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Phenotypic Switching

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Phenotypic Switching

Phenotypic Switching Book
Author : Herbert Levine,Mohit Kumar Jolly,Prakash Kulkarni,Vidyanand Nanjundiah
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-06-10
ISBN : 012817997X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Phenotypic Switching: Implications in Biology and Medicine provides a comprehensive examination of phenotypic switching across biological systems, including underlying mechanisms, evolutionary significance, and its role in biomedical science. Contributions from international leaders discuss conceptual and theoretical aspects of phenotypic plasticity, its influence over biological development, differentiation, biodiversity, and potential applications in cancer therapy, regenerative medicine and stem cell therapy, among other treatments. Chapters discuss fundamental mechanisms of phenotypic switching, including transition states, cell fate decisions, epigenetic factors, stochasticity, protein-based inheritance, specific areas of human development and disease relevance, phenotypic plasticity in melanoma, prostate cancer, breast cancer, non-genetic heterogeneity in cancer, hepatitis C, and more. This book is essential for active researchers, basic and translational scientists, clinicians, postgraduates and students in genetics, human genomics, pathology, bioinformatics, developmental biology, evolutionary biology and adaptive opportunities in yeast. Thoroughly addresses the conceptual, experimental and translational aspects that underlie phenotypic plasticity Emphasizes quantitative approaches, nonlinear dynamics, mechanistic insights and key methodologies to advance phenotypic plasticity studies Features a diverse range of chapter contributions from international leaders in the field

A Mechanistic and Functional Study of White opaque Phenotypic Switching in Candida Albicans

A Mechanistic and Functional Study of White opaque Phenotypic Switching in Candida Albicans Book
Author : Mathew Gregory Miller
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2005
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans. It is a harmless commensal in healthy individuals, but it can cause serious infections in immune-compromised hosts. C. albicans undergoes a meta-stable and reversible switch between two distinct cell types known as white and opaque. The role of white-opaque switching in the biology of C. albicans was originally not well understood. We discovered an unexpected relationship between white-opaque switching and the sexual cycle of C. albicans . The mating type locus of C. albicans (MTL) encodes transcriptional regulatory proteins that regulate mating. We demonstrated that two MTL -encoded homeodomain proteins, a 1 and alpha2, work together to repress white-opaque switching in C. albicans . The observations that the MTL locus controlled both mating and white-opaque switching led us to hypothesize that opaque cells played a role in mating. Indeed, we found that opaque cells mate one million times more efficiently than do white cells. Additionally, opaque cells, but not white cells, developed specialized mating projections when exposed to mating pheromone. Thus, opaque cells are a specialized mating form of C. albicans . As white cells are generally more robust in a mammalian host than opaque cells, this strategy allows the organism to survive the rigors of life within a mammalian host, while generating a small population of mating-competent cells. The mechanism that controls white-opaque switching is not well understood. To better understand the mechanism, we investigated the regulation of white-opaque switching by a 1-alpha2. We demonstrated that a 1-alpha2 regulates white-opaque switching by destabilizing opaque cells, and we monitored gene expression during the transition from opaque to white using DNA microarrays. We used a candidate approach to identify additional regulators of white-opaque switching among genes enriched for their expression in the opaque phase. We identified two potent positive regulators of white-opaque switching: the opaque-specific transcriptional regulatory proteins Czf1 and Naf1. We also further investigated the role of Efg1, a previously identified regulator of white-opaque switching, and found that efg1/efg1 mutants were unable to bypass a 1-alpha2 repression of switching. Finally, we determined the epistatic and regulatory relationships between Efg1, Czf1 and Naf1.

Molecular Biology of Fungal Development

Molecular Biology of Fungal Development Book
Author : Heinz D. Osiewacz
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2002-05-07
ISBN : 0824744527
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This text gives an overview of the fundamental aspects of molecular fungal development in one comprehensive volume, highlighting different elements in the maturational and reproductive cycles of selected fungal taxa.

Cellular and Phenotypic Plasticity in Cancer

Cellular and Phenotypic Plasticity in Cancer Book
Author : Petranel Theresa Ferrao,Andreas Behren,Robin Anderson, Erik Thompson
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2015-09-17
ISBN : 2889196623
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The process of Epithelial-Mesenchymal-Transition (EMT) is known to result in a phenotype change in cells from a proliferative state to a more invasive state. EMT has been reported to drive the metastatic spread of various cancers and has also been associated with drug resistance to cytotoxics and targeted therapeutics. Recently phenotype switching akin to EMT has been reported in non-epithelial cancers such as metastatic melanoma. This process involves changes in EMT-Transcription Factors (EMT-TFs), suggesting that phenotype-switching may be common to several tumour types. It remains unclear as to whether the presence of both Epilthelial-like and Mesenchymal-like cells are a pre-requisite for phenotype switching within a tumour, how this heterogeneity is regulated, and if alteration of cell phenotype is sufficient to mediate migratory changes, or whether drivers of cell migration result in an associated phenotype switch in cancer cells. Similarly it has yet to be clarified if cells in an altered phenotype can be refractory to drug therapy or whether mediators of drug resistance induce a concurrent phenotypic change. Little is known today about the underlying genetic, epigenetic and transient changes that accompany this phenotypic switch and about the role for the tumor micro-environment in influencing it. Hence this is currently an area of speculation and keen interest in the Oncology field with wide-ranging translational implications. In this Frontiers Research Topic, we discuss our current understanding of these concepts in various cancer types including breast cancer, colorectal cancer and metastatic melanoma. This topic covers how these processes of cellular and phenotypic plasticity are regulated and how they relate to cancer initiation, progression, dormancy, metastases and response to cytotoxics or targeted therapies.

Developmental Programing of Vertebrate Health and Disease

Developmental Programing of Vertebrate Health and Disease Book
Author : Gina Galli,Sonnet Jonker,Dane Alan Crossley II
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-05-25
ISBN : 2889668029
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Developmental Programing of Vertebrate Health and Disease book written by Gina Galli,Sonnet Jonker,Dane Alan Crossley II, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Growing Fungus

Growing Fungus Book
Author : N.A. Gow,Geoffrey M. Gadd
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-08-28
ISBN : 0585275769
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is about the growth and differentiation processes underlying the growth and differentia of filamentous fungi. The impetus for this work tion of fungi and that it provides the reader with stems from our perception that the coverage of adequate source references for further information. this highly diverse and important group of organ It is estimated conservatively that there are more isms has been neglected in recent years, despite than 1. 5 million species of fungi - more than five many significant advances in our understanding of times the number of vascular plants and second the underlying mechanisms of growth. This situ only in diversity to the insects. The extreme ation contrasts with the treatment of Saccharomyces diversity of form in the fungi has always been a cerevisiae, for example, which because of its ideal source of inspiration for mycologists. This book is properties for genetic analyses, has established concerned mainly with those systems that have itself as the model eukaryote for the analysis of the been well characterized from the biochemical, cell cycle, and basic studies of biochemical and physiological or genetic points of view. Although genetic regulation. This book does not deal with it has not been possible to illustrate the breadth of the detailed growth phYSiology of S.

Handbook of Epigenetics

Handbook of Epigenetics Book
Author : Trygve Tollefsbol
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2022-09-08
ISBN : 0323919502
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Epigenetics: The New Molecular and Medical Genetics, Third Edition provides a comprehensive analysis of epigenetics, from basic biology to clinical application. This new edition has been fully revised to cover the latest and evolving topics in epigenetics, with chapters updated and new chapters added on topics such as single-cell epigenetics, DNA methylation clocks in age-related diseases, transposable elements and epigenetics, X chromosome inactivation, and the epigenetics of drug addiction, among other topics. Throughout this edition, greater emphasis falls on epigenomic analyses and incorporating multi-omics approaches rather than gene-specific analyses. In addition, this edition has also been enhanced with step-by-step instructions in research methods, as well as easy-to-digest disease case studies and clinical trials that provide context and applied examples of recent advances in disease understanding and epigenetic therapeutics. These features empower researchers to reproduce the approaches and studies discussed and aid clinical translation. Live links across chapters tie in relevant external datasets and resources. Provides a timely and comprehensive collection of fully up-to-date coverage of epigenetics Covers basic epigenetic biology, research methods and technology, disease relationships and clinical medicine Written at a verbal and technical level that can be understood by scientists and students alike, with chapter summaries and conclusions included throughout Discusses exciting new topics in epigenetics, such as DNA methylation clocks in age-related diseases, transposable elements and epigenetics, X chromosome inactivation, and the epigenetics of drug addiction Includes step-by-step instructions in research protocols to aid reproducibility, as well as easy-to-digest disease case studies and clinical trials, providing context and applied examples of recent clinical translation

Stochastic Processes in Cell Biology

Stochastic Processes in Cell Biology Book
Author : Paul C. Bressloff
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2022-01-10
ISBN : 3030725197
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book develops the theory of continuous and discrete stochastic processes within the context of cell biology. In the second edition the material has been significantly expanded, particularly within the context of nonequilibrium and self-organizing systems. Given the amount of additional material, the book has been divided into two volumes, with volume I mainly covering molecular processes and volume II focusing on cellular processes. A wide range of biological topics are covered in the new edition, including stochastic ion channels and excitable systems, molecular motors, stochastic gene networks, genetic switches and oscillators, epigenetics, normal and anomalous diffusion in complex cellular environments, stochastically-gated diffusion, active intracellular transport, signal transduction, cell sensing, bacterial chemotaxis, intracellular pattern formation, cell polarization, cell mechanics, biological polymers and membranes, nuclear structure and dynamics, biological condensates, molecular aggregation and nucleation, cellular length control, cell mitosis, cell motility, cell adhesion, cytoneme-based morphogenesis, bacterial growth, and quorum sensing. The book also provides a pedagogical introduction to the theory of stochastic and nonequilibrium processes – Fokker Planck equations, stochastic differential equations, stochastic calculus, master equations and jump Markov processes, birth-death processes, Poisson processes, first passage time problems, stochastic hybrid systems, queuing and renewal theory, narrow capture and escape, extreme statistics, search processes and stochastic resetting, exclusion processes, WKB methods, large deviation theory, path integrals, martingales and branching processes, numerical methods, linear response theory, phase separation, fluctuation-dissipation theorems, age-structured models, and statistical field theory. This text is primarily aimed at graduate students and researchers working in mathematical biology, statistical and biological physicists, and applied mathematicians interested in stochastic modeling. Applied probabilists should also find it of interest. It provides significant background material in applied mathematics and statistical physics, and introduces concepts in stochastic and nonequilibrium processes via motivating biological applications. The book is highly illustrated and contains a large number of examples and exercises that further develop the models and ideas in the body of the text. It is based on a course that the author has taught at the University of Utah for many years.

Dancing protein clouds Intrinsically disordered proteins in health and disease Part A

Dancing protein clouds  Intrinsically disordered proteins in health and disease  Part A Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-09-11
ISBN : 0128168528
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Dancing protein clouds: Intrinsically disordered proteins in the norm and pathology" represents a set of selected studies on a variety of research topics related to intrinsically disordered proteins. Topics in this update include structural and functional characterization of several important intrinsically disordered proteins, such as 14-3-3 proteins and their partners, as well as proteins from muscle sarcomere; representation of intrinsic disorder-related concept of protein structure-function continuum; discussion of the role of intrinsic disorder in phenotypic switching; consideration of the role of intrinsically disordered proteins in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and cancer; discussion of the roles of intrinsic disorder in functional amyloids; demonstration of the usefulness of the analysis of translational diffusion of unfolded and intrinsically disordered proteins; consideration of various computational tools for evaluation of functions of intrinsically disordered regions; and discussion of the role of shear stress in the amyloid formation of intrinsically disordered regions in the brain. Provides some recent studies on the intrinsically disordered proteins and their functions, as well as on the involvement of intrinsically disordered proteins in pthogenesis of various diseases Contains numerous illustrative materials (color figures, diagrams, and tables) to help the readers to delve in the information provided Includes contributions from recognized experts in the field

Emerging Trends in Cell and Gene Therapy

Emerging Trends in Cell and Gene Therapy Book
Author : Michael K. Danquah,Ram I. Mahato
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-14
ISBN : 162703417X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Examples from various organs and diseases illustrate the potential benefit obtained when both therapeutic approaches are combined with delivery strategies. Representing the combined effort of several leading international research and clinical experts, this book, Emerging Trends in Cell and Gene Therapy, provides a complete account on and brings into sharp focus current trends and state-of-the-art in important areas at the interface of cell- and gene-based therapies. This book addresses the current fragmented understanding regarding these two research areas and fills the vast unmet educational need and interest of both students and researchers in academia and industry. Main features of the book: · Biological aspects of stem cell sources, differentiation and engineering. · Application of microfluidics to study stem cell dynamics · Potential clinical application of stem cells and gene therapy to specific human disease. · Utilization of biomaterials and stem cells in regenerative medicine with particular emphasis on spinal cord repair, ligament and bone tissue engineering. · Biomimetic multiscale topography for cell alignment.

Mechanisms Underlying Host Microbiome Interactions in Pathophysiology of Human Diseases

Mechanisms Underlying Host Microbiome Interactions in Pathophysiology of Human Diseases Book
Author : Jun Sun,Pradeep K. Dudeja
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-01-26
ISBN : 149397534X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Only recently have we begun to appreciate the role of microbiome in health and disease. Environmental factors and change of life style including diet significantly shape human microbiome that in turn appears to modify gut barrier function affecting nutrient & electrolyte absorption and inflammation. Approaches that can reverse the gut dysbiosis represent as reasonable and novel strategies for restoring the balance between host and microbes. In the book, we offer summary and discussion on the advances in understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms of microbial host interactions in human diseases. We will not only discuss intestinal bacterial community, but also viruses, fungi and oral microbiome. Microbiome studies will facilitate diagnosis, functional studies, drug development and personalized medicine. Thus, this book will further highlight the microbiome in the context of health and disease, focusing on mechanistic concepts that underlie the complex relationships between host and microbes.

Mechanisms of Vascular Disease

Mechanisms of Vascular Disease Book
Author : Robert Fitridge
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-07-30
ISBN : 3030436837
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This extensively revised third edition provides a practically applicable guide to the pathophysiology, assessment and management of vascular disorders encountered in vascular surgical practice. It features detailed information on the latest developments in the pathophysiology of conditions including atherosclerosis, multi-organ failure, limb compartment syndromes and Raynaud’s phenomenon in a clear easy to digest format. Disorders such as reperfusion injuries, vasculitides, and aortic dissection are covered. Furthermore, key topics in vascular and endovascular practice such as radiation biology and radiation safety are also detailed. Each chapter contains a set of learning objectives and key references, enabling the reader to quickly identify key points. Mechanisms of Vascular Disease: A Textbook for Vascular Specialists comprehensively covers a variety of common and unusual pathophysiologies encountered in vascular surgery, and is an ideal resource for both the trainee, and practicing clinical vascular surgeon seeking an up-to-date resource on the topic.

Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell fate and Vascular Remodeling Mechanisms Therapeutic Targets and Drugs Volume I

Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell fate and Vascular Remodeling  Mechanisms  Therapeutic Targets  and Drugs  Volume I Book
Author : Ping Song,Xiaoyan Dai,Qilong Wang,Vicky E. MacRae
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2022-09-26
ISBN : 2832500706
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell fate and Vascular Remodeling Mechanisms Therapeutic Targets and Drugs Volume I book written by Ping Song,Xiaoyan Dai,Qilong Wang,Vicky E. MacRae, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Pseudomonas

Pseudomonas Book
Author : Juan-Luis Ramos
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-06-28
ISBN : 1441990860
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pseudomonas comprises three volumes covering the biology of pseudomonads in a wide context, including the niches they inhabit, the taxonomic relations among members of this group, the molecular biology of gene expression in different niches and under different environmental conditions, the analysis of virulence traits in plants, animals and human pathogens as well as the determinants that make some strains useful for biotechnological applications and promotion of plant growth. There has been growing interest in pseudomonads and a particular urge to understand the biology underlying the complex metabolism of these ubiquitous microbes. These bacteria are capable of colonizing a wide range of niches, including the soil, the plant rhizosphere and phylosphere, and animal tissues; more recently they have attracted attention because of their capacity to form biofilms, a characteristic with potentially important medical and environmental implications. The three volumes cover the following topics: - Taxonomy, - Genomics, - Life styles, - Cell Architecture, - Virulence, - Regulation, - Macromolecules, - Alternative Respiratory Substrates, - Catabolism and Biotransformations. Pseudomonas will be of use to all researchers working on these bacteria, particularly those studying microbiology, plant crops, pathogenesis, and chemical engineering. Advanced students in biology, medicine and agronomy will also find these three volumes a valuable reference during their studies.

Endodontic Microbiology

Endodontic Microbiology Book
Author : Ashraf F. Fouad
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2017-01-24
ISBN : 1118975499
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Endodontic Microbiology, Second Edition presents a comprehensive reference to the microbiology, pathogenesis, management, and healing of endodontic pathosis, emphasizing the importance of biological sciences in understanding and managing endodontic disease and its interaction with systemic health. Provides a major revision to the first book to focus on the problems related to microbes in the root canal and periapical tissues Updates current knowledge in endodontic pathosis, especially regarding next generation sequencing and microbial virulence Presents useful diagrams, images, radiographs, and annotated histological images to illustrate the concepts Emphasizes the importance of biological science in understanding and managing endodontic disease Includes contributions from the leading researchers and educators in the field

Advances in Extracellular Space Research and Application 2011 Edition

Advances in Extracellular Space Research and Application  2011 Edition Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : ScholarlyEditions
Release : 2012-01-09
ISBN : 1464923434
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Extracellular Space Research and Application: 2011 Edition is a ScholarlyEditions™ eBook that delivers timely, authoritative, and comprehensive information about Extracellular Space. The editors have built Advances in Extracellular Space Research and Application: 2011 Edition on the vast information databases of ScholarlyNews.™ You can expect the information about Extracellular Space in this eBook to be deeper than what you can access anywhere else, as well as consistently reliable, authoritative, informed, and relevant. The content of Advances in Extracellular Space Research and Application: 2011 Edition has been produced by the world’s leading scientists, engineers, analysts, research institutions, and companies. All of the content is from peer-reviewed sources, and all of it is written, assembled, and edited by the editors at ScholarlyEditions™ and available exclusively from us. You now have a source you can cite with authority, confidence, and credibility. More information is available at http://www.ScholarlyEditions.com/.

Advances in Applied Microbiology

Advances in Applied Microbiology Book
Author : Geoffrey M. Gadd,Sima Sariaslani
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2019-05-23
ISBN : 0128176199
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Advances in Applied Microbiology, Volume 107, continues the comprehensive reach of this widely read and authoritative review source in microbiology. Users will find invaluable references and information on a variety of areas, with this updated volume including chapters covering the roles and applications of siderophores, biological oxidation of iron sulphides, production of biomass and biofuel feedstocks from microalgae, advances in the microbial ecology of biohydrometallurgy, bacterial synthesis of Se nanoparticles, and siderophores in environmental research, amongst other discussions. Contains contributions from leading authorities in the field Informs and updates on all the latest developments in the field of microbiology Includes discussions on the role of specific molecules in pathogen life stages and interactions, and much more

The Physical Microbe

The Physical Microbe Book
Author : Stephen J. Hagen
Publisher : Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Release : 2017-10-01
ISBN : 1681745291
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The new field of physical biology fuses biology and physics. New technologies have allowed researchers to observe the inner workings of the living cell, one cell at a time. With an abundance of new data collected on individual cells, including observations of individual molecules and their interactions, researchers are developing a quantitative, physics-based understanding of life at the molecular level. They are building detailed models of how cells use molecular circuits to gather and process information, signal to each other, manage noise and variability, and adapt to their environment. This book narrows down the scope of physical biology by focusing on the microbial cell. It explores the physical phenomena of noise, feedback, and variability that arise in the cellular information-processing circuits used by bacteria. It looks at the microbe from a physics perspective, to ask how the cell optimizes its function to live within the constraints of physics. It introduces a physical and information based -- as opposed to microbiological -- perspective on communication and signaling between microbes. The book is aimed at non-expert scientists who wish to understand some of the most important emerging themes of physical biology, and to see how they help us to understand the most basic forms of life.

Phenotypic Switching in Bacteria

Phenotypic Switching in Bacteria Book
Author : Jack Merrin
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2006
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Phenotypic Switching in Bacteria book written by Jack Merrin, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Where Biology Meets Psychology

Where Biology Meets Psychology Book
Author : Valerie Gray Hardcastle
Publisher : MIT Press
Release : 1999
ISBN : 9780262581745
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A great deal of interest and excitement surround the interface between the philosophy of biology and the philosophy of psychology, yet the area is neither well defined nor well represented in mainstream philosophical publications. This book is perhaps the first to open a dialogue between the two disciplines. Its aim is to broaden the traditional subject matter of the philosophy of biology while informing the philosophy of psychology of relevant biological constraints and insights.The book is organized around six themes: functions and teleology, evolutionary psychology, innateness, philosophy of mind, philosophy of science, and parallels between philosophy of biology and philosophy of mind. Throughout, one finds overlapping areas of study, larger philosophical implications, and even larger conceptual ties. Woven through these connections are shared concerns about the status of semantics, scientific law, evolution and adaptation, and cognition in general. Contributors André Ariew, Mark A. Bedau, David J. Buller, Paul Sheldon Davies, Stephen M. Downes, Charbel Niño El-Hani, Owen Flanagan, Peter Godfrey-Smith, Todd Grantham, Valerie Gray Hardcastle, Gary Hatfield, Daniel W. McShea, Karen Neander, Shaun Nichols, Antonio Marcos Pereira, Tom Polger, Lawrence A. Shapiro, Kim Sterelny, Robert A. Wilson, William C. Wimsatt