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Physical Techniques In The Study Of Art Archaeology And Cultural Heritage

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Physical Techniques in the Study of Art Archaeology and Cultural Heritage

Physical Techniques in the Study of Art  Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2006-05-02
ISBN : 9780080461861
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The first of its kind, this series is devoted to the use of physical principles in the study and scientific conservation of objects with cultural heritage significance. It begins with a review of the modern museum, which discusses new techniques employed in the conservation of museum artifacts such as X-ray tomography and other techniques used to study Egyptian mummies, bones and mineralization of bones in the archaeological context, and the degradation of parchment. All of these topics and techniques are essential for the preservation of our history. This includes finding ways to preserve parchment documents and letters, which much of our written heritage is documented on, so that it can be used and understood for generations to come. This book is a must have for any museum as well as any university that teaches or employs the techniques discussed. Written in a style that is readily understandable by conservation scientists, archaeologists, museum curators, and students Provides an introduction to the advanced fields of synchrotron radiation science, neutron science, and computed tomography Outstanding review of the use of modern technology to study museum and archaeological artifacts Offers solutions through advanced scientific techniques to a wide range of problems facing museum staff

Physical Techniques in the Study of Art Archaeology and Cultural Heritage

Physical Techniques in the Study of Art  Archaeology and Cultural Heritage Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-07-06
ISBN : 9780080548814
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In Chapter 1 Dudley Creagh writes on "synchrotron radiation and its use in art, archaeometry, and cultural heritage studies". Loic Bertrand has written in Chapter 2 on synchrotron imaging for archaeology and art history, conservation, and palaeontology. Dr. Bertrand is Archaeology and cultural heritage officer at the new French synchrotron, Synchrotron Soleil (Orme les Mesuriers, Gif-sur-Yvette, France). He is charged with the task of raising the awareness of cultural heritage scientists to the use of synchrotron radiation for their research. Chapter 3 has been written by Ivan Cole and his associates Dr David Paterson and Deborah Lau. This is concerned with the holistic modelling of gas and aerosol deposition and the degradation of cultural objects. Dr. Cole is Deputy Chief of the Novel Materials and Processes Division of the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (Melbourne, Australia). He has over twenty years experience in involvement in projects concerned with the preservation of cultural heritage. Ivan is an internationally recognized leader in the field of the life cycle of materials and the development of protective coatings for metals. In Chapter 4, Giovanna Di Pietro describes two different types of experiments she has undertaken in the study of the mechanisms underlying the degradation of photographic media. In the first Dr. Di Pietro describes the degradation of old back-and-white plate. In the second she outlines her attempts to understand the mechanisms by which comparatively modern motion picture film degrades. A significant part of this project involved trying to ascertain exactly what dyes were used by Kodak in their motion picture film from about 1980 onwards. An entirely new technique for the remote investigation of the pigments in paintings is presented by Maria Kubik in Chapter 5. This technique will significantly enhance the ability of conservators to study the palette of pigments used by artists, check for repairs by others, and detect fraudulent paintings. · Demonstrates the amazing efforts being made in using physical techniques for the study of art, archaeology and cultural heritage · Provides succinct accounts of how cultural heritage is being preserved. · Looks at how science is being used to enrich our knowledge of the creative arts

Scientific Methods and Cultural Heritage

Scientific Methods and Cultural Heritage Book
Author : Gilberto Artioli
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2010-07-08
ISBN : 0199548269
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Artioli provides an introduction to the methods and rationales of the scientific investigation of cultural heritage materials, with an emphasis placed on the analytical strategies, modes of operation and resulting information rather than on technicalities.

Science for Cultural Heritage

Science for Cultural Heritage Book
Author : Claudio Tuniz
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2010
ISBN : 9814307076
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The aim of the conference was to discuss the contribution of physics and other sciences in archaeological research and in the preservation of cultural heritage. Considering that the mission of ECSAC is to promote the interaction among the diverse cultures of the peoples from the lands on the Adriatic and Ionian seas, it is apt that the major themes were related to the rich history and pre-history of this region - from Greek-Roman archaeology on the eastern Adriatic coasts to the palaeoanthropology of the Neanderthals of the Vindija caves in Croatia, from the Roman city of Aquileia to the pleistocenic cave of Homo heidelbergensis in the Karst of Visogliano (Trieste), from the Roman ship Julia Felix of the Grado lagoon to the ancient bronze Apoxyomenos of the Veli Losinj waters. A variety of scientific disciplines provide tools and methods that are crucial in reconstructing humanity's past and in preserving material remains that witness the evolution of human culture. Geology reconstructs the history of terrestrial environments, critical for the evolution and dispersal of humans. Chemistry explains reactions that modify materials left by human activities, including the destructive effects of pollution. Biology has a critical role in archaeology, particularly with the recent advance in analysis of DNA in ancient organic materials.

Radiation in Art and Archeometry

Radiation in Art and Archeometry Book
Author : D. C. Creagh,David A. Bradley
Publisher : Elsevier Science Limited
Release : 2000
ISBN : 0444504877
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

/inca/publications/misc/creaghcov.htmAbout the cover This book contains twenty chapters covering a wide range of research in the fields of scientific conservation of art and archaeometry. The common thread is the use of radiation in these analyses. The term "radiation" is used in the widest possible sense. The book encompasses the use of electromagnetic radiation in its microwave, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, x ray and &ggr; ray forms and the use of particulate forms such as electrons, neutrons and charged particles for which the Planck's Law relation applies. In many cases there is an interplay between the two forms: for example, proton induced x ray emission (PIXE), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). As far as possible the chapters have been arranged in order of ascending particle energy. Thus it commences with the use of microwaves and finishes with the use of &ggr; rays. The authors were chosen on the basis of their expertise as practitioners of their particular field of study. This means that, for example, the mature fields of study such as the IR and UV study of paintings have been written by senior researchers, whereas for the emerging fields of synchrotron and neutron techniques the chapters have been written by talented researchers at the commencement of their careers.

Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage

Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage Book
Author : Costas Fotakis,D. Anglos,V. Zafiropulos,Savas Georgiou,Vivi Tornari
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2006-10-25
ISBN : 9781420012101
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

With the maturation of laser technology in diagnostic and conservation applications, conservation scientists, archeologists, art historians, researchers, and advanced science-oriented students now have the tools necessary for preserving the future of our past-our cultural heritage. Presenting recent developments in the field, Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage: Principles and Applications addresses the basic concepts of laser applications and supplies case studies of analytical, structural diagnostic, and laser cleaning applications. The book provides a comprehensive presentation of the fundamental principles and applications of modern laser technology in the analysis of composition, diagnostics of structural integrity, and conservation of artworks and antiquities. Beginning with an introduction to the basic techniques used in art conservation and archeology, the book describes the fundamental aspects of laser-matter interactions, emphasizing laser diagnostics and laser processing applications. The next few chapters focus on laser-based spectroscopic techniques for the analysis of the composition of materials in art and archaeology, including laser-induced breakdown, Raman, and laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The book proceeds to highlight nondestructive diagnostic techniques, laser processing applications, laser applications for the cleaning of paintings and stone, and methods for the removal of encrustations. It concludes with case studies for the conservation of materials like parchment, paper, metal, ivory, and wood, and includes conservation approaches for modern paintings. Bridging science with art, Lasers in the Preservation of Cultural Heritage presents a systematic overview of the fundamentals and applications of laser techniques in artwork conservation and archeological science.

Chemical Analysis in Cultural Heritage

Chemical Analysis in Cultural Heritage Book
Author : Luigia Sabbatini,Inez Dorothé van der Werf
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
Release : 2020-02-24
ISBN : 3110456486
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Chemical Analysis provides non invasive and micro-analytical techniques for the investigation of cultural heritage materials. The tools and techniques, discussed by experts in the field, are of universal, sensitive and multi-component nature.

Digital Methods and Remote Sensing in Archaeology

Digital Methods and Remote Sensing in Archaeology Book
Author : Maurizio Forte,Stefano Campana
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-02-10
ISBN : 3319406582
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

​​This volume debuts the new scope of Remote Sensing, which was first defined as the analysis of data collected by sensors that were not in physical contact with the objects under investigation (using cameras, scanners, and radar systems operating from spaceborne or airborne platforms). A wider characterization is now possible: Remote Sensing can be any non-destructive approach to viewing the buried and nominally invisible evidence of past activity. Spaceborne and airborne sensors, now supplemented by laser scanning, are united using ground-based geophysical instruments and undersea remote sensing, as well as other non-invasive techniques such as surface collection or field-walking survey. Now, any method that enables observation of evidence on or beneath the surface of the earth, without impact on the surviving stratigraphy, is legitimately within the realm of Remote Sensing. ​The new interfaces and senses engaged in Remote Sensing appear throughout the book. On a philosophical level, this is about the landscapes and built environments that reveal history through place and time. It is about new perspectives—the views of history possible with Remote Sensing and fostered in part by immersive, interactive 3D and 4D environments discussed in this volume. These perspectives are both the result and the implementation of technological, cultural, and epistemological advances in record keeping, interpretation, and conceptualization. Methodology presented here builds on the current ease and speed in collecting data sets on the scale of the object, site, locality, and landscape. As this volume shows, many disciplines surrounding archaeology and related cultural studies are currently involved in Remote Sensing, and its relevance will only increase as the methodology expands.

Physics Methods in Archaeometry

Physics Methods in Archaeometry Book
Author : M. Martini,M. Piacentini
Publisher : IOS Press
Release : 2004-06-09
ISBN : 1614990107
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The role of exact sciences in connection with cultural heritage now is well established and a new scientific branch has been generated: Archaeometry. Literally, Archaeometry means measurement on ancient objects. It is a multidisciplinary field of investigations where the rigorous methods of exact sciences give a fundamental contribution to solving the problems associated with conservation and restoration, as well as to the study itself of the cultural heritage. Archaeometry, as a scientific research field, involves interdisciplinary groups formed by scholars of the humanistic area together with scientists: physicists, chemists, mathematicians, biologists, engineers, etc. The primary justification for the need of involving exact sciences in the field which, in the past, traditionally has been exclusive of Art Historians must no doubt be found in the conservation and restoration activities. The second argument which, in the public opinion, justifies the involvement of science with the world of Art is the confidence that scientific methods are infallible in unmasking forgeries. But in our opinion the awareness of the central role of scientific methods as a support for philological and historical investigations is still very little diffuse or, at least, finds it hard to become widespread. Perhaps also because of our mentality, Physics, compared to chemistry, is more apt to find applications in a context free from authentication or conservation implications.

Non destructive Micro Analysis of Cultural Heritage Materials

Non destructive Micro Analysis of Cultural Heritage Materials Book
Author : K. Janssens,R. Van Grieken
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2004-11-26
ISBN : 9780080454429
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides the scientific and technical background materials of non-destructive methods of microscopic analysis that are suitable for analysing works of art, museum pieces and archeaological artefacts. Written by experts in the field, this multi-author volume contains a number of case studies, illustrating the value of these methods. The book is suited to natural scientists and analysts looking to increase their knowledge of the various methods that are currently available for non-destructive analysis. It is also the perfect resource for museum curators, archaeologists and art-historians seeking to identify one or more suitable methods of analysis that could solve material-related problems.

Heritage Microbiology and Science

Heritage Microbiology and Science Book
Author : Eric May,Mark Jones,Julian Mitchell,Royal Society of Chemistry (Great Britain)
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2008
ISBN : 0854041419
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Heritage Science is an emerging discipline and this book forms a comprehensive volume on key topical areas of this new field and discusses the threats to a wide range of heritage materials and monuments by biological and chemical agents of decay. It provides up-to-date information on subjects covering the component field of heritage microbiology, molecular and chemical analytical techniques, and the mechanisms of degradation and deterioration of historic ships and buildings. Extensive emphasis is placed on case studies and there is a valuable section on historic ships covering the preservation of HMS Victory, SS Great Britain, Vasa and the Mary Rose. This book provides an indispensable guide and reference source for those working in all areas of historical conservation, biodeterioration, microbiology and materials science.

Synchrotron Radiation

Synchrotron Radiation Book
Author : Settimio Mobilio,Federico Boscherini,Carlo Meneghini
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-08-06
ISBN : 364255315X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Synchrotron radiation is today extensively used for fundamental and applied research in many different fields of science. Its exceptional characteristics in terms of intensity, brilliance, spectral range, time structure and now also coherence pushed many experimental techniques to previously un-reachable limits, enabling the performance of experiments unbelievable only few years ago. The book gives an up-to-date overview of synchrotron radiation research today with a view to the future, starting from its generation and sources, its interaction with matter, illustrating the main experimental technique employed and provides an overview of the main fields of research in which new and innovative results are obtained. The book is addressed to PhD students and young researchers to provide both an introductory and a rather deep knowledge of the field. It will also be helpful to experienced researcher who want to approach the field in a professional way.

Cultural Heritage and Aerobiology

Cultural Heritage and Aerobiology Book
Author : Paolo Mandrioli,Giulia Caneva,Cristina Sabbioni
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 9401701857
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Aerobiology is the science that studies the biological component of the atmosphere and its effects on living systems and on the environment. This term was used for the first time in 1935, but the attention of scientists to the biological component of the atmosphere goes back to 1769, when the Italian biologist Spallanzani carried out a series of experiments that disproved the concept of spontaneous generation of life and proved the presence of viable microorganisms in the air. Aerobiology has marked characteristics of interdisciplinarity: its application fields range from respiratory diseases to the airborne outbreak of animal and vegetal diseases and to the biodegradation of substances and materials. The latter is the subject of this book. The purpose of aerobiological research applied to the conservation of cultural heritage is to evaluate the risk of alteration by airborne microorganisms of materials forming artefacts of historical, artistic and archaeological interest. Airborne spores and vegetative structures may develop on different substrates and may be a cause of degradation, in relation to the types of materials, the microclimatic situation and the pollution of the conservation environments. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the biological component of air, performed by means of targeted analysis campaigns, and of the characteristics of materials and environments, supplies indispensable information for the evaluation of the actual risk and the planning of interventions. This book is divided into four main parts.

Nanotechnologies in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage

Nanotechnologies in the Conservation of Cultural Heritage Book
Author : Piero Baglioni,David Chelazzi,Rodorico Giorgi
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-11-20
ISBN : 9401793034
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents novel applications of nanotechnology for the preservation of artistic and historical artifacts. It explains the scientific principles behind numerous nanomaterials and discusses their applications to different types of common movable and fixed artistic substrates. It starts with an overview of the nano-tools developed over the last three decades, such as dispersions of nanoparticles, micellar solutions, microemulsions and gels. Compared to traditional methods, these new tools have the benefit of considerably less impact on both the operators and the environment. Each chapter is dedicated to a specific type of cultural heritage material (wall and easel paintings, stone, paper, canvas and wood) starting with the main degradation paths and discussing protocols for the application of innovative nanomaterials-based tools for cleaning, consolidation, or deacidification, which represent the majority of the case studies encountered in restoration facilities, workshops and ateliers. The book provides step-by-step descriptions that are meant to support conservators in the application of these novel materials and methods. The aim of the book is to equip end-users and conservators with essential information and knowledge on the availability and applicability of different nano-materials and dispersed systems. While the book’s focus is on the practical aspects, interested readers will also find references to the relevant advanced colloid and material science literature. Main audience: Expert conservators, restorers and technical staff at conservation institutes and museums, students at conservation and restoration schools, and scientists who are new to the field of conservation of artistic and historical artifacts.

Science and Technology for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage

Science and Technology for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage Book
Author : Miguel Angel Rogerio-Candelera,Massimo Lazzari,Emilio Cano
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2013-10-01
ISBN : 0203508017
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

From 2nd to 5th October 2012 an International Congress on Science and Technology for the conservation of Cultural Heritage was held in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, organized by the Universidade of Santiago de Compostela on behalf of TechnoHeritage Network. The congress was attended by some 160 participants from 10 countries, which presented a tot

Science Technology and Cultural Heritage

Science  Technology and Cultural Heritage Book
Author : M.A. Rogerio-Candelera
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2014-12-01
ISBN : 1138027448
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Second International Congress on Science and Technology for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage was held in Seville, Spain, June 24-27, 2014, under the umbrella of the TechnoHeritage network. TechnoHeritage is an initiative funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity dedicated to the creation of a network which integrates CSIC and University groups, private companies and end users such as foundations, museums or institutions. The network’s purpose is to foster the creation of transdisciplinary (and not only multidisciplinary) initiatives focused on the study of all assets, movable or immovable, that make up Cultural Heritage. The congress was dedicated to six topics, namely (1) Environmental assessment and monitoring (pollution, climate change, natural events, etc.) of Cultural Heritage; (2) New products and materials for conservation and maintenance of Cultural Heritage; (3) Agents and mechanisms of deterioration of Cultural Heritage (physical, chemical, biological), including deterioration of modern materials used in Contemporary Art and information storage; (4) Development of new instruments, non invasive technologies and innovative solutions for analysis, protection and conservation of Cultural Heritage; (5) Security technologies, remote sensing and G.I.S. for the protection and management of Cultural Heritage; and (6) Significance, social value and policies for the conservation of Cultural Heritage. This volume publishes a total of seventy-two contributions which reflect some of the most recent responses to the challenge of cultural assets conservation and the application of different scientific approaches to the common goal of the conservation of Cultural Heritage.

Handbook on the Economics of Cultural Heritage

Handbook on the Economics of Cultural Heritage Book
Author : Ilde Rizzo,Anna Mignosa
Publisher : Edward Elgar Publishing
Release : 2013-01-01
ISBN : 0857931008
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Cultural heritage is a complex and elusive concept, constantly evolving through time, and combining cultural, aesthetic, symbolic, spiritual, historical and economic values. The Handbook on the Economics of Cultural Heritage outlines the contribution of economics to the design and analysis of cultural heritage policies and to addressing issues related to the conservation, management and enhancement of heritage. The Handbook takes a multidisciplinary approach, using cultural economics as a theoretical framework to illustrate how crucial and stimulating cross-disciplinary dialogue actually is. Contributors scrutinise the co-existence of cultural and economic values as well as the new challenges that arise from changes brought about by technology, and relationships between the different actors engaged in the production, distribution and consumption of heritage services. The roles of public, private and non-profit organizations are also explored. Case studies underpin the discussion, demonstrating the clear and vital link between theory and practice. This highly unique Handbook will prove a fascinating and informative read for academics, researchers, students and policymakers with an interest in cultural economics.

Airy Functions and Applications to Physics

Airy Functions and Applications to Physics Book
Author : Olivier Vall‚e,Manuel Soares
Publisher : Imperial College Press
Release : 2004
ISBN : 9781860944789
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The use of special functions, and in particular Airy functions, is rather common in physics. The reason may be found in the need, and even in the necessity, to express a physical phenomenon in terms of an effective and comprehensive analytical form for the whole scientific community. However, for the past twenty years, many physical problems have been resolved by computers. This trend is now becoming the norm as the importance of computers continues to grow. As a last resort, the special functions employed in physics will have to be calculated numerically, even if the analytic formulation of physics is of primary importance. Airy functions have periodically been the subject of many review articles, but no noteworthy compilation on this subject has been published since the 1950s. In this work, we provide an exhaustive compilation of the current knowledge on the analytical properties of Airy functions, developing with care the calculus implying the Airy functions. The book is divided into 2 parts: the first is devoted to the mathematical properties of Airy functions, whilst the second presents some applications of Airy functions to various fields of physics. classical and quantum physics.