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Philosophy Of Statistics

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Philosophy of Statistics

Philosophy of Statistics Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-05-31
ISBN : 9780080930961
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Statisticians and philosophers of science have many common interests but restricted communication with each other. This volume aims to remedy these shortcomings. It provides state-of-the-art research in the area of philosophy of statistics by encouraging numerous experts to communicate with one another without feeling “restricted by their disciplines or thinking “piecemeal in their treatment of issues. A second goal of this book is to present work in the field without bias toward any particular statistical paradigm. Broadly speaking, the essays in this Handbook are concerned with problems of induction, statistics and probability. For centuries, foundational problems like induction have been among philosophers’ favorite topics; recently, however, non-philosophers have increasingly taken a keen interest in these issues. This volume accordingly contains papers by both philosophers and non-philosophers, including scholars from nine academic disciplines. Provides a bridge between philosophy and current scientific findings Covers theory and applications Encourages multi-disciplinary dialogue

Statistical Inference as Severe Testing

Statistical Inference as Severe Testing Book
Author : Deborah G. Mayo
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2018-09-20
ISBN : 1107054133
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Unlock today's statistical controversies and irreproducible results by viewing statistics as probing and controlling errors.

The Seven Pillars of Statistical Wisdom

The Seven Pillars of Statistical Wisdom Book
Author : Stephen M. Stigler
Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release : 2016-03-07
ISBN : 0674970217
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

What gives statistics its unity as a science? Stephen Stigler sets forth the seven foundational ideas of statistics—a scientific discipline related to but distinct from mathematics and computer science and one which often seems counterintuitive. His original account will fascinate the interested layperson and engage the professional statistician.

Philosophy of Probability and Statistical Modelling

Philosophy of Probability and Statistical Modelling Book
Author : Mauricio Suárez
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2021-01-21
ISBN : 1108983847
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This Element has two main aims. The first one (sections 1-7) is an historically informed review of the philosophy of probability. It describes recent historiography, lays out the distinction between subjective and objective notions, and concludes by applying the historical lessons to the main interpretations of probability. The second aim (sections 8-13) focuses entirely on objective probability, and advances a number of novel theses regarding its role in scientific practice. A distinction is drawn between traditional attempts to interpret chance, and a novel methodological study of its application. A radical form of pluralism is then introduced, advocating a tripartite distinction between propensities, probabilities and frequencies. Finally, a distinction is drawn between two different applications of chance in statistical modelling which, it is argued, vindicates the overall methodological approach. The ensuing conception of objective probability in practice is the 'complex nexus of chance'.

Logic of Statistical Inference

Logic of Statistical Inference Book
Author : Ian Hacking
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2016-08-26
ISBN : 1107144957
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book showcases Ian Hacking's early ideas on the central issues surrounding statistical reasoning. Presented in a fresh twenty-first-century series livery, and with a specially commissioned new preface, this influential work is now available for a new generation of readers in statistics, philosophy of science and philosophy of maths.

The Philosophy of Quantitative Methods

The Philosophy of Quantitative Methods Book
Author : Brian D. Haig
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2018-01-04
ISBN : 0190222069
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Philosophy of Quantitative Methods focuses on the conceptual foundations of research methods within the behavioral sciences. In particular, it undertakes a close philosophical examination of a variety of quantitative research methods that are prominent in (or relevant for) the conduct of research in these fields. By doing so, the deep structure of these methods is examined in order to overcome the non-critical approaches typically found in the existing literature today. In this book, Brian D. Haig focuses on the more well-known research methods such as exploratory data analysis, statistical significant testing, Bayesian confirmation theory and statistics, meta-analysis, and exploratory factor analysis. These methods are then examined with a philosophy consistent of scientific realism. In addition, each chapter provides a helpful Further Reading section in order to better assist the reader in extending their own thinking and research methods specific to their needs.

Foundations of Probability Theory Statistical Inference and Statistical Theories of Science

Foundations of Probability Theory  Statistical Inference  and Statistical Theories of Science Book
Author : William Harper,Cliff Hooker
Publisher : Springer
Release : 1975-12-31
ISBN : 9027706182
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In May of 1973 we organized an international research colloquium on foundations of probability, statistics, and statistical theories of science at the University of Western Ontario. During the past four decades there have been striking formal advances in our understanding of logic, semantics and algebraic structure in probabilistic and statistical theories. These advances, which include the development of the relations between semantics and metamathematics, between logics and algebras and the algebraic-geometrical foundations of statistical theories (especially in the sciences), have led to striking new insights into the formal and conceptual structure of probability and statistical theory and their scientific applications in the form of scientific theory. The foundations of statistics are in a state of profound conflict. Fisher's objections to some aspects of Neyman-Pearson statistics have long been well known. More recently the emergence of Bayesian statistics as a radical alternative to standard views has made the conflict especially acute. In recent years the response of many practising statisticians to the conflict has been an eclectic approach to statistical inference. Many good statisticians have developed a kind of wisdom which enables them to know which problems are most appropriately handled by each of the methods available. The search for principles which would explain why each of the methods works where it does and fails where it does offers a fruitful approach to the controversy over foundations.

The Nature of Scientific Evidence

The Nature of Scientific Evidence Book
Author : Mark L. Taper,Subhash R. Lele
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 2010-12-15
ISBN : 0226789586
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An exploration of the statistical foundations of scientific inference, The Nature of Scientific Evidence asks what constitutes scientific evidence and whether scientific evidence can be quantified statistically. Mark Taper, Subhash Lele, and an esteemed group of contributors explore the relationships among hypotheses, models, data, and inference on which scientific progress rests in an attempt to develop a new quantitative framework for evidence. Informed by interdisciplinary discussions among scientists, philosophers, and statisticians, they propose a new "evidential" approach, which may be more in keeping with the scientific method. The Nature of Scientific Evidence persuasively argues that all scientists should care more about the fine points of statistical philosophy because therein lies the connection between theory and data. Though the book uses ecology as an exemplary science, the interdisciplinary evaluation of the use of statistics in empirical research will be of interest to any reader engaged in the quantification and evaluation of data.

Error and Inference

Error and Inference Book
Author : Deborah G. Mayo,Aris Spanos
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2011
ISBN : 0521180252
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Explores the nature of error and inference, drawing on exchanges on experimental reasoning, reliability, and the objectivity of science.

Uncertainty

Uncertainty Book
Author : William Briggs
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-07-15
ISBN : 3319397567
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book presents a philosophical approach to probability and probabilistic thinking, considering the underpinnings of probabilistic reasoning and modeling, which effectively underlie everything in data science. The ultimate goal is to call into question many standard tenets and lay the philosophical and probabilistic groundwork and infrastructure for statistical modeling. It is the first book devoted to the philosophy of data aimed at working scientists and calls for a new consideration in the practice of probability and statistics to eliminate what has been referred to as the "Cult of Statistical Significance." The book explains the philosophy of these ideas and not the mathematics, though there are a handful of mathematical examples. The topics are logically laid out, starting with basic philosophy as related to probability, statistics, and science, and stepping through the key probabilistic ideas and concepts, and ending with statistical models. Its jargon-free approach asserts that standard methods, such as out-of-the-box regression, cannot help in discovering cause. This new way of looking at uncertainty ties together disparate fields — probability, physics, biology, the “soft” sciences, computer science — because each aims at discovering cause (of effects). It broadens the understanding beyond frequentist and Bayesian methods to propose a Third Way of modeling.

Philosophy and Probability

Philosophy and Probability Book
Author : Timothy Childers
Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release : 2013-05-30
ISBN : 0199661820
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Probability is increasingly important for our understanding of the world. What is probability? How do we model it, and how do we use it? Timothy Childers presents a lively introduction to the foundations of probability and to philosophical issues it raises. He keeps technicalities to a minimum, and assumes no prior knowledge of the subject. He explains the main interpretations of probability-frequentist, propensity, classical, Bayesian, and objective Bayesian-and uses stimulating examples to bring the subject to life. All students of philosophy will benefit from an understanding of probability, and this is the book to provide it.

Topics in the Foundation of Statistics

Topics in the Foundation of Statistics Book
Author : B.C. van Fraassen
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1997-02-28
ISBN : 9780792344056
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Foundational research focuses on the theory, but theories are to be related also to other theories, experiments, facts in their domains, data, and to their uses in applications, whether of prediction, control, or explanation. A theory is to be identified through its class of models, but not so narrowly as to disallow these roles. The language of science is to be studied separately, with special reference to the relations listed above, and to the consequent need for resources other than for theoretical description. Peculiar to the foundational level are questions of completeness (specifically in the representation of measurement), and of interpretation (a topic beset with confusions of truth and evidence, and with inappropriate metalinguistic abstraction).

Resonance From Probability To Epistemology And Back

Resonance  From Probability To Epistemology And Back Book
Author : Burdzy Krzysztof
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2016-05-26
ISBN : 1783269227
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Resonance examines some building blocks of epistemology as a prelude to the careful analysis of the foundations of probability. The concept of resonance is introduced to shed light on the philosophical problems of induction, consciousness, intelligence and free will. The same concept is later applied to provide support for a new philosophical theory of probability.Although based on existing ideas and theories, the epistemological concept of resonance is investigated for the first time in this book. The best-known philosophical theories of probability, frequency and subjective, are shown to be unrealistic and dissociated from the two main branches of statistics: frequency statistics and Bayesian statistics.Written in an accessible style, this book can be enjoyed by philosophers, statisticians and mathematicians, and also by anyone looking to expand their understanding of the disciplines of epistemology and probability.

Error and the Growth of Experimental Knowledge

Error and the Growth of Experimental Knowledge Book
Author : Deborah G. Mayo
Publisher : University of Chicago Press
Release : 1996-08-15
ISBN : 0226511987
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Preface1: Learning from Error 2: Ducks, Rabbits, and Normal Science: Recasting the Kuhn's-Eye View of Popper 3: The New Experimentalism and the Bayesian Way 4: Duhem, Kuhn, and Bayes 5: Models of Experimental Inquiry 6: Severe Tests and Methodological Underdetermination7: The Experimental Basis from Which to Test Hypotheses: Brownian Motion8: Severe Tests and Novel Evidence 9: Hunting and Snooping: Understanding the Neyman-Pearson Predesignationist Stance10: Why You Cannot Be Just a Little Bit Bayesian 11: Why Pearson Rejected the Neyman-Pearson (Behavioristic) Philosophy and a Note on Objectivity in Statistics12: Error Statistics and Peircean Error Correction 13: Toward an Error-Statistical Philosophy of Science ReferencesIndex Copyright © Libri GmbH. All rights reserved.

The Search for Certainty

The Search for Certainty Book
Author : Krzysztof Burdzy
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2009
ISBN : 9814273716
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume represents a radical departure from the current philosophical duopoly in the area of foundations of probability, that is, the frequency and subjective theories. One of the main new ideas is a set of scientific laws of probability. The new laws are simple, intuitive and, last but not least, they agree well with the contents of current textbooks on probability. Another major new claim is that the OC frequency statisticsOCO has nothing in common with the OC frequency philosophy of probability, OCO contrary to popular belief. Similarly, contrary to the general perception, the OC Bayesian statisticsOCO shares nothing in common with the OC subjective philosophy of probability.OCO The book is non-partisan on the scientific side OCo it is supportive of both frequency statistics and Bayesian statistics. On the other hand, it contains well-documented and thoroughly-explained criticisms of the frequency and subjective philosophies of probability. Short reviews of other philosophical theories of probability and basic mathematical methods of probability and statistics are incorporated. The book includes substantial chapters on decision theory and teaching probability, and it is easily accessible to the general audience

The Role of Mathematics in Evolutionary Theory

The Role of Mathematics in Evolutionary Theory Book
Author : Jun Otsuka
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2019-10-17
ISBN : 1108575196
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The central role of mathematical modeling in modern evolutionary theory has raised a concern as to why and how abstract formulae can say anything about empirical phenomena of evolution. This Element introduces existing philosophical approaches to this problem and proposes a new account according to which evolutionary models are based on causal, and not just mathematical, assumptions. The novel account features causal models both as the Humean 'uniform nature' underlying evolutionary induction and as the organizing framework that integrates mathematical and empirical assumptions into a cohesive network of beliefs that functions together to achieve epistemic goals of evolutionary biology.

The Myth of Statistical Inference

The Myth of Statistical Inference Book
Author : Michael C. Acree
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-07-05
ISBN : 3030732576
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book proposes and explores the idea that the forced union of the aleatory and epistemic aspects of probability is a sterile hybrid, inspired and nourished for 300 years by a false hope of formalizing inductive reasoning, making uncertainty the object of precise calculation. Because this is not really a possible goal, statistical inference is not, cannot be, doing for us today what we imagine it is doing for us. It is for these reasons that statistical inference can be characterized as a myth. The book is aimed primarily at social scientists, for whom statistics and statistical inference are a common concern and frustration. Because the historical development given here is not merely anecdotal, but makes clear the guiding ideas and ambitions that motivated the formulation of particular methods, this book offers an understanding of statistical inference which has not hitherto been available. It will also serve as a supplement to the standard statistics texts. Finally, general readers will find here an interesting study with implications far beyond statistics. The development of statistical inference, to its present position of prominence in the social sciences, epitomizes a number of trends in Western intellectual history of the last three centuries, and the 11th chapter, considering the function of statistical inference in light of our needs for structure, rules, authority, and consensus in general, develops some provocative parallels, especially between epistemology and politics.

Degrees of Belief

Degrees of Belief Book
Author : Franz Huber,Christoph Schmidt-Petri
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-12-21
ISBN : 1402091982
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This anthology is the first book to give a balanced overview of the competing theories of degrees of belief. It also explicitly relates these debates to more traditional concerns of the philosophy of language and mind and epistemic logic.

Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference

Modes of Parametric Statistical Inference Book
Author : Seymour Geisser,Wesley O. Johnson
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2006-01-27
ISBN : 0471743127
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A fascinating investigation into the foundations of statisticalinference This publication examines the distinct philosophical foundations ofdifferent statistical modes of parametric inference. Unlike manyother texts that focus on methodology and applications, this bookfocuses on a rather unique combination of theoretical andfoundational aspects that underlie the field of statisticalinference. Readers gain a deeper understanding of the evolution andunderlying logic of each mode as well as each mode's strengths andweaknesses. The book begins with fascinating highlights from the history ofstatistical inference. Readers are given historical examples ofstatistical reasoning used to address practical problems that arosethroughout the centuries. Next, the book goes on to scrutinize fourmajor modes of statistical inference: * Frequentist * Likelihood * Fiducial * Bayesian The author provides readers with specific examples andcounterexamples of situations and datasets where the modes yieldboth similar and dissimilar results, including a violation of thelikelihood principle in which Bayesian and likelihood methodsdiffer from frequentist methods. Each example is followed by adetailed discussion of why the results may have varied from onemode to another, helping the reader to gain a greater understandingof each mode and how it works. Moreover, the author providesconsiderable mathematical detail on certain points to highlight keyaspects of theoretical development. The author's writing style and use of examples make the text clearand engaging. This book is fundamental reading for graduate-levelstudents in statistics as well as anyone with an interest in thefoundations of statistics and the principles underlying statisticalinference, including students in mathematics and the philosophy ofscience. Readers with a background in theoretical statistics willfind the text both accessible and absorbing.