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Physiological Ecology Of Forest Production

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Physiological Ecology of Forest Production

Physiological Ecology of Forest Production Book
Author : J. J. Landsberg,Peter Sands
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2010-11-26
ISBN : 9780080922546
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Process-based models open the way to useful predictions of the future growth rate of forests and provide a means of assessing the probable effects of variations in climate and management on forest productivity. As such they have the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional forest growth and yield models, which are based on mensuration data and assume that climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations will be the same in the future as they are now. This book discusses the basic physiological processes that determine the growth of plants, the way they are affected by environmental factors and how we can improve processes that are well-understood such as growth from leaf to stand level and productivity. A theme that runs through the book is integration to show a clear relationship between photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrient requirements, transpiration, water relations and other factors affecting plant growth that are often looked at separately. This integrated approach will provide the most comprehensive source for process-based modelling, which is valuable to ecologists, plant physiologists, forest planners and environmental scientists. Includes explanations of inherently mathematical models, aided by the use of graphs and diagrams illustrating causal interactions and by examples implemented as Excel spreadsheets Uses a process-based model as a framework for explaining the mechanisms underlying plant growth Integrated approach provides a clear and relatively simple treatment

Applications of Physiological Ecology to Forest Management

Applications of Physiological Ecology to Forest Management Book
Author : J. J. Landsberg,S. T. Gower
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 1997-01-08
ISBN : 9780080527383
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Forest management is a complex process that now incorporates information obtained from many sources. It is increasingly obvious that the physiological status of the trees in a forest has a dramatic impact on the likely success of any particular management strategy. Indeed, models described in this book that deal with forest productivity and sustainability require physiological information. This information can only be obtained from an understanding of the basic biological mechanisms and processes that contribute to individual tree growth. This valuable book illustrates that physiological ecology is a fundamental element of proficient forest management. Provides essential information relevant to the continuing debate over sustainable forest management Outlines how modern tools for physiological ecology can be used in planning and managing forest ecosystems Reviews the most commonly used forest models and assesses their value and future

Plant Physiological Ecology

Plant Physiological Ecology Book
Author : Hans Lambers,F Stuart Chapin III,Thijs L. Pons
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-10-08
ISBN : 9780387783413
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Box 9E. 1 Continued FIGURE 2. The C–S–R triangle model (Grime 1979). The strategies at the three corners are C, competiti- winning species; S, stress-tolerating s- cies; R,ruderalspecies. Particular species can engage in any mixture of these three primary strategies, and the m- ture is described by their position within the triangle. comment briefly on some other dimensions that Grime’s (1977) triangle (Fig. 2) (see also Sects. 6. 1 are not yet so well understood. and 6. 3 of Chapter 7 on growth and allocation) is a two-dimensional scheme. A C—S axis (Com- tition-winning species to Stress-tolerating spe- Leaf Economics Spectrum cies) reflects adaptation to favorable vs. unfavorable sites for plant growth, and an R- Five traits that are coordinated across species are axis (Ruderal species) reflects adaptation to leaf mass per area (LMA), leaf life-span, leaf N disturbance. concentration, and potential photosynthesis and dark respiration on a mass basis. In the five-trait Trait-Dimensions space,79%ofallvariation worldwideliesalonga single main axis (Fig. 33 of Chapter 2A on photo- A recent trend in plant strategy thinking has synthesis; Wright et al. 2004). Species with low been trait-dimensions, that is, spectra of varia- LMA tend to have short leaf life-spans, high leaf tion with respect to measurable traits. Compared nutrient concentrations, and high potential rates of mass-based photosynthesis. These species with category schemes, such as Raunkiaer’s, trait occur at the ‘‘quick-return’’ end of the leaf e- dimensions have the merit of capturing cont- nomics spectrum.

The Physiological Ecology of Woody Plants

The Physiological Ecology of Woody Plants Book
Author : Theodore T. Kozlowski,Paul J. Kramer,Stephen G. Pallardy
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 0323138004
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The efficient management of trees and other woody plants can be improved given an understanding of the physiological processes that control growth, the complex environmental factors that influence those processes, and our ability to regulate and maintain environmental conditions that facilitate growth. Emphasizes genetic and environmental interactions that influence woody plant growth Outlines responses of individual trees and tree communities to environmental stress Explores cultural practices useful for efficient management of shade, forest, and fruit trees, woody vines, and shrubs

Plant Physiological Ecology

Plant Physiological Ecology Book
Author : Robert W. Pearcy,J.R. Ehleringer,Harold Mooney,Philip W. Rundel
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401090130
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

capable of providing at least a relative measure of stomatal aperture were first used shortly thereafter (Darwin and Pertz, 1911). The Carnegie Institution of Washington's Desert Research Laboratory in Tucson from 1905 to 1927 was the first effort by plant physiologists and ecologists to conduct team research on the water relations of desert plants. Measurements by Stocker in the North African deserts and Indonesia (Stocker, 1928, 1935) and by Lundegardh (1922) in forest understories were pioneering attempts to understand the environmental controls on photosynthesis in the field. While these early physiological ecologists were keen observers and often posed hypotheses still relevant today they were strongly limited by the methods and technologies available to them. Their measurements provided only rough approximations of the actual plant responses. The available laboratory equip ment was either unsuited or much more difficult to operate under field than laboratory conditions. Laboratory physiologists distrusted the results and ecologists were largely not persuaded of its relevance. Consequently, it was not until the 1950s and 1960s that physiological ecology began its current resurgence. While the reasons for this are complicated, the development and application of more sophisticated instruments such as the infrared gas analyzer played a major role. In addition, the development of micrometeorology led to new methods of characterizing the plant environments.

Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in European Forest Ecosystems

Carbon and Nitrogen Cycling in European Forest Ecosystems Book
Author : Springer-verlag
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2000
ISBN : 9783540670254
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The storage of carbon in forest ecosystems has received special attention in the Kyoto protocol of the Climate Convention, which attempts to equilibrate fossil fuel emissions with biological sinks. This volume quantifies carbon storage in managed forest ecosystems not only in biomass, but also in all soil compartments. It investigates the interaction between the carbon and nitrogen cycles by working along a north-south transect through Europe which starts in northern Sweden, passes through a N-deposition maximum in central Europe and ends in Italy. Surprisingly, C storage in soils increases with N deposition; in addition, not young reforestations, but old growth forests have the highest rate of carbon sequestration. For the first time biogeochemical processes are linked to biodiversity on a large geographic scale and with special focus on soil organisms. The enclosed CD-ROM provides a complete database of all flux, storage and species observations for modellers.

Biomass Burning and Global Change Biomass burning in South America Southeast Asia and temperate and boreal ecosystems and the oil fires of Kuwait

Biomass Burning and Global Change  Biomass burning in South America  Southeast Asia  and temperate and boreal ecosystems  and the oil fires of Kuwait Book
Author : Joel S. Levine
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 1996
ISBN : 9780262122023
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Global Biomass Burning provides a convenient and current reference on such topics as the remote sensing of biomass burning from space, the geographical distribution of burning; the combustion products of burning in tropical, temperate, and boreal ecosystems; burning as a global source of atmospheric gases and particulates; the impact of biomass burning gases and particulates on global climate; and the role of biomass burning on biodiversity and past global extinctions."--Pub. desc.

Physiological Ecology of North American Plant Communities

Physiological Ecology of North American Plant Communities Book
Author : Brian Chabot,Harold A. Mooney,Harold S. Mooney
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1985-04-04
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Physiological ecology is an exciting, rapidly developing field. This volume ably indicates the immense gaps in our knowledge in part through a compilation of current knowledge about how plants adapt to the environmental conditions of the various North American biomes. Single chapters consider Arctic, alpine, taiga, chaparral, grassland, deciduous forest, tropical and subtropical forest, marine beaches and dunes, and coastal marshes. Two chapters are devoted to Western forests and three to deserts. The short preface is a poor substitute for a thoughtful introduction and a summary is sorely missed. W.D. Billing's chapter on the history of plant ecophysiology is outstanding. The only remotely comparable single-volume work in English is Heinrich Walter's Vegetation of the Earth and Ecological Systems of the Geobiosphere (2nd ed., 1979; 1st ed., CH, Apr '74); the present volume fills in many details excluded in Walter's global treatment. A solid background in ecology and plant physiology is needed to comprehend at least half of each chapter; however, Chabot and Mooney provide an excellent reference work of use to advanced undergraduates, graduates, and faculty. Recommended for libraries in colleges with plant ecology, plant geography, or plant physiology courses.-G.D. Dreyer, Connecticut College--Choice Reviews.

Physiological Ecology of North American Desert Plants

Physiological Ecology of North American Desert Plants Book
Author : Stanley D. Smith,Russell K. Monson,Jay Ennis Anderson
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1997
ISBN : 9783540531135
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book begins with the physical and biological characterization of the four North American deserts and a description of the primary adaptations of plants to environmental stress. In the following chapters the authors present case studies of key species representing dominant growth forms of the North American deserts, and provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the major patterns of adaptations in desert plants. One chapter is devoted to several important exotic plants that have invaded North American deserts. The book ends with a synthesis of the adaptations and resource requirements of North American desert plants. Further, it addresses how desert plants may respond to global climate change.

Physiological Plant Ecology

Physiological Plant Ecology Book
Author : Walter Larcher
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2003-01-22
ISBN : 9783540435167
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Plant Ecophysiology deals with plants and their interaction with the environment. This completely revised and updated fourth edition of the classic text offers a comprehensive insight into the laws governing the development, vital capacity and adaptability of plants. The richly illustrated book focuses on the ways the different plant species and functional types react in various locations and all climatic zones. An extensive chapter deals with the effects of natural and anthropogenic stress factors. It is designed for students in biology, ecology, geography, and in agricultural and forestry sciences.

Physiological Ecology of Tropical Plants

Physiological Ecology of Tropical Plants Book
Author : Ulrich Lüttge
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-12-14
ISBN : 9783540717935
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Since the publication of the first edition of this book ten years ago, international research into the physiological ecology of plants in the tropics has increased enormously in quantity and quality. This brand new edition brings the story right up to date. New approaches have been developed in remote sensing while at the other end of the scale molecular biology has come on in leaps and bounds, particularly regarding ecological performance of tropical plants, e.g. in understanding the adaptation of resurrection plants to the extreme habitat of inselbergs. In this fully revised and updated second edition the wealth of new information has made it necessary to break large chapters down into smaller ones.

Modeling Carbon Fluxes Net Primary Production and Light Utilization in Boreal Forest Stands

Modeling Carbon Fluxes  Net Primary Production and Light Utilization in Boreal Forest Stands Book
Author : Scott J. Goetz
Publisher : Universal-Publishers
Release : 1997-08
ISBN : 9780965856454
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The use of satellite remote sensing for modeling net primary production (NPP) was evaluated in sixty boreal forest stands spanning a range of site conditions. The work included: (i) estimating annual phenological dynamics and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) interception with remotely sensed spectral measurements, (ii) linking annually absorbed PAR (APAR) to measured NPP and quantifying variability in light use efficiency ("En"), (iii) evaluating sources of variability in "En" via mechanistic modeling of ecophysiology and associated carbon fluxes, particularly through analyses of respiratory carbon costs in relation to assimilation gains (the R: A ratio), (iv) assessing generalization of the results through an investigation of the evidence for evolutionary convergence in "En", the R: A ratio and assimilation per unit APAR (Eg). The analyses showed that observed variability in "En" reflects a decoupling of PAR harvesting and utilization, primarily as a result of differences in the R: A ratio. Links between "En", the R: A ratio and standing above-ground biomass were related to differences the carbon (energy) costs associated with synthesis and maintenance of plant constituents, and longevity (i.e. the payback period on investment in carbon gain). Estimating the R: A ratio from above-ground biomass, in order to compensate for variability in "En", was found to be problematic owing primarily to covariation of R and A with the amount of respiring biomass (i.e. sapwood and foliage). The analyses also showed that the differences in carbon costs between functional types (plants with related life history traits) resulted in convergence on "Eg" rather than en. Variability in "Eg" was, however, introduced by stomatal control at some stressed sites. These findings were supported by the remote sensing and simulation modeling results, and the synthesis of work related to evolutionary ecology. The primary conclusions are that variability in light utilization in these boreal forest stands was determined largely by respiratory carbon costs, and that NPP models based on light harvesting require augmentation with terms that reflect PAR utilization. Possible methods to address these issues, and their implications for NPP modeling over large areas, are discussed.

Scaling Physiological Processes

Scaling Physiological Processes Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-12-02
ISBN : 0323139574
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Traditional plant physiological ecology is organism centered and provides a useful framework for understanding the interactions between plants and their environment and for identifying characteristics likely to result in plant success in a particular habitat. This book focuses on extending concepts from plant physiological ecology as a basis for understanding carbon, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at ecosystem, regional, and global levels. This will be a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in ecology, plant ecophysiology, ecosystem research, biometerology, earth system science, and remote sensing. Key Features * The integration of metabolic activities across spatial scales, from leaf to ecosystem * Global constraints and regional processes * Functional units in ecological scaling * Models and technologies for scaling

Physiological Plant Ecology

Physiological Plant Ecology Book
Author : British Ecological Society. Symposium,British Ecological Society
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 1999
ISBN : 9780632054916
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The last decade has seen rapid and major advances in our understanding of the physiological ecology of plants. This volume contains 22 chapters that review some of these advances and new challenges. The chapters cover five broad themes: resource acquisition and utilisation; interactions between organisms; responses to global environmental changes; ecosystems; and integration and scaling. The book brings together an unrivalled collection of leading practitioners in the discipline from North America, Europe and Australia and adopts a broad approach, ranging from the molecular to the ecosystem level. It will be a valuable tool for researchers and advanced students in the discipline.

Climate Applications in Forest Renewal and Forest Production

Climate Applications in Forest Renewal and Forest Production Book
Author : Canadian Forestry Service,Canada. Atmospheric Environment Service,Canadian Meteorological and Oceanographic Society
Publisher : Service Canadien des forêts
Release : 1989
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Proceedings of a symposium/workshop on the importance of climatic impacts and applications in operational forest management problems. Coverage included climate and forest renewal, involving seed and stock production and forest regeneration; climate and forest production, involving forest growth and development and forest utilization and economics; and hi-tech applications in operational forest climate management, involving demonstrations of various models.

The Ecology and Silviculture of Mixed Species Forests

The Ecology and Silviculture of Mixed Species Forests Book
Author : M.J. Kelty,Bruce C. Larson,Chadwick D. Oliver
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-09
ISBN : 9401580529
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Much of the world's forested land is dominated by mixed-species stands. Understanding the complex structure and dynamics of these mixtures is a necessary step in the process of formulating appropriate silvicultural systems for their management. David M. Smith, Professor Emeritus of Silviculture at Yale University, has devoted much of his career to the study of the structure, development, and silvicultural treatment of these kinds of stands. This volume is presented by Professor Smith's collegues to honor the contributions he has made to the field. It contains both reviews of past work and results of current studies of mixed stands: topics range from analysis of forest dynamics in unmanaged stands to studies of silvicultural systems applied to mixtures, with examples drawn from boreal, temperate, and tropical regions. Much of the work stresses the importance of understanding the characteristic growth patterns of individual species within mixed stands, and how species interactions shape developmental patterns.

Physiology of Trees

Physiology of Trees Book
Author : A. S. Raghavendra
Publisher : Wiley-Interscience
Release : 1991-11-08
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Growth and development. Ecological responses. Special topics and applications.

Plant Physiological Ecology

Plant Physiological Ecology Book
Author : H. Lambers,Francis Stuart Chapin (III),Thijs L. Pons,Thijs Leendert Pons
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1998
ISBN : 9780387983264
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The growth, reproduction and geographical distribution of plants are profoundly influenced by their physiological ecology: the interaction with the surrounding physical, chemical and biological environments. This textbook is notable in emphasizing that the mechanisms underlying plant physiological ecology can be found at the levels of biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology and whole-plant physiology. At the same time, the integrative power of physiological ecology is well-suited to assess the costs, benefits and consequences of modifying plants for human needs, and to evaluate the role of plants in ecosystems.Plant Physiological Ecology begins with the primary processes of carbon metabolism and transport, plant-water relations, and energy balance. After considering individual leaves and whole plants, these physiological processes are then scaled up to the level of the canopy. Subsequent chapters discuss mineral nutrition and the ways in which plants cope with nutrient-deficient or toxic soils. The book then looks at patterns of growth and allocation, life-history traits, and interactions between plants and other organisms. Later chapters deal with traits that affect decomposition of plant material and with plant physiological ecology at the level of ecosystems and global environmental processes.Plant Physiological Ecology features numerous boxed entries that provide extended discussions of selected issues, a glossary, and numerous references to the primary and review literature. The significant new text is suitable for use in plant ecology courses, as well as classes ranging from plant physiology to plant molecular biology.