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Phase Transitions In Polymers

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Phase Transitions in Polymers The Role of Metastable States

Phase Transitions in Polymers  The Role of Metastable States Book
Author : Stephen Z.D. Cheng
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-09-10
ISBN : 9780080558202
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A classical metastable state possesses a local free energy minimum at infinite sizes, but not a global one. This concept is phase size independent. We have studied a number of experimental results and proposed a new concept that there exists a wide range of metastable states in polymers on different length scales where their metastability is critically determined by the phase size and dimensionality. Metastable states are also observed in phase transformations that are kinetically impeded on the pathway to thermodynamic equilibrium. This was illustrated in structural and morphological investigations of crystallization and mesophase transitions, liquid-liquid phase separation, vitrification and gel formation, as well as combinations of these transformation processes. The phase behaviours in polymers are thus dominated by interlinks of metastable states on different length scales. This concept successfully explains many experimental observations and provides a new way to connect different aspects of polymer physics. * Written by a leading scholar and industry expert * Presents new and cutting edge material encouraging innovation and future research * Connects hot topics and leading research in one concise volume

Phase Transitions in Foods

Phase Transitions in Foods Book
Author : Yrjo H Roos,Stephan Drusch
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2015-10-05
ISBN : 0124079229
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Phase Transitions in Foods, Second Edition, assembles the most recent research and theories on the topic, describing the phase and state transitions that affect technological properties of biological materials occurring in food processing and storage. It covers the role of water as a plasticizer, the effect of transitions on mechanical and chemical changes, and the application of modeling in predicting stability rates of change. The volume presents methods for detecting changes in the physical state and various techniques used to analyze phase behavior of biopolymers and food components. It should become a valuable resource for anyone involved with food engineering, processing, storage, and quality, as well as those working on related properties of pharmaceuticals and other biopolymers. Contains descriptions of non-fat food solids as "biopolymers" which exhibit physical properties that are highly dependent on temperature, time, and water content Details the effects of water on the state and stability of foods Includes information on changes occurring in state and physicochemical properties during processing and storage The only book on phase and state transitions written specifically for the applications in food industry, product development, and research

Fundamentals of Polymer Physics and Molecular Biophysics

Fundamentals of Polymer Physics and Molecular Biophysics Book
Author : Himadri B. Bohidar
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2015-01-05
ISBN : 1107058708
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Provides a physical interpretation of the data obtained in macromolecular transport phenomena in a given system and also addresses some important issues and concepts related to biopolymers such as proteins and nucleic acids"--

Phase Transitions and Structure of Polymer Systems in External Fields

Phase Transitions and Structure of Polymer Systems in External Fields Book
Author : Sergey A. Vshivkov
Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Release : 2019-05-14
ISBN : 1527534561
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Generalized extensive experimental and theoretical data regarding the phase transitions of polymer systems in mechanical and magnetic fields provide the possibility to predict the results of external field effects on the structure and mutual solubility of components. The data on dynamic structuring in deformed polymer blends and solutions allow for the use of found regularities by the processing of polymer systems. The methods offered in this book allow for the connection of shift of phase diagrams in the mechanical field with changes in macromolecule sizes. The tutorials described here will help the reader to correctly build the phase diagrams of polymer systems using a variety of methods.

Phase Transitions in Polymers

Phase Transitions in Polymers Book
Author : Stephen Z. D. Cheng
Publisher : Elsevier Science Limited
Release : 2008
ISBN : 9780444519115
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A classical metastable state possesses a local free energy minimum at infinite sizes, but not a global one. This concept is phase size independent. We have studied a number of experimental results and proposed a new concept that there exists a wide range of metastable states in polymers on different length scales where their metastability is critically determined by the phase size and dimensionality. Metastable states are also observed in phase transformations that are kinetically impeded on the pathway to thermodynamic equilibrium. This was illustrated in structural and morphological investigations of crystallization and mesophase transitions, liquid-liquid phase separation, vitrification and gel formation, as well as combinations of these transformation processes. The phase behaviours in polymers are thus dominated by interlinks of metastable states on different length scales. This concept successfully explains many experimental observations and provides a new way to connect different aspects of polymer physics. * Written by a leading scholar and industry expert * Presents new and cutting edge material encouraging innovation and future research * Connects hot topics and leading research in one concise volume

Geometry and Phase Transitions in Colloids and Polymers

Geometry and Phase Transitions in Colloids and Polymers Book
Author : William Kung
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2009
ISBN : 9812834966
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This monograph represents an extension of the author's original PhD thesis and includes a more thorough discussion on the concepts and mathematics behind his research works on the foam model, as applied to studying issues of phase stability and elasticity for various non-closed packed structures found in fuzzy and colloidal crystals, as well as on a renormalization-group analysis regarding the critical behavior of loop polymers upon which topological constraints are imposed. The common thread behind these two research works is their demonstration of the importance and effectiveness of utilizing geometrical and topological concepts for modeling and understanding soft systems undergoing phase transitions. Book jacket.

Phase Transition Dynamics

Phase Transition Dynamics Book
Author : Akira Onuki
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2002-06-06
ISBN : 1139433164
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Phase transition dynamics is centrally important to condensed matter physics. This 2002 book treats a wide variety of topics systematically by constructing time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau models for various systems in physics, metallurgy and polymer science. Beginning with a summary of advanced statistical-mechanical theories including the renormalization group theory, the book reviews dynamical theories, and covers the kinetics of phase ordering, spinodal decomposition and nucleation in depth. The phase transition dynamics of real systems are discussed, treating interdisciplinary problems in a unified manner. Topics include supercritical fluid dynamics, stress-diffusion coupling in polymers and mesoscopic dynamics at structural phase transitions in solids. Theoretical and experimental approaches to shear flow problems in fluids are reviewed. Phase Transition Dynamics provides a comprehensive account, building on the statistical mechanics of phase transitions covered in many introductory textbooks. It will be essential reading for researchers and advanced graduate students in physics, chemistry, metallurgy and polymer science.

Standard Pressure Volume Temperature Data for Polymers

Standard Pressure Volume Temperature Data for Polymers Book
Author : David Walsh,Paul Zoller
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1995-08-24
ISBN : 9781566763288
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

From the Introduction PVT data consists of records of the specific volume of a material (or its inverse, the density) as a function of pressure and temperature. There are many reasons why the specific volume of a material will undergo changes: changes in the temperature and pressure (thermal expansion and compression), phase changes (solid-solid phase transitions, melting, crystallization, glass transitions, mesophase transitions), degradation reactions, and many more. Conversely, PVT measurements can be used to study these phenomena and also to yield derivative data of direct importance to engineering applications of materials (compressibility, bulk modulus, thermal expansivity, etc.). PVT methods are part of a wide array of thermoanalytical techniques available to scientists and engineers, but PVT is the only commonly practiced technique that includes pressure as a variable. Polymers are sensitive to pressure: the volume itself, the pressure dependence of transition temperatures, and the kinetics of phase transitions are all significant, not only from a scientific point of view, but also for practical applications in polymer engineering, such as processing. Now published. This unique polymer reference book will be useful to all those involved in polymer research and advanced engineering. The more than 350 tables and graphs provide a wealth of important data in easy-to-use form. The introductory chapter provides details on methodology, equipment use, and information on the many ways in which PVT data can be used in research and engineering.

Polymer Phase Diagrams

Polymer Phase Diagrams Book
Author : R. Koningsveld,Ronald Koningsveld,Walter H. Stockmayer,Erik Nies
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2001
ISBN : 9780198556350
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polymeric materials include plastics, gels, synthetic fibres, and rubbers. This text uses fundamental principles to classify phase separation phenomena in polymer systems, and describes simple molecular models explaining the observed behaviour.

Mechanics of Swelling

Mechanics of Swelling Book
Author : Theodoros K. Karalis
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-06-29
ISBN : 364284619X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provided here is up-to-date and in-depth information on various swelling phenomena occurring in living organisms and in the unanimated world. Thebook is arranged in six parts, which cover fundamentals, special topics, analytical and experimental methods and applications relevant to swelling insoils, cells and tissues of plants and animals. Specifically, it includes all aspects of osmotic phenomena leading to swelling in clays, cells, tissues, gels, blisters, colloidal systems, surfaces and membranes. Forces between surfactant, lipid and protein membranes and in polymeric systems are also considered.

Physicists on Wall Street and Other Essays on Science and Society

Physicists on Wall Street and Other Essays on Science and Society Book
Author : Jeremy Bernstein
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2008-11-01
ISBN : 9780387567914
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Over the years, Jeremy Bernstein has been in contact with many of the world’s most renowned physicists and other scientists, many of whom were involved in politics, literature, and language. In this diverse collection of essays, he reflects on their work, their personal relationships, their motives, and their contributions. Even for those people he writes about that he did not know personally, he provides important insights into their lives and work, and questions their character, their decisions, and the lives they led. In the first three essays, Professor Bernstein looks at economic theory and how some physicists who developed interesting economic models based on derivatives and hedge funds almost led to the country into bankruptcy. In later essays, he discusses a suspect visit to Poland by the great Heisenberg during the Nazi era, a visit that there is almost nothing written about. Included also are essays on ancient languages and a nuclear weapons program in South Africa that was supposedly dismantled. In one particularly humorous essay, he describes how an ill-conceived manned spaceship to be powered by an atomic bomb was being developed by some of the country’s most powerful intellects. The project never got off the ground. Dipping into these pages is like rummaging around in the mind of a genius who has a potpourri of interests and an abundance of fascinating experiences. Bernstein has not only rubbed elbows with some of the finest minds in world, he has worked and played with them. He has sometimes mourned with them and laughed at them. His sharp wit and even sharper analysis make for a fascinating read.

Scale Invariance

Scale Invariance Book
Author : Annick LESNE,Michel Laguës
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-11-04
ISBN : 364215123X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

During a century, from the Van der Waals mean field description (1874) of gases to the introduction of renormalization group (RG techniques 1970), thermodynamics and statistical physics were just unable to account for the incredible universality which was observed in numerous critical phenomena. The great success of RG techniques is not only to solve perfectly this challenge of critical behaviour in thermal transitions but to introduce extremely useful tools in a wide field of daily situations where a system exhibits scale invariance. The introduction of scaling, scale invariance and universality concepts has been a significant turn in modern physics and more generally in natural sciences. Since then, a new "physics of scaling laws and critical exponents", rooted in scaling approaches, allows quantitative descriptions of numerous phenomena, ranging from phase transitions to earthquakes, polymer conformations, heartbeat rhythm, diffusion, interface growth and roughening, DNA sequence, dynamical systems, chaos and turbulence. The chapters are jointly written by an experimentalist and a theorist. This book aims at a pedagogical overview, offering to the students and researchers a thorough conceptual background and a simple account of a wide range of applications. It presents a complete tour of both the formal advances and experimental results associated with the notion of scaling, in physics, chemistry and biology.

Smart Polymers

Smart Polymers Book
Author : Igor Galaev,Bo Mattiasson
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007-07-25
ISBN : 9781439832370
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The first book to tackle the application of smart polymers in bioseparation and bioprocessing, Smart Polymers: Applications in Biotechnology and Biomedicine broke new ground in this challenging field. Completely revised, updated, and following in the footsteps of its predecessor, the second edition is poised to take its place as a premier reference in this field. This new edition considers those polymers in which a highly nonlinear response of a smart polymer to small changes in the external medium is of critical importance for the successful functioning of the system. The systems discussed are based on soluble/insoluble transition of smart polymers in aqueous solution, on conformational transitions of the macromolecules physically attached or chemically grafted to a surface and on the shrinking/swelling of covalently cross-linked networks of macromolecules, i.e. smart hydrogels. The book focuses on the theory describing the behavior of smart polymers in solution, as gels, and when grafted to surfaces. It provides solid, quantitative descriptions and reliable guidelines, reflecting the maturation of the field and the demand for the development of new smart polymer systems. The coverage highlights smart gels and especially fast responding and macroporous gels, as these gels pave the way to different applications of smart polymers in the areas ofbioseparation, drug release, and microfluidics. With contributions from leading researchers as well as extensive end-of-chapter references, this volume offers a comprehensive overview of the current state-of-the-art in the field and the potential for future developments.

Physical Gels from Biological and Synthetic Polymers

Physical Gels from Biological and Synthetic Polymers Book
Author : Madeleine Djabourov,Katsuyoshi Nishinari,Simon B. Ross-Murphy
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2013-05-16
ISBN : 1107067081
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Presenting a unique perspective on state-of-the-art physical gels, this interdisciplinary guide provides a complete, critical analysis of the field and highlights recent developments. It shows the interconnections between the key aspects of gels, from molecules and structure through to rheological and functional properties, with each chapter focusing on a different class of gel. There is also a final chapter covering innovative systems and applications, providing the information needed to understand current and future practical applications of gels in the pharmaceutical, agricultural, cosmetic, chemical and food industries. Many research teams are involved in the field of gels, including theoreticians, experimentalists and chemical engineers, but this interdisciplinary book collates and rationalises the many different points of view to provide a clear understanding of these complex systems for researchers and graduate students.

Applications of Calorimetry in a Wide Context

Applications of Calorimetry in a Wide Context Book
Author : Amal Ali Elkordy
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2013-01-23
ISBN : 9535109472
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Calorimetry, as a technique for thermal analysis, has a wide range of applications which are not only limited to studying the thermal characterisation (e.g. melting temperature, denaturation temperature and enthalpy change) of small and large drug molecules, but are also extended to characterisation of fuel, metals and oils. Differential Scanning Calorimetry is used to study the thermal behaviours of drug molecules and excipients by measuring the differential heat flow needed to maintain the temperature difference between the sample and reference cells equal to zero upon heating at a controlled programmed rate. Microcalorimetry is used to study the thermal transition and folding of biological macromolecules in dilute solutions. Microcalorimetry is applied in formulation and stabilisation of therapeutic proteins. This book presents research from all over the world on the applications of calorimetry on both solid and liquid states of materials.

Liquid Crystalline Polymers

Liquid Crystalline Polymers Book
Author : Vijay Kumar Thakur,Michael R. Kessler
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2015-11-16
ISBN : 3319228943
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book introduces anisotropic innovations in liquid crystalline polymers as well as new nanocomposite materials and testing techniques. The authors detail the newest discoveries of material properties, material types and phases, and material characterization. This interdisciplinary work creates valuable links that strengthen the approach to the evolving field of liquid crystalline polymers/ materials.

Polymers in Confined Environments

Polymers in Confined Environments Book
Author : Steve Granick
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 1998-11-05
ISBN : 3540642668
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The rapidly-developing field of confined polymers is reviewed in this volume. Special emphasis is given to polymer aspects of this interdisciplinary problem. Taken together, the contributions offer ample evidence of how the field of polymer science continues to evolve with the passage of time. The topics revolve around the tendency of surfaces to impede chain relaxation and to stimulate new sorts of chain organization. These have been implicated in a variety of spectacular phenomena. Here is a listing of authors and affiliations: K. Binder (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany); P.-G. de Gennes (College de France, France); E.P. Giannelis, R. Krishnamoorti, and E. Manias (Cornell University and University of Houston, USA); G.S. Grest (Exxon Research and Engineering Co., USA); L. Leger, E. Raphael, and H. Hervet (College de France, France); S.-Q. Wang (Case Western Reserve University, USA).

Structure and Dynamics of Confined Polymers

Structure and Dynamics of Confined Polymers Book
Author : John J. Kasianowicz,M. Kellermayer,David W. Deamer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2012-12-06
ISBN : 9401004013
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polymers are essential to biology because they can have enough stable degrees of freedom to store the molecular code of heredity and to express the sequences needed to manufacture new molecules. Through these they perform or control virtually every function in life. Although some biopolymers are created and spend their entire career in the relatively large free space inside cells or organelles, many biopolymers must migrate through a narrow passageway to get to their targeted destination. This suggests the questions: How does confining a polymer affect its behavior and function? What does that tell us about the interactions between the monomers that comprise the polymer and the molecules that confine it? Can we design and build devices that mimic the functions of these nanoscale systems? The NATO Advanced Research Workshop brought together for four days in Bikal, Hungary over forty experts in experimental and theoretical biophysics, molecular biology, biophysical chemistry, and biochemistry interested in these questions. Their papers collected in this book provide insight on biological processes involving confinement and form a basis for new biotechnological applications using polymers. In his paper Edmund DiMarzio asks: What is so special about polymers? Why are polymers so prevalent in living things? The chemist says the reason is that a protein made of N amino acids can have any of 20 different kinds at each position along the chain, resulting in 20 N different polymers, and that the complexity of life lies in this variety.

Ferroelectric Polymers

Ferroelectric Polymers Book
Author : Hari Singh Nalwa
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1995-06-20
ISBN : 9780824794682
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work covers the chemistry and physics of polymeric materials and their uses in the fields of electronics, photonics, and biomedical engineering. It discusses the relationship between polymeric supermolecular structures and ferroelectric, piezoelectric and pyroelectric properties.

Polymers in Confined Environments

Polymers in Confined Environments Book
Author : Steve Granick
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2003-07-01
ISBN : 354069711X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The rapidly-developing field of confined polymers is reviewed in this volume. Special emphasis is given to polymer aspects of this interdisciplinary problem. Taken together, the contributions offer ample evidence of how the field of polymer science continues to evolve with the passage of time. The topics revolve around the tendency of surfaces to impede chain relaxation and to stimulate new sorts of chain organization. These have been implicated in a variety of spectacular phenomena. Here is a listing of authors and affiliations: K. Binder (Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany); P.-G. de Gennes (College de France, France); E.P. Giannelis, R. Krishnamoorti, and E. Manias (Cornell University and University of Houston, USA); G.S. Grest (Exxon Research and Engineering Co., USA); L. Leger, E. Raphael, and H. Hervet (College de France, France); S.-Q. Wang (Case Western Reserve University, USA).