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Plant Breeding and Cultivar Development

Plant Breeding and Cultivar Development Book
Author : D. P. Singh,A. K. Singh,A. Singh
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-01-21
ISBN : 0128175648
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plant Breeding and Cultivar Development features an optimal balance between classical and modern tools and techniques related to plant breeding. Written for a global audience and based on the extensive international experience of the authors, the book features pertinent examples from major and minor world crops. Advanced data analytics (machine learning), phenomics and artificial intelligence are explored in the book's 30 chapters that cover classical and modern plant breeding. By presenting these advancements in specific detail, private and public sector breeding programs will learn about new, effective and efficient implementation. The insights are clear enough that non-plant breeding majoring students will find it useful to learn about the subject, while advanced level students and researchers and practitioners will find practical examples that help them implement their work. Bridges the gap between conventional breeding practices and state-of-the-art technologies Provides real-world case studies of a wide range of plant breeding techniques and practices Combines insights from genetics, genomics, breeding science, statistics, computer science and engineering for crop improvement and cultivar development

Plant Breeding and Cultivar Development

Plant Breeding and Cultivar Development Book
Author : D. P. Singh,A. K. Singh,A. Singh
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-02-12
ISBN : 012817563X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plant Breeding and Cultivar Development features an optimal balance between classical and modern tools and techniques related to plant breeding. Written for a global audience and based on the extensive international experience of the authors, the book features pertinent examples from major and minor world crops. Advanced data analytics (machine learning), phenomics and artificial intelligence are explored in the book's 30 chapters that cover classical and modern plant breeding. By presenting these advancements in specific detail, private and public sector breeding programs will learn about new, effective and efficient implementation. The insights are clear enough that non-plant breeding majoring students will find it useful to learn about the subject, while advanced level students and researchers and practitioners will find practical examples that help them implement their work. Bridges the gap between conventional breeding practices and state-of-the-art technologies Provides real-world case studies of a wide range of plant breeding techniques and practices Combines insights from genetics, genomics, breeding science, statistics, computer science and engineering for crop improvement and cultivar development

Principles of Cultivar Development Theory and technique

Principles of Cultivar Development  Theory and technique Book
Author : Walter R. Fehr
Publisher : MacMillan Publishing Company
Release : 1987
ISBN : 9780029499207
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Principles of Cultivar Development Theory and technique book written by Walter R. Fehr, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Biotechnology and Plant Breeding

Biotechnology and Plant Breeding Book
Author : Aluízio Borém,Roberto Fritsche-Neto
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2014-01-21
ISBN : 012417292X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Biotechnology and Plant Breeding includes critical discussions of the newest and most important applications of biotechnology in plant breeding, covering key topics such as biometry applied to molecular analysis of genetic diversity, genetically modified plants, and more. This work goes beyond recombinant DNA technology to bring together key information and references on new biotech tools for cultivar development, such as double-haploids, molecular markers, and genome-wide selection, among others. It is increasingly challenging for plant breeders and agricultural systems to supply enough food, feed, fiber and biofuel for the global population. As plant breeding evolves and becomes increasingly sophisticated, a staggering volume of genetic data is now generated. Biotechnology and Plant Breeding helps researchers and students become familiar with how the vast amounts of genetic data are generated, stored, analyzed and applied. This practical resource integrates information about plant breeding into the context of modern science, and assists with training for plant breeders including those scientists who have a good understanding of molecular biology/biotechnology and need to learn the art and practice of plant breeding. Plant biologists, breeding technicians, agronomists, seed technologists, students, and any researcher interested in biotechnologies applied to plant breeding will find this work an essential tool and reference for the field. Presents in-depth but easy-to-understand coverage of topics, so plant breeders can readily comprehend them and apply them to their breeding programs Includes chapters that address the already developed and optimized biotechnologies for cultivar development, with real-world application for users Features contributions by authors with several years of experience in their areas of expertise

Hybrid Cultivar Development

Hybrid Cultivar Development Book
Author : S.S. Banga,S.K. Banga
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1998-10-13
ISBN : 9783540635239
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Heterosis breeding based on male sterility has become established in many field crops and has been credited with high productivity. This book presents an update on the advent and promise of hybrids with comprehensive coverage of theoretical and applied aspects of heterosis breeding. Its principal elements are the hybrid advantage, pollination control mechanisms and finally the production of hybrid seeds. Individual crop specialists present in-depth analyses of intricacies involved in the development of hybrids of rice, wheat, maize, barley, pearl millet, sorghum, cotton, sunflower, rapeseed-mustard, castor, pigeonpea, tomato, onion, cole crops, peppers, and melon. The book will be used by researchers, teachers and students of botany, genetics, horticulture and plant breeding.

Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding

Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding Book
Author : Arnel R. Hallauer,Marcelo J. Carena,J.B. Miranda Filho
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2010-09-03
ISBN : 9781441907653
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Maize is used in an endless list of products that are directly or indirectly related to human nutrition and food security. Maize is grown in producer farms, farmers depend on genetically improved cultivars, and maize breeders develop improved maize cultivars for farmers. Nikolai I. Vavilov defined plant breeding as plant evolution directed by man. Among crops, maize is one of the most successful examples for breeder-directed evolution. Maize is a cross-pollinated species with unique and separate male and female organs allowing techniques from both self and cross-pollinated crops to be utilized. As a consequence, a diverse set of breeding methods can be utilized for the development of various maize cultivar types for all economic conditions (e.g., improved populations, inbred lines, and their hybrids for different types of markets). Maize breeding is the science of maize cultivar development. Public investment in maize breeding from 1865 to 1996 was $3 billion (Crosbie et al., 2004) and the return on investment was $260 billion as a consequence of applied maize breeding, even without full understanding of the genetic basis of heterosis. The principles of quantitative genetics have been successfully applied by maize breeders worldwide to adapt and improve germplasm sources of cultivars for very simple traits (e.g. maize flowering) and very complex ones (e.g., grain yield). For instance, genomic efforts have isolated early-maturing genes and QTL for potential MAS but very simple and low cost phenotypic efforts have caused significant and fast genetic progress across genotypes moving elite tropical and late temperate maize northward with minimal investment. Quantitative genetics has allowed the integration of pre-breeding with cultivar development by characterizing populations genetically, adapting them to places never thought of (e.g., tropical to short-seasons), improving them by all sorts of intra- and inter-population recurrent selection methods, extracting lines with more probability of success, and exploiting inbreeding and heterosis. Quantitative genetics in maize breeding has improved the odds of developing outstanding maize cultivars from genetically broad based improved populations such as B73. The inbred-hybrid concept in maize was a public sector invention 100 years ago and it is still considered one of the greatest achievements in plant breeding. Maize hybrids grown by farmers today are still produced following this methodology and there is still no limit to genetic improvement when most genes are targeted in the breeding process. Heterotic effects are unique for each hybrid and exotic genetic materials (e.g., tropical, early maturing) carry useful alleles for complex traits not present in the B73 genome just sequenced while increasing the genetic diversity of U.S. hybrids. Breeding programs based on classical quantitative genetics and selection methods will be the basis for proving theoretical approaches on breeding plans based on molecular markers. Mating designs still offer large sample sizes when compared to QTL approaches and there is still a need to successful integration of these methods. There is a need to increase the genetic diversity of maize hybrids available in the market (e.g., there is a need to increase the number of early maturing testers in the northern U.S.). Public programs can still develop new and genetically diverse products not available in industry. However, public U.S. maize breeding programs have either been discontinued or are eroding because of decreasing state and federal funding toward basic science. Future significant genetic gains in maize are dependent on the incorporation of useful and unique genetic diversity not available in industry (e.g., NDSU EarlyGEM lines). The integration of pre-breeding methods with cultivar development should enhance future breeding efforts to maintain active public breeding programs not only adapting and improving genetically broad-based germplasm but also developing unique products and training the next generation of maize breeders producing research dissertations directly linked to breeding programs. This is especially important in areas where commercial hybrids are not locally bred. More than ever public and private institutions are encouraged to cooperate in order to share breeding rights, research goals, winter nurseries, managed stress environments, and latest technology for the benefit of producing the best possible hybrids for farmers with the least cost. We have the opportunity to link both classical and modern technology for the benefit of breeding in close cooperation with industry without the need for investing in academic labs and time (e.g., industry labs take a week vs months/years in academic labs for the same work). This volume, as part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding series, aims to increase awareness of the relative value and impact of maize breeding for food, feed, and fuel security. Without breeding programs continuously developing improved germplasm, no technology can develop improved cultivars. Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding presents principles and data that can be applied to maximize genetic improvement of germplasm and develop superior genotypes in different crops. The topics included should be of interest of graduate students and breeders conducting research not only on breeding and selection methods but also developing pure lines and hybrid cultivars in crop species. This volume is a unique and permanent contribution to breeders, geneticists, students, policy makers, and land-grant institutions still promoting quality research in applied plant breeding as opposed to promoting grant monies and indirect costs at any short-term cost. The book is dedicated to those who envision the development of the next generation of cultivars with less need of water and inputs, with better nutrition; and with higher percentages of exotic germplasm as well as those that pursue independent research goals before searching for funding. Scientists are encouraged to use all possible breeding methodologies available (e.g., transgenics, classical breeding, MAS, and all possible combinations could be used with specific sound long and short-term goals on mind) once germplasm is chosen making wise decisions with proven and scientifically sound technologies for assisting current breeding efforts depending on the particular trait under selection. Arnel R. Hallauer is C. F. Curtiss Distinguished Professor in Agriculture (Emeritus) at Iowa State University (ISU). Dr. Hallauer has led maize-breeding research for mid-season maturity at ISU since 1958. His work has had a worldwide impact on plant-breeding programs,

Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding

Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding Book
Author : Arnel R. Hallauer,Marcelo J. Carena,J.B. Miranda Filho
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-09-28
ISBN : 1441907661
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

GET BOOK

Book Description :

Maize is used in an endless list of products that are directly or indirectly related to human nutrition and food security. Maize is grown in producer farms, farmers depend on genetically improved cultivars, and maize breeders develop improved maize cultivars for farmers. Nikolai I. Vavilov defined plant breeding as plant evolution directed by man. Among crops, maize is one of the most successful examples for breeder-directed evolution. Maize is a cross-pollinated species with unique and separate male and female organs allowing techniques from both self and cross-pollinated crops to be utilized. As a consequence, a diverse set of breeding methods can be utilized for the development of various maize cultivar types for all economic conditions (e.g., improved populations, inbred lines, and their hybrids for different types of markets). Maize breeding is the science of maize cultivar development. Public investment in maize breeding from 1865 to 1996 was $3 billion (Crosbie et al., 2004) and the return on investment was $260 billion as a consequence of applied maize breeding, even without full understanding of the genetic basis of heterosis. The principles of quantitative genetics have been successfully applied by maize breeders worldwide to adapt and improve germplasm sources of cultivars for very simple traits (e.g. maize flowering) and very complex ones (e.g., grain yield). For instance, genomic efforts have isolated early-maturing genes and QTL for potential MAS but very simple and low cost phenotypic efforts have caused significant and fast genetic progress across genotypes moving elite tropical and late temperate maize northward with minimal investment. Quantitative genetics has allowed the integration of pre-breeding with cultivar development by characterizing populations genetically, adapting them to places never thought of (e.g., tropical to short-seasons), improving them by all sorts of intra- and inter-population recurrent selection methods, extracting lines with more probability of success, and exploiting inbreeding and heterosis. Quantitative genetics in maize breeding has improved the odds of developing outstanding maize cultivars from genetically broad based improved populations such as B73. The inbred-hybrid concept in maize was a public sector invention 100 years ago and it is still considered one of the greatest achievements in plant breeding. Maize hybrids grown by farmers today are still produced following this methodology and there is still no limit to genetic improvement when most genes are targeted in the breeding process. Heterotic effects are unique for each hybrid and exotic genetic materials (e.g., tropical, early maturing) carry useful alleles for complex traits not present in the B73 genome just sequenced while increasing the genetic diversity of U.S. hybrids. Breeding programs based on classical quantitative genetics and selection methods will be the basis for proving theoretical approaches on breeding plans based on molecular markers. Mating designs still offer large sample sizes when compared to QTL approaches and there is still a need to successful integration of these methods. There is a need to increase the genetic diversity of maize hybrids available in the market (e.g., there is a need to increase the number of early maturing testers in the northern U.S.). Public programs can still develop new and genetically diverse products not available in industry. However, public U.S. maize breeding programs have either been discontinued or are eroding because of decreasing state and federal funding toward basic science. Future significant genetic gains in maize are dependent on the incorporation of useful and unique genetic diversity not available in industry (e.g., NDSU EarlyGEM lines). The integration of pre-breeding methods with cultivar development should enhance future breeding efforts to maintain active public breeding programs not only adapting and improving genetically broad-based germplasm but also developing unique products and training the next generation of maize breeders producing research dissertations directly linked to breeding programs. This is especially important in areas where commercial hybrids are not locally bred. More than ever public and private institutions are encouraged to cooperate in order to share breeding rights, research goals, winter nurseries, managed stress environments, and latest technology for the benefit of producing the best possible hybrids for farmers with the least cost. We have the opportunity to link both classical and modern technology for the benefit of breeding in close cooperation with industry without the need for investing in academic labs and time (e.g., industry labs take a week vs months/years in academic labs for the same work). This volume, as part of the Handbook of Plant Breeding series, aims to increase awareness of the relative value and impact of maize breeding for food, feed, and fuel security. Without breeding programs continuously developing improved germplasm, no technology can develop improved cultivars. Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding presents principles and data that can be applied to maximize genetic improvement of germplasm and develop superior genotypes in different crops. The topics included should be of interest of graduate students and breeders conducting research not only on breeding and selection methods but also developing pure lines and hybrid cultivars in crop species. This volume is a unique and permanent contribution to breeders, geneticists, students, policy makers, and land-grant institutions still promoting quality research in applied plant breeding as opposed to promoting grant monies and indirect costs at any short-term cost. The book is dedicated to those who envision the development of the next generation of cultivars with less need of water and inputs, with better nutrition; and with higher percentages of exotic germplasm as well as those that pursue independent research goals before searching for funding. Scientists are encouraged to use all possible breeding methodologies available (e.g., transgenics, classical breeding, MAS, and all possible combinations could be used with specific sound long and short-term goals on mind) once germplasm is chosen making wise decisions with proven and scientifically sound technologies for assisting current breeding efforts depending on the particular trait under selection. Arnel R. Hallauer is C. F. Curtiss Distinguished Professor in Agriculture (Emeritus) at Iowa State University (ISU). Dr. Hallauer has led maize-breeding research for mid-season maturity at ISU since 1958. His work has had a worldwide impact on plant-breeding programs,

Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding

Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding Book
Author : A. R. Hallauer,M. J. Carena,J. B. Miranda Filho
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2011-02-18
ISBN : 9781441907677
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Quantitative Genetics in Maize Breeding book written by A. R. Hallauer,M. J. Carena,J. B. Miranda Filho, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Cereals

Cereals Book
Author : Marcelo J. Carena
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-04-21
ISBN : 9780387722979
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Agriculture depends on improved cultivars, and cultivars are developed through proper plant breeding. Unfortunately, applied plant breeding programs that are focused on cereal commodity crops are under serious erosion because of lack of funding. This loss of public support affects breeding continuity, objectivity, and, perhaps equally important, the training of future plant breeders and the utilization and improvement of plant genetic resources currently available. Breeding programs should focus not only on short-term research goals but also on long-term genetic improvement of germplasm. The research products of breeding programs are important not only for food security but also for commodity-oriented public and private programs, especially in the fringes of crop production. Breeding strategies used for long-term selection are often neglected but the reality is that long-term research is needed for the success of short-term products. An excellent example is that genetically broad-based public germplasm has significantly been utilized and recycled by industry, producing billions of dollars for industry and farmers before intellectual property rights were available. Successful examples of breeding continuity have served the sustainable cereal crop production that we currently have. The fact that farmers rely on public and private breeding institutions for solving long-term challenges should influence policy makers to reverse this trend of reduced funding. Joint cooperation between industry and public institutions would be a good example to follow. The objective of this volume is to increase the utilization of useful genetic resources and increase awareness of the relative value and impact of plant breeding and biotechnology. That should lead to a more sustainable crop production and ultimately food security. Applied plant breeding will continue to be the foundation to which molecular markers are applied. Focusing useful molecular techniques on the right traits will build a strong linkage between genomics and plant breeding and lead to new and better cultivars. Therefore, more than ever there is a need for better communication and cooperation among scientists in the plant breeding and biotechnology areas. We have an opportunity to greatly enhance agricultural production by applying the results of this research to meet the growing demands for food security and environmental conservation. Ensuring strong applied plant breeding programs with successful application of molecular markers will be essential in ensuring such sustainable use of plant genetic resources.

Genotype X Environment Interactions

Genotype X Environment Interactions Book
Author : Paolo Annicchiarico
Publisher : Food & Agriculture Org.
Release : 2002
ISBN : 9789251048702
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The projected increase in world population levels and the subsequent rise in food demand represents a huge challenge for agricultural production systems worldwide. This publication examines the opportunities and challenges raised by the use of plant genetic resources and highlights the contribution that data from multi-environment yield trials can provide for the definition of adaptation strategies and yield stability targets in plant breeding programmes. It contains a case study about a durum wheat crop programme in Algeria, and also includes a CD-ROM with data from IRRISTAT, a programme developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI).

Plant Breeding for Water Limited Environments

Plant Breeding for Water Limited Environments Book
Author : Abraham Blum
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2010-11-11
ISBN : 9781441974907
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume will be the only existing single-authored book offering a science-based breeder’s manual directed at breeding for water-limited environments. Plant breeding is characterized by the need to integrate information from diverse disciplines towards the development and delivery of a product defines as a new cultivar. Conventional breeding draws information from disciplines such as genetics, plant physiology, plant pathology, entomology, food technology and statistics. Plant breeding for water-limited environments and the development of drought resistant crop cultivars is considered as one of the more difficult areas in plant breeding while at the same time it is becoming a very pressing issue. This volume is unique and timely in that it develops realistic solutions and protocols towards the breeding of drought resistant cultivars by integrating knowledge from environmental science, plant physiology, genetics and molecular biology.

Applied Plant Breeding

Applied Plant Breeding Book
Author : Walter R. Fehr
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1983
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genetic principles; Types of cultivars; Parent selection; Population formation by hybridization; Techniques for artificial hybridization; Mutation breeding; Recurrent selection; Genetic male sterility for population improvement; Maximizing genetic improvement; Mass selection in self-pollinated populations; Bulk method; Single-seed descent method; Pedigree method; Early generation testing; Homozygous lines from doubled haploids; Backcross method; Development of vegetatively-propagated cultivars; Development of synthetic cultivars; Development of self-pollinated cultivars; Multilines, blends, and cultivar mixtures; Development of hybrid cultivars; Hybrid seed production; Release and distribution of cultivars.

National Plant Breeding Study

National Plant Breeding Study Book
Author : Kenneth J. Frey
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1997
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download National Plant Breeding Study book written by Kenneth J. Frey, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

National Plant Breeding Study

National Plant Breeding Study Book
Author : Kenneth J. Frey
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1996
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download National Plant Breeding Study book written by Kenneth J. Frey, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Advances in Agronomy

Advances in Agronomy Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 1995-11-14
ISBN : 9780080563688
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With eight outstanding reviews on cutting-edge advances in the crop and soil sciences, this volume emphasizes environmental quality and biotechnology. The connections between agricultural practice and environmental impact are addressed in chapters on sewage sludge, dissolved organic matter, and metals and pyrolysis-mass spectrometry of soil organic matter. Also among this collection are reviews on USDA's plant genome project, DNA markers, and peanut genetics and breeding. With this latest volume, Advances in Agronomy continues to be recognized as a prolific and first-rate reference by the scientific community. In 1993 Advances in Agronomy increased its publication frequency to three volumes per year, and will continue this trend as the breadth of agronomic inquiry and knowledge continues to grow. Key Features * Synchrotron X-ray techniques * USDA plant genome program * Pyrolysis-mass spectrometric analysis of soil organic matter * Dissolved organic carbon and metal sorption by soils * DNA markers in plant breeding * Sewage sludge amended agricultural land * Peanut breeding and genetics * GIS in agricultural systems

Plant Breeding

Plant Breeding Book
Author : Jack Brown,Peter Caligari,Hugo Campos
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2014-11-17
ISBN : 0470658290
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Plant Breeding book written by Jack Brown,Peter Caligari,Hugo Campos, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Principles of Cultivar Development

Principles of Cultivar Development Book
Author : Walter R. Fehr
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1987
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Principles of Cultivar Development book written by Walter R. Fehr, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Plant Breeding in the Omics Era

Plant Breeding in the Omics Era Book
Author : Rodomiro Ortiz Ríos
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-09-16
ISBN : 3319205323
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

​The field of plant breeding has grown rapidly in the last decade with breakthrough research in genetics and genomics, inbred development, population improvement, hybrids, clones, self-pollinated crops, polyploidy, transgenic breeding and more. This book discusses the latest developments in all these areas but explores the next generation of needs and discoveries including omics beyond genomics, cultivar seeds and intellectual and property rights. This book is a leading-edge publication of the latest results and forecasts important areas of future needs and applications.​

Use of Plant Introductions in Cultivar Development

Use of Plant Introductions in Cultivar Development Book
Author : Henry L. Shands,Loren E. Wiesner
Publisher : Crop Science Society of Amer
Release : 1991
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Use of Plant Introductions in Cultivar Development book written by Henry L. Shands,Loren E. Wiesner, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Principles of Cultivar Development

Principles of Cultivar Development Book
Author : W. R. Fehr
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1993
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Role of plant breeding in agriculture; Modes of reproductoin; Genetic princioles; Polyploidy; Variation in chromosome number and structure; Quantitative inheritance; Heritability; Inbreeding; Heterosis; Parent selection; Population formation by hybridization; Techniques for artificial hybridization; Interspecific hybridization; Genetic male sterility for population improvement; Genotype x environment interaction; Field-plot techniques; Mutation breeding; Mass selection in self-pollinated populations; Pedigree method; Generation testing; Types od cultivars; Development of asexually propagated cultivars; Multilines; Development of aynthetic cultivars; Development of hybrid cultivars; Hybrid seed production.