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Physico Chemical Phenomena In Thin Films And At Solid Surfaces

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Physico Chemical Phenomena in Thin Films and at Solid Surfaces

Physico Chemical Phenomena in Thin Films and at Solid Surfaces Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-06-07
ISBN : 9780080480015
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book is devoted to the consideration of the different processes taking place in thin films and at surfaces. Since the most important physico-chemical phenomena in such media are accompanied by the rearrangement of an intra- and intermolecular coordinates and consequently a surrounding molecular ensemble, the theory of radiationless multi-vibrational transitions is used for its description. The second part of the book considers the numerous surface phenomena. And in the third part is described the preparation methods and characteristics of different types of thin films. Both experimental and theoretical descriptions are represented. Media rearrangement coupled with the reagent transformation largely determines the absolute value and temperature dependence of the rate constants and other characteristics of the considered processes. These effects are described at the atomic or molecular level based on the multi-phonon theory, starting from the first pioneering studies through to contemporary studies. A number of questions are included at the end of many chapters to further reinforce the material presented. · Unified approach to the description of numerous physico-chemical phenomena in different materials · Based on the pioneering research work of the authors · Explantion of a variety of experimental observations · Material is presented at two levels of complexity for specialists and non-specialists · Identifies existing and potential applications of the processes and phenomena · Includes questions at the end of some chapters to further reinforce the material discussed

Cu In1 xGax Se2 Based Thin Film Solar Cells

Cu In1 xGax Se2 Based Thin Film Solar Cells Book
Author : Subba Ramaiah Kodigala
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2011-01-03
ISBN : 9780080920320
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 Based Thin Film Solar Cells provides valuable contents about the fabrication and characterization of chalcopyrite Cu(In1-xGax)Se2 based thin film solar cells and modules. The growth of chalcopyrite Cu(In1-xGax)(S1-ySey)2 absorbers, buffers, window layers, antireflection coatings, and finally metallic grids, which are the sole components of solar cells, is clearly illustrated. The absorber, which contains multiple elements, segregates secondary phases if the growth conditions are not well optimized i.e., the main drawback in the fabrication of solar cells. More importantly the solutions for the growth of thin films are given in detail. The properties of all the individual layers and single crystals including solar cells analyzed by different characterization techniques such as SEM, AFM, XPS, AES, TEM, XRD, optical, photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy are explicitly demonstrated. The electrical analyses such as conductivities, Hall mobilities, deep level transient spectroscopy measurements etc., provide a broad picture to understand thin films or single crystals and their solar cells. The book clearly explains the working principle of energy conversion from solar to electrical with basic sciences for the chalcopyrite based thin film solar cells. Also, it demonstrates important criteria on how to enhance efficiency of the solar cells and modules. The effect of environmental factors such as temperature, humidity, aging etc., on the devices is mentioned by citing several examples. Illustrates a number of growth techniques to prepare thin film layers for solar cells Discusses characterization techniques such as XRD, TEM, XPS, AFM, SEM, PL, CL, Optical measurements, and Electrical measurements Includes I-V, C-V measurements illustrations Provides analysis of solar cell efficiency Presents current trends in thin film solar cells research and marketing

Modern Technologies for Creating the Thin film Systems and Coatings

Modern Technologies for Creating the Thin film Systems and Coatings Book
Author : Nikolay Nikitenkov
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2017-03-08
ISBN : 953513003X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Development of the thin film and coating technologies (TFCT) made possible the technological revolution in electronics and through it the revolution in IT and communications in the end of the twentieth century. Now, TFCT penetrated in many sectors of human life and industry: biology and medicine; nuclear, fusion, and hydrogen energy; protection against corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement; jet engine; space materials science; and many others. Currently, TFCT along with nanotechnologies is the most promising for the development of almost all industries. The 20 chapters of this book present the achievements of thin-film technology in many areas mentioned above but more than any other in medicine and biology and energy saving and energy efficiency.

2D and Quasi 2D Composite and Nanocomposite Materials

2D and Quasi 2D Composite and Nanocomposite Materials Book
Author : Ross Mcphedran,Simon Gluzman,Vladimir Mityushev,Natalia Rylko
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2020-06-05
ISBN : 0128188200
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

2D and Quasi-2D Composite and Nanocomposite Materials: Theory, Properties and Photonic Applications covers the theory, characterization and computational modeling of 2D composite materials and shows how they are used for the creation of materials for 3D structures The book covers three major themes: Properties of 2D and quasi-2D composites are discussed in the context of homogenization theory. Homogenization results are discussed for spatiotemporal material composites assembled from materials which are distributed on a micro-scale in space and in time. New types of transport phenomena and localization in random media are addressed, with particular attention to the non-reciprocity of transport coefficients. Plasmonics and magneto-optics are also of particular interest. Magneto-transport and sub-wavelength resolution in electromagnetic and acoustic imaging are further considered. This book is an important resource for materials scientists and engineers working on nanomaterials, photonic composites, and materials theory, modeling and simulations. Outlines major modelling techniques of 2D nanocomposites for photonic applications Explores how the properties of 2D nanocomposites make them suitable for use for building 3D structures Assesses the challenges of using 2D nanocomposites for designing new devices on a mass scale

Computer Vision in Robotics and Industrial Applications

Computer Vision in Robotics and Industrial Applications Book
Author : Dominik Sankowski,Jacek Nowakowski
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2014-06-26
ISBN : 9814583731
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book presents a collection of practical applications of image processing and analysis. Different vision systems are more often used among others in the automotive industry, pharmacy, military and police equipment, automated production and measurement systems. In each of these fields of technology, digital image processing and analysis module is a critical part of the process of building this type of system. The majority of books in the market deal with theoretical issues. However, this unique publication specially highlights industrial applications, especially industrial measurement applications. Along with its wide spectrum of image processing and analysis applications, this book is an interesting reference for both students and professionals. Contents:Theoretical Introduction to Image Reconstruction and Processing:Data Set Preparation for k-NN Classifier Using the Measure of Representativeness (Marcin Raniszewski)Segmentation Methods in the Selected Industrial Computer Vision Application (Anna Fabijanska and Dominik Sankowski)Line Fractional-Order Difference/Sum, Its Properties and an Application in Image Processing (Piotr Ostalczyk)Computer Vision in Robotics:Management Software for Distributed Mobile Robot System (Maciej Łaski, Sylwester Błaszczyk, Piotr Duch, Rafał Jachowicz, Adam Wulkiewicz, Dominik Sankowski and Piotr Ostalczyk)Advanced Vision Systems in Detection and Analysis of Characteristic Features of Objects (Adam Wulkiewicz, Rafał Jachowicz, Sylwester Błaszczyk, Piotr Duch, Maciej Łaski, Dominik Sankowski and Piotr Ostalczyk)Pattern Recognition Algorithms for the Navigation of Mobile Platform (Rafał Jachowicz, Sylwester Błaszczyk, Piotr Duch, Maciej Łaski, Adam Wulkiewicz, Dominik Sankowski and Piotr Ostalczyk)Partial Fractional-Order Difference in the Edge Detection (Piotr Duch, Rafał Jachowicz, Sylwester Błaszczyk, Maciej Łaski, Adam Wulkiewicz, Piotr Ostalczyk and Dominik Sankowski)Application of Fractional-Order Derivative for Edge Detection in Mobile Robot System (Sylwester Błaszczyk, Rafał Jachowicz, Piotr Duch, Maciej Łaski, Adam Wulkiewicz, Piotr Ostalczyk and Dominik Sankowski)Vision Based Human-Machine Interfaces: Visem Recognition (Krzysztof Ślot, Agnieszka Owczarek and Maria Janczyk)Industrial Applications of Computer Vision in Process Tomography, Material Science and Temperature Control:Hybrid Boundary Element Method Applied for Diffusion Tomography Problems (Jan Sikora, Maciej Pańczyk and Paweł Wieleba)Two-phase Gas-Liquid Flow Structures and Phase Distribution Determination Based on 3D Electrical Capacitance Tomography Visualization (Robert Banasiak, Radosław Wajman, Tomasz Jaworski, Paweł Fiderek, Jacek Nowakowski and Henryk Fidos)Tomographic Visualization of Dynamic Industrial Solid Transporting and Storage Systems (Zbigniew Chaniecki, Krzysztof Grudzień and Andrzej Romanowski)Tomography Data Processing for Multiphase Industrial Process Monitoring (Krzysztof Grudzień, Zbigniew Chaniecki, Andrzej Romanowski, Jacek Nowakowski and Dominik Sankowski)Dedicated 3D Image Processing Methods for the Analysis of X-Ray Tomography Data: Case Study of Materials Science (Laurent Babout and Marcin Janaszewski)Selected Algorithms of Quantitative Image Analysis for Measurements of Properties Characterizing Interfacial Interactions at High Temperatures (Krzysztof Strzecha, Anna Fabijańska, Tomasz Koszmider and Dominik Sankowski)Theoretical Introduction to Image Reconstruction for Capacitance Process Tomography (Radosław Wajman, Krzysztof Grudzien, Robert Banasiak, Andrzej Romanowski, Zbigniew Chaniecki and Dominik Sankowski)Infra-Red Thermovision in Surface Temperature Control System (Jacek Kucharski, Tomasz Jaworski, Andrzej Frączyk and Piotr Urbanek)Medical and Other Applications of Computer Vision:The Computer Evaluation of Surface Color Changes in Cultivated Plants Influence by Different Environmental Factors (Joanna Sekulska-Nalewajko and Jarosław Gocławski)Various Approaches to Processing and Analysis of Images Obtained from Immunoenzymatic Visualization of Secretory Activity with ELISPOT Method (Wojciech Bieniecki and Szymon Grabowski)Image Processing and Analysis Algorithms for Assessment and Diagnosis of Brain Diseases (Anna Fabijanska and Tomasz Węglinski)Computer Systems for Studying Dynamic Properties of Materials at High Temperatures (Marcin Bąkała, Rafał Wojciechowski and Dominik Sankowski) Readership: Researchers, professionals and academics in image analysis, machine perception/computer vision, software engineering and fuzzy logic. Keywords:Image Processing;Computer Vision;Robotics;Pattern Recognition;Fuzzy Logic;Process Tomography;Mobile Robots

Small Systems and Fundamentals of Thermodynamics

Small Systems and Fundamentals of Thermodynamics Book
Author : Yu. K. Tovbin
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2018-07-17
ISBN : 0429995393
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Small systems are a very active area of research and development due to improved instrumentation that allows for spatial resolution in the range of sizes from one to 100 nm. In this size range, many physical and chemical properties change, which opens up new approaches to the study of substances and their practical application. This affects both traditional fields of knowledge and many other new fields including physics, chemistry, biology, etc. This book highlights new developments in statistical thermodynamics that answer the most important questions about the specifics of small systems - when one cannot apply equations or traditional thermodynamic models.

Atomic and Ionic Impact Phenomena on Metal Surfaces

Atomic and Ionic Impact Phenomena on Metal Surfaces Book
Author : M. Kaminsky
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-08
ISBN : 3642460259
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The collisions of neutral or charged gaseous particles with solid surfaces govern many physical and chemical phenomena, as has been The gas/solid phenomena in turn depend on a recognized for a long time. great variety of processes such as the charge transfer of the gas/solid interface, adsorption and desorption, the energy transfer between an incident particle and the surface, etc. Our knowledge of these processes, however, is only fragmentary. This is partly due to the difficulty in adequately controlling the ex perimental conditions. Consequently, until recently the data were usually so complex that reliable information about a particular elementary process could not be deduced. Within the last five to ten years, however, the techniques of ultra-high vacuum and surface preparation have developed rapidly and there has been a booming and widespread interest in the role of gas/solid interactions in such diverse fields as plasma physics, thermonuclear reactions, thermionic energy conversion, ion propulsion, sputtering corrosion of the surface of satellites and ion engines, ion getter pumps, deposition of thin films, etc. This led to extensive investigations of numerous gas/solid phenomena, such as surface ionization, sputtering, emission of secondary electrons and ions from surfaces under atom and/or ion impact, ion neutralization, and the thermal accomodation of gaseous particles on surfaces. As a result, it has become possible to gather a variety of valuable information.

Bimodal Oxidation

Bimodal Oxidation Book
Author : Robert Bakhtchadjian
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2019-11-15
ISBN : 1000084841
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is devoted to the problems of oxidation chemical reactions and addresses bimodal reaction sequences. Chemical reactions of oxidation, occurring under certain conditions and in multicomponent systems are complex processes. The process of the oxidation essentially changes in the presence and contact of the solid substances with reactants. The role of solid substances and the appearance of this phenomenon in oxidation reaction are discussed. The reader will understand the "driving forces" of this phenomenon and apply it in practice. Written for chemists, physicists, biologists and engineers working in the domain of oxidation reactions. Key Selling Features: Covers the historical background, modern state of the art, and perspectives in investigations of the coupling between heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions Discusses the feasible pathways of the coupling of heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions in oxidation in man-made and natural chemical systems Addresses the abundance, peculiarities and mechanisms of the bimodal reaction sequences in oxidation with dioxygen in recent decades Discusses the existence of the bimodal reaction sequences in chemical systems investigations in atmospheric chemistry and heterogeneous photocatalysis Presented in a simple concise style, accessible for both specialists and non-specialists

The Role of Ecological Chemistry in Pollution Research and Sustainable Development

The Role of Ecological Chemistry in Pollution Research and Sustainable Development Book
Author : Ali Mufit Bahadir,Gheorghe Duca
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2009-08-10
ISBN : 904812901X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Sustainable Development has become the leading concept of the 21 century. It describes a development, which agrees with the needs of the present generation but does not endanger the chances of the coming generations to satisfy also their needs. “Sustainable development” has become an important general goal for all fields of life like economy, ecology and social balance. The development and shaping of our future has been discussed internationally like on the summits of the Conferences in Rio and in Johannesburg. But this is also a topic on national base in various countries. Leading authorities in various fields of economy and politics have also accepted this concept. Although the concept of sustainable development has been generally accepted, there are still problems how to achieve and evaluate these general goals. It is clear that the definitions about the prime needs vary from man to man, from country to country and from continent to continent. But pollution does not respect national borders. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the politics of economy, ecology and social demands by a synergistic way that they are strengthened by each other. If it is not possible to stop tendencies, which threaten the future quality of life, the cost demands of societies will dramatically increase and negative tendencies will become irreversible.

Multiscale Modeling in Nanophotonics

Multiscale Modeling in Nanophotonics Book
Author : Alexander Bagaturyants,Mikhail Vener
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2017-11-22
ISBN : 1351614061
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The idea of theoretically predicting the useful properties of various materials using multiscale simulations has become popular in recent years. Of special interest are nanostructured, organic functional materials, which have a hierarchical structure and are considered materials of the future because of their flexibility and versatility. Their functional properties are inherited from the molecule that lies at the heart of the hierarchical structure. On the other hand, the properties of this functional molecule, in particular its absorption and emission spectra, strongly depend on its interactions with its molecular environment. Therefore, the multiscale simulations used to predict the properties of organic functional materials should be atomistic, that is, they should be based on classical and/or quantum methods that explicitly take into account the molecular structure and intermolecular interactions at the atomic level. This book, written by well-known specialists in theoretical chemistry, focuses on the basics of classical mechanics, quantum chemistry methods used for molecular disordered materials, classical methods of molecular simulations of disordered materials, vibronic interactions, and applications (presented as multiscale strategies for atomistic simulations of photonic materials). It has been edited by Professor Mikhail Alfimov, a renowned Russian scientist, a full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russia, and the founder, first director, and now research supervisor of the Photochemistry Center of the Russian Academy of Science, Russia. Professor Alfimov’s main research interests are in the field of photochemistry and photophysics of molecular and supramolecular systems. The book is a great reference for advanced undergraduate- and graduate-level students of nanotechnology and molecular science and researchers in nano- and molecular science, nanotechnology, chemistry, and physical chemistry, especially those with an interest in functional materials.

Advances in Nanoscale Magnetism

Advances in Nanoscale Magnetism Book
Author : Bekir Aktas,Faik Mikailov
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-09-08
ISBN : 3540698825
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The book aims to provide an overview of recent progress in the understanding of magnetic properties in nanoscale through recent results of various theoretical and experimental investigations. The papers describe a wide range of physical aspects.

Topics in Surface Chemistry

Topics in Surface Chemistry Book
Author : Eric Kay,Paul Bagus
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 1461340039
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The papers in this volume were presented at an international symposium on Topics in Surface Chemistry which was held in Bad Neuenahr, West Germany., September 7-9, 1977. The symposium was sponsored by IBM Germany. It has been recognized for many years that our understanding of bulk phenomena and their subsequent exploitation depends largely on our ability to define correlations between microscopic structure and the physical and chemical phenomena of interest. The role played by surface phenomena in the overall behavior of a material has been a subject for speculation for a long time, but only during the last decade or so have experimental and theor etical tools been developed which make it possible to investigate surface structure and related surface phenomena uniquely. Numerous surface spectroscopies have been developed in recent years intended to describe the geometric, vibrational and electronic structure of a surface. Our present understanding of surface, thin film and interfacial phenomena in solid state physics owes much to these developments. In chemistry much of the interest in surface science has come from the obvious implications to such important and diverse fields as catalysis and corrosion. It takes little imagination to recognize that there are many other areas where advances in surface science can be brought to bear.

Thin Liquid Films

Thin Liquid Films Book
Author : Ralf Blossey
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-05-22
ISBN : 9400744552
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is a treatise on the thermodynamic and dynamic properties of thin liquid films at solid surfaces and, in particular, their rupture instabilities. For the quantitative study of these phenomena, polymer thin films (sometimes referred to as “ultrathin”) have proven to be an invaluable experimental model system. What is it that makes thin film instabilities special and interesting? First, thin polymeric films have an important range of applications. An understanding of their instabilities is therefore of practical relevance for the design of such films. The first chapter of the book intends to give a snapshot of current applications, and an outlook on promising future ones. Second, thin liquid films are an interdisciplinary research topic, which leads to a fairly heterogeneous community working on the topic. It justifies attempting to write a text which gives a coherent presentation of the field which researchers across their specialized communities might be interested in. Finally, thin liquid films are an interesting laboratory for a theorist to confront a well-established theory, hydrodynamics, with its limits. Thin films are therefore a field in which a highly fruitful exchange and collaboration exists between experimentalists and theorists. The book stretches from the more concrete to more abstract levels of study: we roughly progress from applications via theory and experiment to rigorous mathematical theory. For an experimental scientist, the book should serve as a reference and guide to what is the current consensus of the theoretical underpinnings of the field of thin film dynamics. Controversial problems on which such a consensus has not yet been reached are clearly indicated in the text, as well as discussed in a final chapter. From a theoretical point of view, the field of dewetting has mainly been treated in a mathematically ‘light’ yet elegant fashion, often making use of scaling arguments. For the untrained researcher, this approach is not always easy to follow. The present book attempts to bridge between the ‘light’ and the ‘rigorous’, always with the ambition to enhance insight and understanding - and to not let go the elegance of the theory.

Mass Transport Properties in Thin Ion exchange Polymer Films and Related Phenomena

Mass Transport Properties in Thin Ion exchange Polymer Films and Related Phenomena Book
Author : Nebojsa Pantelic
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2007
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Thin ion-exchange polymer films (henceforth polyelectrolytes) have recently acquired substantial research interest. This is due in large part to the great promise demonstrated by the effective uptake and large preconcentration ratios of the ions from a liquid environment. The nanostructured porous film is an essential element of the spectroelectrochemical sensors. One fundamental aspect of the research involves molecular mass transport at the liquid/solid interface and associated film dynamics. These were studied using spectroscopic ellipsometry and quartz crystal microgravimetry and a good overall agreement between methods has been confirmed. The methodology for diffusion modeling was developed and demonstrated using several polyelectrolyte film materials. Three different theoretical models that account for non-ideal behaviors were employed to solve for the correct mechanism. Slow polymer relaxations coupled with ideal Fickian diffusion caused anomalies. The mass transport of model analytes was characterized by relatively slow diffusion constants (D = 10-12 - 10 -14 cm2/s) and relaxation rate constants (kR = 10-4 - 10-5 s-1). Anomalous diffusion in poly(vinyl alcohol)-poly(acrylic acid) (PVA-PAA) composite thin films and the structure-property relationship were studied in detail. The results of in situ complexation between Fe2+ and ligand (2,2'-bipyridine) in thin Nafion films gave important insight into the set of chemical reactions for aqueous iron detection. The last chapter focuses on dynamics of a novel polyelectrolyte film material for chemical sensing, namely, partially sulfonated polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-ran-butylene)-block-polystyrene (SSEBS). The physico-chemical phenomenon of molecular aggregation was studied using rhodamine 6G laser dye and the SSEBS film material. It was demonstrated for the first time how spectroscopic ellipsometry could be effectively used in studying such a subtle process in thin films. The two thesis appendices are devoted to surface studies. The ultra-thin polyelectrolyte films (5-12 nm) were imaged using atomic force microcopy (AFM) and the results revealed "island-like" structures. The luminescence quenching of the laser dyes at the semiconductor indium tin oxide (ITO) surfaces was demonstrated using evanescent wave spectroscopy. The results of investigation showed that within the first few nanometers from the ITO surface the luminescence was significantly reduced. In conclusion, the work gives important new insight into fundamental aspects of the spectroelectrochemical sensors.

Nanosilicon

Nanosilicon Book
Author : Anatoly A. Ischenko,Gennady V. Fetisov,Leonid A. Aslalnov
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-07-23
ISBN : 1466594233
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Nanosilicon: Properties, Synthesis, Applications, Methods of Analysis and Control examines the latest developments on the physics and chemistry of nanosilicon. The book focuses on methods for producing nanosilicon, its electronic and optical properties, research methods to characterize its spectral and structural properties, and its possible applic

Wafer Fabrication Factory Performance and Analysis

Wafer Fabrication  Factory Performance and Analysis Book
Author : Linda F. Atherton,Robert W. Atherton
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1995-11-30
ISBN : 9780792396192
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is concerned with wafer fabrication and the factories that manufacture microprocessors and other integrated circuits. With the invention of the transistor in 1947, the world as we knew it changed. The transistor led to the microprocessor, and the microprocessor, the guts of the modern computer, has created an epoch of virtually unlimited information processing. The electronics and computer revolution has brought about, for better or worse, a new way of life. This revolution could not have occurred without wafer fabrication, and its associated processing technologies. A microprocessor is fabricated via a lengthy, highly-complex sequence of chemical processes. The success of modern chip manufacturing is a miracle of technology and a tribute to the hundreds of engineers who have contributed to its development. This book will delineate the magnitude of the accomplishment, and present methods to analyze and predict the performance of the factories that make the chips. The set of topics covered juxtaposes several disciplines of engineering. A primary subject is the chemical engineering aspects of the electronics industry, an industry typically thought to be strictly an electrical engineer's playground. The book also delves into issues of manufacturing, operations performance, economics, and the dynamics of material movement, topics often considered the domain of industrial engineering and operations research. Hopefully, we have provided in this work a comprehensive treatment of both the technology and the factories of wafer fabrication. Novel features of these factories include long process flows and a dominance of processing over operational issues.

Quantities and Reactions of Solid Surfaces

Quantities and Reactions of Solid Surfaces Book
Author : Elizabeth P. Carter
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1954
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Quantities and Reactions of Solid Surfaces book written by Elizabeth P. Carter, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Handbook of Surfaces and Interfaces of Materials Solid thin films and layers

Handbook of Surfaces and Interfaces of Materials  Solid thin films and layers Book
Author : Hari Singh Nalwa
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2001
ISBN : 9780125139144
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This handbook brings together, under a single cover, all aspects of the chemistry, physics, and engineering of surfaces and interfaces of materials currently studied in academic and industrial research. It covers different experimental and theoretical aspects of surfaces and interfaces, their physical properties, and spectroscopic techniques that have been applied to a wide class of inorganic, organic, polymer, and biological materials. The diversified technological areas of surface science reflect the explosion of scientific information on surfaces and interfaces of materials and their spectroscopic characterization. The large volume of experimental data on chemistry, physics, and engineering aspects of materials surfaces and interfaces remains scattered in so many different periodicals, therefore this handbook compilation is needed. The information presented in this multivolume reference draws on two decades of pioneering research on the surfaces and interfaces of materials to offer a complete perspective on the topic. These five volumes-Surface and Interface Phenomena; Surface Characterization and Properties; Nanostructures, Micelles, and Colloids; Thin Films and Layers; Biointerfaces and Applications-provide multidisciplinary review chapters and summarize the current status of the field covering important scientific and technological developments made over past decades in surfaces and interfaces of materials and spectroscopic techniques with contributions from internationally recognized experts from all over the world. Fully cross-referenced, this book has clear, precise, and wide appeal as an essential reference source long due for the scientific community. The complete reference on the topic of surfaces and interfaces of materials The information presented in this multivolume reference draws on two decades of pioneering research Provides multidisciplinary review chapters and summarizes the current status of the field Covers important scientific and technological developments made over past decades in surfaces and interfaces of materials and spectroscopic techniques Contributions from internationally recognized experts from all over the world.

Self assembly of Functional Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymer Thin Films

Self assembly of Functional Amphiphilic Triblock Copolymer Thin Films Book
Author : Namrata Salunke
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2018
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"The concept of liquid wetting on solids is one of the most fundamental and fascinating phenomena understood in terms of physical chemistry, statistical physics, short and long-range forces, and fluid dynamics" - P. G. de Gennes. Monte Carlo simulations have shown that interfacial free energy between co-existing phases is strongly impacted by reducing system dimensionality, d, in thin films, the interfacial area ~L[superscript d-1]and linear dimension L[subscript z] cause logarithmic finite-size effects of order ln(L)/L[superscript d-1]and ln(L[subscript z])/L[superscript d-1]respectively. The unexplored coupling between these two phenomena in amphiphilic triblock copolymer systems forms the basis of this dissertation, with a view towards stimuli responsive properties of physico-chemical surfaces. This dissertation explores in detail the hypotheses conjoining these two phenomena in an amphiphilic triblock copolymer - FDF consisting of hydrophobic domain, F: poly(2-(N-ethylperfluorooctanesulfonamido) ethyl methylacrylate), and hydrophilic domain, D: poly(N,N'-dimethyl acrylamide) in thin film format. The effect of chemistry-based block copolymer phase separation and thin film confinement physics lead to a controlled wetting/non-wetting spatio-temporal transition in thin FDF films. Further, the effect of FDF film casting conditions, particularly the rate of solvent evaporation as well as annealing temperature and time were explored on surface phase-domain structure that allowed for control of the film wettability. A third aspect of the study examined the external stimuli response behavior of such systems via changes in film swelling, morphology and optical properties induced by humidity changes to which the block copolymer was strongly responsive. In situ grazing incidence small angle X-ray scattering (GISAXS) and specular reflectance experiments with controlled relative humidity (RH) were used to determine film and domain swelling in these amphiphilic copolymers. These results also indicated strong optical "artificial color" variation arising from the coupling of film finite-size interference. Confinement effects were observed to influence dynamic properties in FDF films including domain swelling and "active" structural color.