLA matrix. PLA was reinforced by unmodified (HNTs) and modified (mHNTs) with concentrations (0-7.5 wt.%). All preview steps had been accompanied with characterisation of water barrier properties as well as thermal, mechanical and physical properties too.

Thermal Behaviour of Polylactic Acid PLA Nanocomposite Based on Modified Nanoclay

Thermal Behaviour of Polylactic Acid  PLA  Nanocomposite Based on Modified Nanoclay Book
Author : Nur Madieha Md Yusof
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polylactic acid (PLA) has attracted much attention due to their biodegradability and biocompatibility properties. The organically modified montmorillonite or known as nanoclay namely Cloisite B30 (the montmorillonite modified with a quaternary ammonium salt) was used in this research. PLA nanocomposite was prepared by melt intercalation method. Morphological, thermal and mechanical analysis was investigated for both pristine PLA and PLA organoclay nanocomposite. The morphological analysis was observed using both X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Thermal stability for the nanocomposites were studied using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). Glass transition temperature, T data has been collected and analyzed using Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). Other than that, the mechanical properties of the nanocomposites were observed from tensile test. From this research, a possible exfoliation of silicate layered of Cloisite B30 in the PLA matrix was demonstrated as there were no noticeable XRD peaks was observed. SEM images could not determine the nanoclay dispersion but the nanocomposite samples possessed large aggregates, whose role as stress concentrators. In thermal analysis, TGA resulted in the decrease of thermal stability with increasing loading of Cloisite B30. The glass transition temperature for the nanocomposites also has no improvement on Tg compared to pure PLA. Mechanical analysis of the nanocomposites was studied using Universal Testing Machine. A poor ultimate stress and ultimate strength but more elasticity of nanocomposites was observed compared to pure PLA.

Biodegradable Polymer Blends and Composites from Renewable Resources

Biodegradable Polymer Blends and Composites from Renewable Resources Book
Author : Long Yu
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2009-03-25
ISBN : 0470391553
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biodegradable Polymer Blends and Composites from Renewable Resources provides a comprehensive, current overview of biopolymeric blends and composites and their applications in various industries. The book is organized according to the type of blend or composite. For each topic, the relationship between the structure of the blends/composites and their respective properties is explored, with particular focus on interface, compatibility, mechanical, and thermal properties. Real-life applications and potential markets are discussed. This is a premier reference for graduate students and researchers in polymer science, chemical and bio engineering, and materials science.

Different Routes for Synthesis of Poly lactic Acid

Different Routes for Synthesis of Poly lactic Acid  Book
Author : Arnaud Prebe
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The general aim of this work was to study the different routes that can be taken in order to generate a polymer-nanocomposite taking into account the current knowledge in this scientific domain. Consequenlty, four routes were studied: The first route starts from the preformed inorganic phase, i.e. fumed silica, and the polymer matrix, i.e. poly(lactic acid) (PLA). The second route starts from the preformed inorganic filler and PLA monomer, i.e. L-Lactide, in order to in-situ polymerize the L-Lactide in the presence of the fumed silica. The third route starts from the preformed polymer matrix, i.e. PLA, and the use of alkoxysilane as precursors for in-situ generation of an inorganic-rich phase into the polymer. The fourth and last route combines the generation of the inorganic-rich phase and the polymerization of the organic monomer.The objectives of this work focused on the chemical paths and processes instead of the final properties of the resulting nanocomposites. Due to the very broad series of PLA-based nanocomposites which could be generated from the different routes, we choose to have a special attention on the chemistry(ies) involved. Finally, the different routes leading to various types of PLA-nanocomposites in terms of molar mass, crystallinity and morphology were reported. The key point for having a high better state of dispersion seems to depend on the process as we demonstrated that the extrusion step offers high shear enabling a good dispersion. Moreover, it was shown that compatibility between the PLA matrix and the inorganic phase can be tailored by the functionality of the nanofiller surface or the functional groups of an interfacial agent.

Modification of Nanofiller to Improve the Final Properties of Polylactic Acid PLA Nanocomposites

Modification of Nanofiller to Improve the Final Properties of Polylactic Acid  PLA  Nanocomposites Book
Author : Latisha Anthony
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Modifications of nanoclay were prepared from pristine clays and organoclays with Transition Metal Ions (TMIs), Ferum, Copper and Nickel using different solvents. The first part of the experiment focuses on determining the viability of Ethanol as a solvent in the modification process as well as its efficiency in aiding the adsorption of TMIs in comparison to solvents such as Methanol and Dioxane. The composition and structure of the modified nanoclay were characterized using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS), Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). From the AAS results, it was determined that Ethanol was a viable solvent for the nanoclay modification and proved to be extremely efficient for Copper ions especially. SEM and FTIR results proved that modified nanoclays had smoother surfaces for pristine clays or montmorilonite (MMT) which proved that the modification was successful. The same modifications performed on organoclayswere proven to be unsuccessful. The modified samples were then intercalated in Polylactic Acid (PLA) polymer matrices to form polymer nanocomposites (PNC). The biodegradability and thermal stability of the Polymer nanocomposites were tested and its performance is compared against a polymer nanocomposite intercalated with pure (unmodified) nanoclay. The PNC were formed using solution intercalation method with 1,4-Dichloroethane as a solvent. Both the biodegradability and thermal stability also showed positive improvements. Biodegradibility is hypothesized to have increased due to the characteristics of transition metal ion which are easily oxidized. The ions with higher electronegativity showed the least improvement when intercalated into the polymer matrices. Thermal stability also increased significantly, due to the transition metal ions hindering the pristine clay within the polymer matrices from decomposing easily. Further research will be required to commercialize findings.

Biodegradable Behaviour of Polylactic Acid Nanocomposite Based on Modified Nanoclay

Biodegradable Behaviour of Polylactic Acid Nanocomposite Based on Modified Nanoclay Book
Author : Norayuni Azizi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2012
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polylactic acid (PLA) is a unique polymer. Eventually, this polymer has the broadest range of application especially in biomedical field due to its biocompatibility characteristics. The main purpose of this research is to study on the biodegradable properties of PLA based on modified organoclay. The properties of PLA nanocomposite will be improved by adding nanoclay or Montmorillonite (MMT) and produce PLA nanocomposite. The MMT that used in this research is bis-(2-hydroxyethyl) methyl tallow alkyl ammonium cations (Cloisite B30). A series of PLA nanocomposite was classified by different percentage of compositions and the samples were analysed and compared with pristine PLA. PLA nanocomposite was produced by melt intercalation method using twin screw extruder. Then, the compounds were injection molded by injection molding method and formed dumbbell shape. Meanwhile, PLA nanocomposite is characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction Analysis (XRD). However, SEM captures could not determine the dispersion of Cloisite B30 precisely nevertheless it illustrates that aggregates were formed in the images. XRD result supported an exfoliation nanocomposite was possible demonstrated as no diffraction peak was appeared in the XRD results. It also shows that the inter-galleries spacing of the Cloisite B30 between PLA matrixes is too wide. Subsequently, the samples were tested using accelerated weathering tester for biodegradable analysis. Finally, the samples before and after exposed in the accelerated weathering tester were examined by mechanical testing to determine mechanical properties such as ultimate strain, elastic modulus and ultimate stress using tensile strength testing. The most desired result of this research is based on the biodegradable testing. After a year observation, only pristine PLA was sustained in strength while the PLA nanocomposite is so brittle. Meanwhile for a year and half observation, all the samples were so brittle. It can be concluded that the pristine PLA is still remain sustain after a year but it start to degrade after a year and half. The result obtained for before exposing under accelerated weathering tester, the pristine PLA possesses good properties for ultimate strain and ultimate stress rather than elasticity behaviour.

Poly lactic Acid based Bio blends and Nanocomposites

Poly lactic Acid  based Bio blends and Nanocomposites Book
Author : Jon Urkijo Elortegi
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Poly lactic Acid based Bio blends and Nanocomposites book written by Jon Urkijo Elortegi, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.