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Phenotypic Switching

Phenotypic Switching Book
Author : Herbert Levine,Mohit Kumar Jolly,Prakash Kulkarni,Vidyanand Nanjundiah
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-06-10
ISBN : 012817997X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Phenotypic Switching: Implications in Biology and Medicine provides a comprehensive examination of phenotypic switching across biological systems, including underlying mechanisms, evolutionary significance, and its role in biomedical science. Contributions from international leaders discuss conceptual and theoretical aspects of phenotypic plasticity, its influence over biological development, differentiation, biodiversity, and potential applications in cancer therapy, regenerative medicine and stem cell therapy, among other treatments. Chapters discuss fundamental mechanisms of phenotypic switching, including transition states, cell fate decisions, epigenetic factors, stochasticity, protein-based inheritance, specific areas of human development and disease relevance, phenotypic plasticity in melanoma, prostate cancer, breast cancer, non-genetic heterogeneity in cancer, hepatitis C, and more. This book is essential for active researchers, basic and translational scientists, clinicians, postgraduates and students in genetics, human genomics, pathology, bioinformatics, developmental biology, evolutionary biology and adaptive opportunities in yeast. Thoroughly addresses the conceptual, experimental and translational aspects that underlie phenotypic plasticity Emphasizes quantitative approaches, nonlinear dynamics, mechanistic insights and key methodologies to advance phenotypic plasticity studies Features a diverse range of chapter contributions from international leaders in the field

Candida Albicans Phenotypic Switching and Functional Plasticity in the Mammalian Host

Candida Albicans Phenotypic Switching and Functional Plasticity in the Mammalian Host Book
Author : Brittany Gianetti
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 9780355386455
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In order to determine the host signals and fungal signaling pathways that control the white-GUT switch and drive commensalism, we developed an in vitro system to induce switching behavior and screened a library of C. albicans signaling mutants. We identified three fungal signaling pathways (Hog1, Rim101, and PKA), previously associated with other morphological transitions, which promote GUT cell formation. Together these studies help to understand how C. albicans' phenotypic plasticity influences its interactions with the mammalian host.

A Mechanistic and Functional Study of White opaque Phenotypic Switching in Candida Albicans

A Mechanistic and Functional Study of White opaque Phenotypic Switching in Candida Albicans Book
Author : Mathew Gregory Miller
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans. It is a harmless commensal in healthy individuals, but it can cause serious infections in immune-compromised hosts. C. albicans undergoes a meta-stable and reversible switch between two distinct cell types known as white and opaque. The role of white-opaque switching in the biology of C. albicans was originally not well understood. We discovered an unexpected relationship between white-opaque switching and the sexual cycle of C. albicans . The mating type locus of C. albicans (MTL) encodes transcriptional regulatory proteins that regulate mating. We demonstrated that two MTL -encoded homeodomain proteins, a 1 and alpha2, work together to repress white-opaque switching in C. albicans . The observations that the MTL locus controlled both mating and white-opaque switching led us to hypothesize that opaque cells played a role in mating. Indeed, we found that opaque cells mate one million times more efficiently than do white cells. Additionally, opaque cells, but not white cells, developed specialized mating projections when exposed to mating pheromone. Thus, opaque cells are a specialized mating form of C. albicans . As white cells are generally more robust in a mammalian host than opaque cells, this strategy allows the organism to survive the rigors of life within a mammalian host, while generating a small population of mating-competent cells. The mechanism that controls white-opaque switching is not well understood. To better understand the mechanism, we investigated the regulation of white-opaque switching by a 1-alpha2. We demonstrated that a 1-alpha2 regulates white-opaque switching by destabilizing opaque cells, and we monitored gene expression during the transition from opaque to white using DNA microarrays. We used a candidate approach to identify additional regulators of white-opaque switching among genes enriched for their expression in the opaque phase. We identified two potent positive regulators of white-opaque switching: the opaque-specific transcriptional regulatory proteins Czf1 and Naf1. We also further investigated the role of Efg1, a previously identified regulator of white-opaque switching, and found that efg1/efg1 mutants were unable to bypass a 1-alpha2 repression of switching. Finally, we determined the epistatic and regulatory relationships between Efg1, Czf1 and Naf1.

Interactions Between Phenotypic Switching Gene Network Dynamics and Evolutionary Dynamics in Growing Cell Populations

Interactions Between Phenotypic Switching  Gene Network Dynamics and Evolutionary Dynamics in Growing Cell Populations Book
Author : Merzu Kebede Belete
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2016
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Gene expression is a stochastic biological processes that controls the different phenotypes of an organism depending on the environment. High-resolution single cell measurements show that genetically identical cells can be different from each other even in a homogeneous environment, leading a spectrum of phenotypes with different cellular fitnesses that can reversibly switch between phenotypes. How population-level properties emerge from single cell behavior and how mutants emerge and spread in such populations is unclear. In this thesis, we developed mathematical models to study (i) the effect of time-delay needed for a mutation in a regulator gene influence an effector protein and the long term population fitness, (ii) how optimum population fitness behaves as a function of the growth rates of the various phenotypes for different durations in fluctuating environments. Our work shows a paradoxical outcome of evolution where mutations in a regulator gene interact with gene network dynamics and evolutionary dynamics, giving rise to permanent decrease in population fitness. In the other scenario of fluctuating environments, a previously predicted optimum exists for wider parameter regime if the environmental durations are long and narrow regime for short environmental durations. We also find that a mutant, which randomly evolved to match its phenotypic switching rates with environmental switching rates, can sweep the population if the predicted optimum matches with the assumed one, but not otherwise.

Molecular Biology of Fungal Development

Molecular Biology of Fungal Development Book
Author : Heinz D. Osiewacz
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2002-05-07
ISBN : 0824744527
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text gives an overview of the fundamental aspects of molecular fungal development in one comprehensive volume, highlighting different elements in the maturational and reproductive cycles of selected fungal taxa.

Growing Fungus

Growing Fungus Book
Author : N.A. Gow,Geoffrey M. Gadd
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-08-28
ISBN : 0585275769
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is about the growth and differentiation processes underlying the growth and differentia of filamentous fungi. The impetus for this work tion of fungi and that it provides the reader with stems from our perception that the coverage of adequate source references for further information. this highly diverse and important group of organ It is estimated conservatively that there are more isms has been neglected in recent years, despite than 1. 5 million species of fungi - more than five many significant advances in our understanding of times the number of vascular plants and second the underlying mechanisms of growth. This situ only in diversity to the insects. The extreme ation contrasts with the treatment of Saccharomyces diversity of form in the fungi has always been a cerevisiae, for example, which because of its ideal source of inspiration for mycologists. This book is properties for genetic analyses, has established concerned mainly with those systems that have itself as the model eukaryote for the analysis of the been well characterized from the biochemical, cell cycle, and basic studies of biochemical and physiological or genetic points of view. Although genetic regulation. This book does not deal with it has not been possible to illustrate the breadth of the detailed growth phYSiology of S.

The Fungal Spore and Disease Initiation in Plants and Animals

The Fungal Spore and Disease Initiation in Plants and Animals Book
Author : G.T. Cole,H.C. Hoch
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1991-02-28
ISBN : 9780306434549
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This treatise is focused on early aspects of fungal pathogenesis in plant and animal hosts. Our aim in choosing the topics and contributors was to demonstrate common approaches to studies of fungal-plant and fungal-animal interactions, particularly at the biochemical and molecular Ievels. For example, the initial events of adh«sion of fungal spores to the exposed surface tissues of the host are essential for subsequent invasion of the plant or animal and establishment of pathogenesis. A point of consensus among investigators who have directed their attention to such events in plants, insects, and vertebrates isthat spore adhesion to the host cuticle or epithelium is more than a simple binding event. lt is a complex and potentially pivotal process in fungal-plant interactions which "may involve the secretion of ftuids that prepare the infection court for the development of morphological stages of the germling" and subsequent invasion of the host (Nicholson and Epstein, Chapter 1). The attachment of the fungal propagule to the arthropod cuticle is also "mediated by the chemical components present on the outer layer of the spore wall and the epicuticle . . . . Initial attachment may be reinforced further by either the active secretion of adhesive materials or the modification of spore wall materiallocated at the [fungal spore arthropod] cuticle interface (Boucias and Pendland, Chapter 5).

Cellular and Phenotypic Plasticity in Cancer

Cellular and Phenotypic Plasticity in Cancer Book
Author : Petranel Theresa Ferrao,Andreas Behren,Robin Anderson, Erik Thompson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2015-09-17
ISBN : 2889196623
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The process of Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT) is known to result in a phenotype change in cells from a proliferative state to a more invasive state. EMT has been reported to drive the metastatic spread of various cancers and has also been associated with drug resistance to cytotoxics and targeted therapeutics. Recently phenotype switching akin to EMT has been reported in non-epithelial cancers such as metastatic melanoma. This process involves changes in EMT-Transcription Factors (EMT-TFs), suggesting that phenotype-switching may be common to several tumour types. It remains unclear as to whether the presence of both Epilthelial-like and Mesenchymal-like cells are a pre-requisite for phenotype switching within a tumour, how this heterogeneity is regulated, and if alteration of cell phenotype is sufficient to mediate migratory changes, or whether drivers of cell migration result in an associated phenotype switch in cancer cells. Similarly it has yet to be clarified if cells in an altered phenotype can be refractory to drug therapy or whether mediators of drug resistance induce a concurrent phenotypic change. Little is known today about the underlying genetic, epigenetic and transient changes that accompany this phenotypic switch and about the role for the tumor micro-environment in influencing it. Hence this is currently an area of speculation and keen interest in the Oncology field with wide-ranging translational implications. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we discuss our current understanding of these concepts in various cancer types including breast cancer, colorectal cancer and metastatic melanoma. This topic covers how these processes of cellular and phenotypic plasticity are regulated and how they relate to cancer initiation, progression, dormancy, metastases and response to cytotoxics or targeted therapies.

Molecular and Cell Biology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Molecular and Cell Biology of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Book
Author : D.J. Wright,L.C. Archard
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1992-09-30
ISBN : 9780412365102
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Molecular and Cell Biology of Human Diseases reviews the status of research on a range of sexually transmitted diseases whose incidence has paralleled the increase in HIV infection and examines the ways in which new methods are influencing current practice and are likely to shape future management.

Mathematical Modelling of Biosystems

Mathematical Modelling of Biosystems Book
Author : Rubem P. Mondaini,Panos M. Pardalos
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-02-23
ISBN : 9783540767848
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume is an interdisciplinary book which introduces, in a very readable way, state-of-the-art research in the fundamental topics of mathematical modelling of Biosystems. In short, the book offers an overview of mathematical and computational modelling of biosystems including biological phenomena in general. There is also a special introduction to Protein Physics which aims to explain the all-or-none first order phase transitions from native to denatured states.

Hugo and Russell s Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Hugo and Russell s Pharmaceutical Microbiology Book
Author : Stephen P. Denyer,Norman A. Hodges,Sean P. Gorman
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2008-04-15
ISBN : 1405141034
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Completely revised and updated Pharmaceutical Microbiologycontinues to provide the essential resource for the 21st centurypharmaceutical microbiologist "....a valuable resource for junior pharmacists graspingan appreciation of microbiology, microbiologists entering thepharmaceutical field, and undergraduate pharmacy students." Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy ".....highly readable. The content is comprehensive, withwell-produced tables, diagrams and photographs, and is accessiblethrough the extensive index." Journal of Medical Microbiology WHY BUY THIS BOOK? Completely revised and updated to reflect the rapid pace ofchange in the teaching and practice of pharmaceuticalmicrobiology Expanded coverage of modern biotechnology, including genomicsand recombinant DNA technology Updated information on newer antimicrobial agents and theirmode of action Highly illustrated with structural formulas of organiccompounds and flow diagrams of biochemical processes

Rutherford s Vascular Surgery E Book

Rutherford s Vascular Surgery E Book Book
Author : Jack L. Cronenwett,K. Wayne Johnston
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2014-03-12
ISBN : 0323243061
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Published in association with the Society for Vascular Surgery, Rutherford’s Vascular Surgery presents state-of-the-art updates on all aspects of vascular health care. Extensively revised by many new authors to meet the needs of surgeons, interventionalists, and vascular medicine specialists, this medical reference book incorporates medical, endovascular and surgical treatment, as well as diagnostic techniques, decision making and fundamental vascular biology. Consult this title on your favorite e-reader, conduct rapid searches, and adjust font sizes for optimal readability. Master the latest developments, techniques, and approaches with thorough updates on endovascular applications, vascular access, imaging, non-operative management, and much more. View clinical and physical findings and operative techniques more vividly with a full-color layout and images. Get answers you can depend on. Rutherford's delivers the world’s most trusted information on all major areas of vascular health care, is written by international experts, and includes up-to-date bibliographies and annotated recommended references. Discover emerging techniques in rapidly advancing topics, with special emphasis on endovascular coverage, vascular imaging, angiography, CT and MRI. Explore brand new chapters on dialysis catheters, renovascular disease, and management of branches during endovascular aneurysm. Stay up-to-date with the latest coverage of endovascular procedures that reflects the changing practices and techniques in vascular surgery. Access videos at Expert Consult.

Transforming Growth Factor Beta in Cancer Therapy Volume II

Transforming Growth Factor Beta in Cancer Therapy  Volume II Book
Author : Sonia B. Jakowlew
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-01-01
ISBN : 1597452939
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Transforming Growth Factor- ß in Cancer Therapy, Vols. 1 and 2, provides a compendium of findings about the role of transforming growth factor- ß (TGF- ß) in cancer treatment and therapy. The second volume, Cancer Treatment in Therapy, is divided into three parts. The companion volume details the role of TGF- ß on basic and clinical biology.

Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes

Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes Book
Author : L. David Sibley,Barbara J. Howlett,Joseph Heitman
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-06-07
ISBN : 1118308131
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A unique and timely review of the emergence of eukaryotic virulence in fungi, oomycetes, and protozoa, as they affect both animals and plants Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes addresses new developments in defining the molecular basis of virulence in eukaryotic pathogens. By examining how pathogenic determinants have evolved in concert with their hosts, often overcoming innate and adaptive immune mechanisms, the book takes a fresh look at the selective processes that have shaped their evolution. Introductory chapters ground the reader in principal evolutionary themes such as phylogenetics and genetic exchange, building a basis of knowledge for later chapters covering advances in genetic tools, how pathogens exchange genetic material in nature, and the common themes of evolutionary adaptation that lead to disease in different hosts. With the goal of linking the research findings of the many disparate scientific communities in the field, the book: Assembles for the first time a collection of chapters on the diversity of eukaryotic microorganisms and the influence of evolutionary forces on the origins and emergence of their virulent attributes Highlights examples from three important, divergent groups of eukaryotic microorganisms that cause disease in animals and plants: oomycetes, protozoan parasites, and fungi Covers how the development of genetic tools has fostered the identification and functional analyses of virulence determinants Addresses how pathogens exchange genetic material in nature via classical or modified meiotic processes, horizontal gene transfer, and sexual cycles including those that are cryptic or even unisexual Provides a broad framework for formulating future studies by illustrating themes common to different pathogenic microbes Evolution of Virulence in Eukaryotic Microbes is an ideal book for microbiologists, evolutionary biologists and medical professionals, as well as graduate students, postdoctoral fellows, and faculty members working on the evolution of pathogens.

Atlas of the Clinical Microbiology of Infectious Diseases

Atlas of the Clinical Microbiology of Infectious Diseases Book
Author : Edward J. Bottone
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2006-01-17
ISBN : 9781842142400
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

An Atlas of the Clinical Microbiology of Infectious Diseases, Volume Two: Viral, Fungal, and Parasitic Agents is the second of a series and partner to Volume One, which deals with Microbiological and Clinical Attributes. Filled with highly instructional visual images, this atlas covers typical and atypical presentations of viral, fungal and parasitic agents and offers insightful comments aiding their identification and clinical significance. Drawing on the expertise of a distinguished clinical microbiologist, it presents more than 240 colored photomicrographs derived from an extensive personal collection of slides depicting the salient and unusual presentations of microorganisms.

Bacterial Invasion into Eukaryotic Cells

Bacterial Invasion into Eukaryotic Cells Book
Author : Tobias A. Oelschlaeger,Jörg H. Hacker
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2000-01-31
ISBN : 9780306462900
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Strategies of Bacterial Interaction with Eukaryotic Cells *Tobias A. Oelschlaeger and Jorg Hacker 1. BENEFICIAL BACTERIAL-HOST INTERACTIONS Already during birth and soon thereafter mammals are colonized by bacte­ ria belonging to the resident microbial flora. Cutaneous and mucosal sur­ faces and the gastrointestinal tract are the areas which become colonized. These indigenous or autochthonous bacteria have a variety of beneficial effects on their hosts. They play a protective role by bacterial antagonism in fighting infections (Hoszowski and Truszczynski, 1997; Hentges, 1979). Pro­ duction of vitamin K is another essential contribution of the resident microbial flora to the health of the host (Hill, 1997). Even more important, studies with germ-free animals demonstrated the involvement of the microbial flora on the development of the immune system. Such animals have underdeveloped and relatively undifferentiated lymphoid tissues and low concentrations of serum immune globulins ( Cebra et at., 1998). They TOBIAS A. OELSCHLAEGER and JORG HACKER Institut filr Molekulare lnfektionsbiologie, Universitiit Wiirzburg, 97070 Wiirzburg, Germany. *Corresponding author; Phone: (0)931-312150; FAX: (0)931-312578; E-mail: [email protected] xxix Tobias A. Oelschlaeger and Jorg Hacker also show defects in specific immune responsiveness and in nonspecific resistance induced by endotoxin, which may account for their lowered resis­ tance. A more typical example of symbiotic interaction of bacteria with a host are bacteria like Ruminococcus in the gut of ruminants, essential for degradation of cellulose (Hobson, 1988). The closest benefical bacterial-host interactions are those of intracellular symbiotic bacteria and their host cells.

The Dynamic Bacterial Genome

The Dynamic Bacterial Genome Book
Author : Peter Mullany
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2005-09-26
ISBN : 9781139445504
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms and biological consequences of genome rearrangements in bacteria. Genome rearrangements are a result of the actions of discrete genetic elements such as conjugative transposons, plasmids, phage, and non-conjugative transposons. Bacteria also contain systems to mediate genetic rearrangements such as the general recombination pathway and specialized endogenous recombination mechanisms. The biological effects of these rearrangements are far-reaching and impact on bacterial virulence, antibiotic resistance and the ability of bacteria to avoid the attentions of the host immune system (e.g. antigenic variation). These rearrangements also provide the raw material on which natural selection can act. Each chapter examines the mechanisms involved in genome rearrangements and the direct biological consequences of these events. This book is written by leading research workers and is an invaluable resource for graduate students and researchers in this field.

Advances in Microbial Physiology

Advances in Microbial Physiology Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2007-09-06
ISBN : 9780080560649
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Microbial Physiology is one of the most successful and prestigious series from Academic Press, an imprint of Elsevier. It publishes topical and important reviews, interpreting physiology to include all material that contributes to our understanding of how microorganisms and their component parts work. First published in 1967, the editors have always striven to interpret microbial physiology in the broadest context and have never restricted the contents to “traditional views of whole cell physiology. Now edited by Professor Robert Poole, University of Sheffield, Advances in Microbial Physiology continues to be an influential and very well reviewed series.

Fungal Allergy and Pathogenicity

Fungal Allergy and Pathogenicity Book
Author : Michael Breitenbach,Reto Crameri,Samuel B. Lehrer
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release : 2002-01-01
ISBN : 380557391X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The importance of fungal organisms as allergens and pathogens has been increasing considerably over the last decade. This is due, on the one hand, to a general increase in the incidence of allergies, but also to the growing number of immunocompromized individuals such as AIDS patients or transplant recipients. This book summarizes what is currently known about the allergens of Candida, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, Alternaria, Coprinus, and Psilocybe, among others, and describes the application of recombinant allergens for diagnosis and new forms of therapy. The virulence factors and defense mechanisms against Aspergillus and Candida infections are discussed as are the various causes of superficial skin infections with fungi and the aerobiology of fungal spores and mycelia. A comprehensive chapter on fungal toxins and their importance for human and animal health is included, followed by a summary of the present state of fungal genome sequencing. Finally, the now generally accepted new sequence-based systematics and phylogeny of allergenic and pathogenic fungi is presented. A glossary explains the highly specialized terminology of clinical and systematic mycology for the nonspecialist. Summarizing the most up-to-date molecular and clinical findings, this publication will be of interest not only to allergologists, mycologists and biologists, but to all clinicians who want to learn more about clinically important fungi as well as to lawyers concerned with lawsuits on 'sick building syndrome'.

Issues in Genetic Medicine 2011 Edition

Issues in Genetic Medicine  2011 Edition Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
Release : 2012-01-09
ISBN : 1464963789
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Issues in Genetic Medicine / 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Genetic Medicine. The editors have built Issues in Genetic Medicine: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Genetic Medicine in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Issues in Genetic Medicine: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.