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Policy Issues In Genetically Modified Crops

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Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops

Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops Book
Author : Pardeep Singh,Anwesha Borthakur,Aditya Abha Singh,Ajay Kumar,Kshitij K. Singh
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-11-20
ISBN : 0128209453
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops: A Global Perspective contains both theoretical and empirical evidence of a broad range of aspects of GM crop policies throughout the world. Emphasizing world agriculture production and ethics of GM crops, the book balances insights into the various discussions around the use of GM crops including soil health, effects on animals, environmental sustainability impact, and ethical issues. The book presents aspects of GM crop policies and prevailing controversies throughout the world, in 5 sections containing 23 chapters. Beginning with the discussion of the policies related to GM crops, the book dives deep into issues related to food insecurity, agricultural sustainability, food safety, and environmental risks. Section 5 also captures the recent advances in agricultural biotechnology encompassing research trends, the nano-biotech approach to plant genetic engineering, and other transformation techniques in crop development. The contributors of the book represent different backgrounds, providing a holistic overview of diverse approaches and perspectives. Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops: A Global Perspective is a valuable resource for researchers in agricultural policy and economics, agricultural biotechnology, soil science, genetic engineering, ethics, environmental management, sustainable development, and NGOs. Discusses ethics, varieties, research trends, success, and challenges of genetic modification Addresses both crop production and potential health impacts Includes extensive theoretical research and studies

Genetically Modified Crops

Genetically Modified Crops Book
Author : Nuffield Council on Bioethics
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1999
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This report examines the ethical and social issues associated with the development and cultivation of genetically modified (GM) crops, particularly in relation to: the scientific background and techniques used in genetic modification; the potential of GM crops; commercial and legal implications; implications for the developing world; consumer concerns; environmental concerns; regulation and policy issues.

Biotechnology Regulation and Trade

Biotechnology Regulation and Trade Book
Author : Stuart J. Smyth,William A. Kerr,Peter W. B Phillips
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-03-02
ISBN : 3319532952
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book discusses the regulatory and trade challenges facing the global adoption of biotechnological products and offers strategies for overcoming these obstacles and moving towards greater global food security. The first section of the book establishes the context of the conflict, discussing the challenges of global governance, international trade, and the history of regulation of genetically modified (GM) crops. In this section, the authors emphasize the shift from exclusively science-based regulation to the more socio-economically focused framework established by the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, which was adopted in 2000. The second section of the book provides a snapshot of the current state of international GM crop adoption and regulation, highlighting the US, Canada, and the EU. The final section of the book identifies options for breaking the gridlock of regulation and trade that presently exist. This book adds to the current literature by providing new information about innovative agricultural technologies and encouraging debate by providing an alternative to the narratives espoused by environmental non-governmental organizations. This book will appeal to students of economics, political science, and policy analysis, as well as members of regulatory agencies and agricultural industry firms.

GM Crop Policies and Challenges

GM Crop Policies and Challenges Book
Author : Pardeep Singh,Anwesha Borthakur,Rishikesh Singh,Ajay Kumar
Publisher : Woodhead Publishing
Release : 2022-01-17
ISBN : 9780323851459
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Policy Issues in Genetically Modified Crops: Global Policies and Practices contains both theoretical and empirical evidence of a broad range of aspects of GM crop policies throughout the world. Emphasizing world agriculture production and ethics of GM crops, the book balances insights into the various discussions around the use of GM crops including soil health, effects on animals, environmental sustainability impact, and ethical issues. Modern agriculture is directly and explicitly characterized by the adoption of new technologies, their developmental processes and emerging scientific approaches. The recent trends of agriculture are not limited to capital-intensive agricultural production. GM is increasingly regarded as an option in transforming traditional agriculture practices to modern and more efficient means of feeding the world. This book will be useful for researchers in agricultural policy and economics, agricultural biotechnology, soil science, genetic engineering, ethics, environmental management, sustainable development and NGOs. Discusses ethics, varieties, research trends, and success stories of genetic modification Includes both crop production and human health impacts Compares and contrasts GM policies from around the world

Seeds of Contention

Seeds of Contention Book
Author : Per Pinstrup-Andersen,Ebbe Schiøler
Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Release : 2003-05-12
ISBN : 0195664906
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years the media have reported on the increasing use of genetically modified crops in agriculture. This text focuses attention on the less discussed issues of the potential benefits of genetically modified crops for developing countries.

The Coexistence of Genetically Modified Organic and Conventional Foods

The Coexistence of Genetically Modified  Organic and Conventional Foods Book
Author : Nicholas Kalaitzandonakes,Peter W.B. Phillips,Justus Wesseler,Stuart J. Smyth
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-10-18
ISBN : 1493937278
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since their commercial introduction in 1996, genetically modified (GM) crops have been adopted by farmers around the world at impressive rates. In 2011, 180 million hectares of GM crops were cultivated by more than 15 million farmers in 29 countries. In the next decade, global adoption is expected to grow even faster as the research pipeline for new biotech traits and crops has increased almost fourfold in the last few years. The adoption of GM crops has led to increased productivity, while reducing pesticide use and the emissions of agricultural greenhouse gases, leading to broadly distributed economic benefits across the global food supply chain. Despite the rapid uptake of GM crops, the various social and economic benefits as well as the expanding rate innovation, the use of GM crops remains controversial in parts of the world. Despite the emergence of coexistence between GM, organic and conventional crops as a key policy and practical issue of global scale, there is no coherent literature that addresses it directly. Governments and market stakeholders in many countries are grappling with policy alternatives that settle conflicting property rights, minimize negative market externalities and associated liabilities, maximize the economic benefits of innovation and allow producer and consumer choice. This book intends to fill these needs with contributions from the top theoreticians, legal and economic analysts, policy makers and industry practitioners in the field. As the economics and policy of coexistence start to emerge as an separate subfield in agricultural, environmental and natural resource economics with an increasing number of scholars working on the topic, the book will also provide a comprehensive base in the literature for those entering the area, making it of interest to students, scholars and policy-makers alike.

Genetically Modified Food

Genetically Modified Food Book
Author : Marie Kreipe
Publisher : Diplomica Verlag
Release : 2010
ISBN : 3842850131
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The controversial issue of genetically modified (GM) food is discussed in this book. While the United States (US) is a strong supporter of GM technology having adopted a rather lax regulation of trade with GM products, the European Union (EU) is representing a sceptical position towards this new technology and has even imposed a de facto moratorium on further approval of GM products from 1998 to 2004. The purpose of this book is an extensive analysis of the current status on risks and benefits of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and a suggestion on how an appropriate regulation of GM products could be derived. Potential guidelines are provided for policy formulation both in a qualitative and in a quantitative dimension. The US is applying the principle of substantial equivalence, which means that GM products are in their substance identical to products produced by conventional methods. Therefore, no new regulations are necessary for the trade with GM products. In contrast, the European Union (EU) disagrees that GM products are equivalent to their conventional counterparts due to the different production process. Instead, the EU refers to the precautionary principle in its GMO policy, meaning that trade with GM products should be restricted until it will be proven that no additional risks are implied by the use of these products. The divergence of opinions about the right policy to regulate GM products has significant impacts on trade flows and welfare effects. The US and the EU have already tried to resolve their dispute before the World Trade Organization (WTO). Relevant laws of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) and the WTO are presented as well as indications for a potential consensus.

Biotechnology Agriculture and Food Security in Southern Africa

Biotechnology  Agriculture  and Food Security in Southern Africa Book
Author : Steven Were Omamo,Klaus von Grebmer
Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Release : 2005-01-01
ISBN : 0896297373
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book brings together experts from within and outside Africa to discuss the current status of biotechnology in southern Africa, the conceptual framework for multistakeholder dialogues, the political and ethical issues surrounding biotechnology, food safety and consumer issues, biosafety, intellectual property rights, and trade involving genetically modified foods.

Regulating Next Generation Agri Food Biotechnologies

Regulating Next Generation Agri Food Biotechnologies Book
Author : Michael Howlett,David Laycock
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2013-05-07
ISBN : 1136338438
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Agri-food bio-technology policy and regulation is transitioning from an early period focused on genetic engineering technologies to ‘next-generation’ rules and regulatory processes linked to challenges originating in a wide variety of new technological processes and applications. Can lessons learned from past and current regulatory oversights of agricultural biotechnology – and other high-technology sectors – help us address new and emerging regulatory challenges in the agri-food genetics sector? The expert contributors in this volume discuss the experiences of a wide range of North American, European and Asian countries with high technology regulation to address four key questions related to the past and future development of agri-food genomics regulation across the globe. how unique is agri-food biotechology regulation, and how can it be evaluated using the existing tools of regulatory analysis developed in examinations of other sectors? is a ‘government to governance’ model of regulatory regime development found in many other sectors relevant in this rapidly evolving sphere of activity? is a stages model of regulatory regime development accurate? And, if so, at which stage are we currently positioned in the regulation of agri-food genomics products and technologies? what drives movement between stages in different countries and sectors? In assessing such drivers, what are the key links between sectoral (meso) developments and more general macro and micro developments such as international relations and administrative behaviour? By updating, extending and challenging earlier empirical and theoretical social science perspectives on agricultural bio-technological regulation, this volume helps to inform future policy formulation. It will be of interest to practitioners and students of biotechnology, agriculture, and science and technology policy, and regulatory processes more generally.

Governing the Transatlantic Conflict over Agricultural Biotechnology

Governing the Transatlantic Conflict over Agricultural Biotechnology Book
Author : Joseph Murphy,Les Levidow
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2007-01-24
ISBN : 1134190921
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Delays in approving genetically modified crops and foods in the European Union have led to a high profile trade conflict with the United States. This book analyses the EU-US conflict and uses it as a case study to explore the governance of new technologies. The transatlantic conflict over GM crops and food has been widely attributed to regulatory differences that divide the EU and the US. Going beyond common stereotypes of these differences and their origins, this book analyses the conflict through contending coalitions of policy actors operating across the Atlantic. Governing the Transatlantic Conflict over Agricultural Biotechnology focuses on interactions between the EU and the US, rather than on EU-US comparisons. Drawing on original research and interviews with key policy actors, the book shows how EU-US efforts to harmonise regulations for agricultural biotechnology created the context in which activists could generate a backlash against the technology. In this new context regulations were shaped along different lines. Joseph Murphy and Les Levidow provide new insights by elaborating critical perspectives on global governance, issue-framing, standard-setting and regulatory science. This accessible book will appeal to undergraduate and post-graduate students, academics and policy-makers working on a wide range of issues covered by political science, policy studies, international relations, economics, geography, business management, environmental and development studies, science and technology studies.

Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Crops

Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Crops Book
Author : Natalie Ferry,Angharad M. R. Gatehouse
Publisher : CABI
Release : 2009-01-01
ISBN : 184593430X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The genetic modification of crops continues to be the subject of intense debate, and opinions are often strongly polarised. Environmental Impact of Genetically Modified Crops addresses the major concerns of scientists, policy makers, environmental lobby groups and the general public regarding this controversial issue, from an editorially neutral standpoint. While the main focus is on environmental impact, food safety issues, for both humans and animals are also considered. The book concludes with a discussion on the future of agricultural biotechnology in the context of sustainability, natural resource management and future global population and food supply.

To Reach the Poor

To Reach the Poor Book
Author : Atanassov, Atanas,Bahieldin, Ahmed,Brink, Johan,Burachik, Moises,Cohen, Joel I.,Dhawan, Vibha,Ebora, Reynaldo V.,Falck-Zepeda, Jose,Herrera-Estrella, Luis,Komen, John,Chon Low, Fee,Omaliko, Emeka,Odhiambo, Benjamin,Quemada, Hector,Peng, Yufa Sampaio,Idah Sithole-Niang, Maria Jose,Sittenfeld, Ana,Smale, Melinda,Sithole-Niang, Idah Sutrisno,Valyasevi, Ruud,Zafar, Yusuf,Zambrano, Patricia
Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Release : 2004
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Local farming communities throughout the world face productivity constraints, environmental concerns, and diverse nutritional needs. Developing countries address these challenges in a number of ways. One way is public research that produces genetically modified (GM) crops and recognize biotechnology as a part of the solution. To reach these communities, GM crops, after receiving biosafety agreement, must be approved for evaluation under local conditions. However, gaps between approvals in the developed and developing world grow larger, as the process of advancing GM crops in developing countries becomes increasingly difficult. In several countries, only insect resistant cotton has successfully moved from small, confined experimental trials to larger, open trials and to farms. By far, most GM crop approvals have been for commercial products that perform well under tropical conditions. However, complete information on public GMcrop research in developing countries has not been assessed. “Will policies and research institutions in the developing world stimulate the safe use of publicly fundedGM food crops?” The relatively few GM crops approved from public research, coupled with growing regulatory, biosafety capacity, trade, and political concerns, argue to the contrary. To tackle this issue, we identified and analyzed public research pipelines for GM crops among 16 developing countries and transition economies. Respondents reported 209 genetic transformation events for 46 different crops at the time when the survey was conducted. The pipelines demonstrate scientific progress among publicly funded crop research institutes in participating countries. Information and findings are presented for GM crops nearing final stages of selection. Additional details are provided for the types of genes and traits used, the breadth of genetic resources documented, implications for regulation, and the type of research partnerships employed. Regulations, GM crop approvals, choice of transgene, and policy implications are discussed as they affect this research. Based on these findings, recommendations are presented that would help sustain and increase efficiency of publicly supported research while meeting biosafety requirements. To do so, the study examines results concerning investments and choices made in research, capacity, and policy development for biotechnology. These indicate the risk and potential for GM technologies in developing countries. Policy makers, those funding biotechnology, and other stakeholders can use this information to prioritize investments, consider product advancement, and assess relative magnitude of potential risks, and benefits.

GMO China

GMO China Book
Author : Cong Cao
Publisher : Columbia University Press
Release : 2018-10-02
ISBN : 0231541090
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In China, as elsewhere, the debate over genetically modified organisms has become polarized into anti- and pro-GMO camps. Given the size of China’s population and market, much is at stake in conflicts over regulation for domestic as well as international actors. In this book, Cong Cao provides an even-handed analysis that illuminates the tensions that have shaped China’s policy toward agricultural biotechnology in a global perspective. Cao presents a comprehensive and systematic analysis of how China’s policy toward research and commercialization of genetically modified crops has shifted that explains how China’s changing GMO stances reflect its evolving position on the world stage. While China’s scientific community has set the agenda, it has encountered resistance rooted in concerns over food safety and consumers’ rights as well as issues of intellectual property rights and food sovereignty. Although Chinese leaders at first sought to take advantage of the biotech revolution by promoting GMO crop consumption, Cao demonstrates that policy has since become precautionary, as seen in new laws and regulations grounded in concerns over safety and the deferral of commercialization of GM rice. He presents China’s policies in light of changing global attitudes toward GM crops: As shifts in China have closely followed global trends, so has domestic activism. Drawing on government and scientific documents as well as interviews with scientists, officials, policy analysts, activists, and journalists, GMO China is an important book for China studies, science and technology studies, policy analysts, and professionals interested in the Chinese biotechnology market.

Genetically modified crops in Africa

Genetically modified crops in Africa Book
Author : Falck-Zepeda, José Benjamin,Gruère, Guillaume P.,Sithole-Niang, Idah
Publisher : Intl Food Policy Res Inst
Release : 2013-10-02
ISBN : 0896297950
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A variable climate, political instability, and other constraints have limited agricultural development in African countries south of the Sahara. Genetically modified (GM) crops are one tool for enhancing agricultural productivity and food security despite such constraints. Genetically Modified Crops in Africa: Economic and Policy Lessons from Countries South of the Sahara investigates how this tool might be effectively used by evaluating the benefits, costs, and risks for African countries of adopting GM crops. The authors gather together studies on GM crops’ economic effects and impact on trade, how consumers view such crops, and other issues. They find that GM crops have had, on average, a positive economic effect in the nations where they were used and identify future steps for enhancing GM crop adoption’s positive effects. Promising policy initiatives include making biosafety regulations that do not make GM crop development prohibitively expensive, fostering intraregional trade in GM crops, and providing more and better information about GM crops to consumers who might currently be skeptical of them. These and other findings in Genetically Modified Crops in Africa indicate ways biotechnology can contribute to economic development in Africa south of the Sahara.

The Politics of GM Crops in India

The Politics of GM Crops in India Book
Author : Asheesh Navneet
Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release : 2020-12-21
ISBN : 1000327000
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book discusses the conflicting discourse around GM crops in India. It brings together concerns related to food production, farming, environment, health, ownership and policymaking on the use of genetically modified crops in India. The volume analyses apprehensions around GM technology from the perspective of the various stakeholders involved in the debate. Through field surveys and interviews with scientists, economists, environmentalists, civil society activists as well as cotton growing farmers from the states of Telangana and Maharashtra, it highlights the vulnerabilities and questions related to the short-term and long term impacts of using GM technology on farmers, food production, health, the agricultural economy and the environment. The book proposes ways for the use of GM technology which takes stock of economic and farming limitations and accordingly brings in reforms and policies to reconcile the conflicting arguments of stakeholders. This volume will be of great interest to researchers and students of development studies, political science, sociology, agricultural studies and sciences and biotechnology. It will also be useful for policymakers, think tanks and NGOs working with farmers or agriculture collectives on policy issues.

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare

Genetically Modified Food and Global Welfare Book
Author : Colin Carter,Ian Sheldon,GianCarlo Moschini
Publisher : Emerald Group Publishing
Release : 2011-07-25
ISBN : 0857247573
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume brings together fresh insights from top agricultural economists in the areas of consumer attitudes, environmental impacts, policy and regulation, trade, investment, food security, and development, in an attempt to provide a new perspective on the most pressing policy questions facing GM technology.

The Political Economy of Genetically Modified Foods

The Political Economy of Genetically Modified Foods Book
Author : Robert Eugene Evenson,Terri L. Raney
Publisher : Edward Elgar Pub
Release : 2007
ISBN : 9781843767626
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This important collection prepared by Robert E. Evenson and Terri Raney - leading scholars in the field - focuses on one of the most controversial issues of our time - the genetic modification of agricultural produce. Whilst the US and Canada are supportive of GM crops, the European Union urges other countries to involve the 'precautionary principle' in regulatory policy. This comprehensive volume, which will appeal to scholars and practitioners alike, includes papers discussing this European Union-North American divide and possible resolutions of differences on this subject. Topics examined include: the technology; the industry; farmer adoption; consumer acceptance; economic impacts; the emergence of GM free markets and GM products for developing countries.

Governing Agricultural Sustainability

Governing Agricultural Sustainability Book
Author : Phil Macnaghten,Susana Carro-Ripalda
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2015-06-26
ISBN : 1317486013
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Although GM crops are seen by their advocates as a key component of the future of world agriculture and as part of the solution for world poverty and hunger, their uptake has not been smooth nor universal: they have been marred by controversy and all too commonly their regulation has been challenged as inadequate, even biased. This book aims to understand these dynamics, examining the impacts of GM crops in diverse contexts and their potentials to contribute to sustainable agricultural futures. Part 1 draws on research from three global ‘rising powers’ – Brazil, India and Mexico – exploring the views of scientists, farmers and publics. Using a diverse array of ethnographic and qualitative methodologies, the book examines the dynamics that have underpinned the controversy in three diverse geo-political contexts, the manner in which dominant institutional framings have been closely aligned with the interests of powerful elites, and the multiple ways in which these have been resisted through local, symbolic and material practices. Part 2 comprises a series of short comment pieces from 11 leading social and natural scientists responding to the question of how to develop a policy framework for the responsible innovation of sustainable, culturally appropriate and socially just agricultural GM technologies. This innovative book offers new insights for researchers and postgraduates in Science and technology studies, Agro-ecology and Environmental Studies, Development studies, Anthropology, Human Geography, Sociology, Political Science, Public Administration, Latin American studies, and Asian studies.

Risk Democratic Citizenship and Public Policy

Risk  Democratic Citizenship and Public Policy Book
Author : Albert Weale,Professor of Government Albert Weale
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2002-11-07
ISBN : 9780197262832
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years there has been growing concern about the effectiveness and legitimacy of public decision making about risk, sparked by a series of high profile issues that have made headline news. These ten essays analyse the public understanding of risk and the policy making process. BSE, vaccination, genetically modified crops and the regulation of chemicals are looked at as case studies. These essays will be of interest to general political scientists, sociologists and specialists in public policy, as well as those specifically working in the field of risk analysis.

Food Law

Food Law Book
Author : Dominique Lauterburg
Publisher : Routledge
Release : 2001
ISBN : 1859415245
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The international trade in food and the role of the World Trade Organisation are analyzed and the book also contains a section devoted to the issue of Genetically Modified Organisms, in which the legal, ethical and political issues arising in relation to the genetic modification of crops, with regard to both consumer protection and protection of the environment, are examined.