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Phase Transitions In Polymers

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Phase Transitions in Polymers The Role of Metastable States

Phase Transitions in Polymers  The Role of Metastable States Book
Author : Stephen Z.D. Cheng
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2008-09-10
ISBN : 9780080558202
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A classical metastable state possesses a local free energy minimum at infinite sizes, but not a global one. This concept is phase size independent. We have studied a number of experimental results and proposed a new concept that there exists a wide range of metastable states in polymers on different length scales where their metastability is critically determined by the phase size and dimensionality. Metastable states are also observed in phase transformations that are kinetically impeded on the pathway to thermodynamic equilibrium. This was illustrated in structural and morphological investigations of crystallization and mesophase transitions, liquid-liquid phase separation, vitrification and gel formation, as well as combinations of these transformation processes. The phase behaviours in polymers are thus dominated by interlinks of metastable states on different length scales. This concept successfully explains many experimental observations and provides a new way to connect different aspects of polymer physics. * Written by a leading scholar and industry expert * Presents new and cutting edge material encouraging innovation and future research * Connects hot topics and leading research in one concise volume

Phase Transitions and Structure of Polymer Systems in External Fields

Phase Transitions and Structure of Polymer Systems in External Fields Book
Author : Sergey A. Vshivkov
Publisher : Cambridge Scholars Publishing
Release : 2019-05-14
ISBN : 1527534561
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Generalized extensive experimental and theoretical data regarding the phase transitions of polymer systems in mechanical and magnetic fields provide the possibility to predict the results of external field effects on the structure and mutual solubility of components. The data on dynamic structuring in deformed polymer blends and solutions allow for the use of found regularities by the processing of polymer systems. The methods offered in this book allow for the connection of shift of phase diagrams in the mechanical field with changes in macromolecule sizes. The tutorials described here will help the reader to correctly build the phase diagrams of polymer systems using a variety of methods.

Phase Transitions 1973

Phase Transitions   1973 Book
Author : H. K. Henisch,R. Roy,L. E. Cross
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2013-10-22
ISBN : 1483158624
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Phase Transitions - 1973 is a collection of the proceedings of the Conference on Phase Transitions and Their Applications in Materials Science, held at Pennsylvania State University, Pennsylvania, on May 23-25, 1973. The papers explore some of the practical applications of solid-state phase transitions and consequent precursor property modifications in metals, ceramics, glasses, polymers, macromolecules, and biological systems. Comprised of 41 chapters, this book begins with an introduction to applications of phase transitions in materials science, followed by a syncretist classification of phase transitions. Subsequent chapters discuss phase transitions in materials such as liquid crystals, PLZT ceramics, disordered semiconductors, silver iodide single crystals, and aluminum alloys. The structural aspects of phase transitions are also considered, along with the statistical mechanics of glass transition; thermal expansion and phase transitions in silica; phase transformation of Fe-Mn alloys induced by shock loading; and order-disorder transitions in biopolymers. This monograph will be of interest to physicists and materials scientists.

Phase Transition Dynamics

Phase Transition Dynamics Book
Author : Akira Onuki
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2002-06-06
ISBN : 9781139433167
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Phase transition dynamics is centrally important to condensed matter physics. This 2002 book treats a wide variety of topics systematically by constructing time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau models for various systems in physics, metallurgy and polymer science. Beginning with a summary of advanced statistical-mechanical theories including the renormalization group theory, the book reviews dynamical theories, and covers the kinetics of phase ordering, spinodal decomposition and nucleation in depth. The phase transition dynamics of real systems are discussed, treating interdisciplinary problems in a unified manner. Topics include supercritical fluid dynamics, stress-diffusion coupling in polymers and mesoscopic dynamics at structural phase transitions in solids. Theoretical and experimental approaches to shear flow problems in fluids are reviewed. Phase Transition Dynamics provides a comprehensive account, building on the statistical mechanics of phase transitions covered in many introductory textbooks. It will be essential reading for researchers and advanced graduate students in physics, chemistry, metallurgy and polymer science.

Geometry and Phase Transitions in Colloids and Polymers

Geometry and Phase Transitions in Colloids and Polymers Book
Author : William Kung
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2009
ISBN : 9812834974
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This monograph represents an extension of the author''s original PhD thesis and includes a more thorough discussion on the concepts and mathematics behind his research works on the foam model, as applied to studying issues of phase stability and elasticity for various non-closed packed structures found in fuzzy and colloidal crystals, as well as on a renormalization-group analysis regarding the critical behavior of loop polymers upon which topological constraints are imposed. The common thread behind these two research works is their demonstration of the importance and effectiveness of utilizing geometrical and topological concepts for modeling and understanding soft systems undergoing phase transitions.

Order Disorder and Criticality

Order  Disorder and Criticality Book
Author : Yurij Holovatch
Publisher : World Scientific
Release : 2004
ISBN : 9812385835
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book reviews some of the classic aspects in the theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena, which has a long history. Recently, these aspects are attracting much attention due to essential new contributions. The topics presented in this book include : mathematical theory of the Ising model; equilibrium and non-equilibrium criticality of one-dimensional quantum spin chains; influence of structural disorder on the critical behaviour of the Potts model; criticality, fractality and multifractality of linked polymers; field-theoretical approaches in the super conducting phase transitions. The book is based on the review lectures that were given in Lviv (Ukraine) in March 2002 at the "Ising lectures" - a traditional annual workshop on phase transitions and critical phenomena which aims to bring together scientists working in the field of phase transitions with university students and those who are interested in the subject.

Polymer Phase Diagrams

Polymer Phase Diagrams Book
Author : R. Koningsveld,Ronald Koningsveld,Walter H. Stockmayer,Erik Nies
Publisher : Oxford University Press on Demand
Release : 2001
ISBN : 9780198556343
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Polymeric materials include plastics, gels, synthetic fibres, and rubbers. This text uses fundamental principles to classify phase separation phenomena in polymer systems, and describes simple molecular models explaining the observed behaviour.

Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena

Phase Transitions and Critical Phenomena Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2000-09-21
ISBN : 0080538762
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies. Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.

The Physics of Phase Transitions

The Physics of Phase Transitions Book
Author : Pierre Papon,Jacques Leblond,Paul H.E. Meijer
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2007-07-27
ISBN : 3540333908
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book occupies an important place at the crossroads of several fields central to materials sciences. The expanded second edition incorporates new developments in the states of matter physics, and includes end-of-chapter problems and complete answers.

Phase Transitions in Foods

Phase Transitions in Foods Book
Author : Yrjö H. Roos,Yrjo H Roos
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 1995-06-12
ISBN : 9780080538730
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Assembling recent research and theories, this book describes the phase and state transitions that affect technological properties of biological materials occurring in food processing and storage. It covers the role of water as a plasticizer, the effect of transitions on mechanical and chemical changes, and the application of modeling in predicting stability rates of changes. The volume presents methods for detecting changes in the physical state and various techniques used to analyze phase behavior of biopolymers and food components. This book should become a valuable resource for anyone involved with food engineering, processing, storage, and quality, as well as those working on related properties of pharmaceuticals and other biopolymers. Contains descriptions of nonfat food solids as"biopolymers"which exhibit physical properties that are highly dependent on temperature, time, and water content Details the effects of water on the state and stability of foods Includes information on changes occuring in state and physicochemical properties during processing and storage The only book on phase and state transitions written specifically for the applications in food industry, product development, and research No recent competition

Phase Transitions in Cell Biology

Phase Transitions in Cell Biology Book
Author : Gerald H. Pollack,Wei-Chun Chin
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-08-15
ISBN : 1402086512
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Phase transitions occur throughout nature. The most familiar example is the one that occurs in water – the abrupt, discontinuous transition from a liquid to a gas or a solid, induced by a subtle environmental change. Practically magical, the ever-so-slight shift of temperature or pressure can induce an astonishing transition from one entity to another entity that bears little resemblance to the first. So "convenient" a feature is seen throughout the domains of physics and chemistry, and one is therefore led to wonder whether it might also be common to biology. Indeed, many of the most fundamental cellular processes are arguably attributable to radical structural shifts triggered by subtle changes that cross a critical threshold. These processes include transport, motion, signaling, division, and other fundamental aspects of cellular function. Largely on the basis of this radical concept, a symposium was organized in Poitiers, France, to bring together people who have additional evidence for the role of phase transitions in biology, and this book is a compendium of some of the more far-reaching of those presentations, as well as several others that seemed to the editors to be compelling. The book should be suitable for anyone interested in the nature of biological function, particularly those who tire of lumbering along well trodden pathways of pursuit, and are eager to hear something fresh. The book is replete with fresh interpretations of familiar phenomena, and should serve as an excellent gateway to deeper understanding.

Solid State Nmr of Polymers

Solid State Nmr of Polymers Book
Author : P. Mirau
Publisher : iSmithers Rapra Publishing
Release : 2001
ISBN : 9781859572726
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

NMR spectroscopy has emerged as one of the most important methods for the solid-state characterisation of polymers. This report gives an overview of the methods and applications of NMR to relevant polymer problems with an emphasis on how NMR can be used for materials characterisation and to understand structure-property relationships in polymers. An additional indexed section containing several hundred abstracts from the Rapra Polymer Library database gives useful references for further reading.

Scale Invariance

Scale Invariance Book
Author : Annick LESNE,Michel Laguës
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-11-04
ISBN : 364215123X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

During a century, from the Van der Waals mean field description (1874) of gases to the introduction of renormalization group (RG techniques 1970), thermodynamics and statistical physics were just unable to account for the incredible universality which was observed in numerous critical phenomena. The great success of RG techniques is not only to solve perfectly this challenge of critical behaviour in thermal transitions but to introduce extremely useful tools in a wide field of daily situations where a system exhibits scale invariance. The introduction of scaling, scale invariance and universality concepts has been a significant turn in modern physics and more generally in natural sciences. Since then, a new "physics of scaling laws and critical exponents", rooted in scaling approaches, allows quantitative descriptions of numerous phenomena, ranging from phase transitions to earthquakes, polymer conformations, heartbeat rhythm, diffusion, interface growth and roughening, DNA sequence, dynamical systems, chaos and turbulence. The chapters are jointly written by an experimentalist and a theorist. This book aims at a pedagogical overview, offering to the students and researchers a thorough conceptual background and a simple account of a wide range of applications. It presents a complete tour of both the formal advances and experimental results associated with the notion of scaling, in physics, chemistry and biology.

Joint Meeting on Multicomponent Polymers and Polyelectrolytes

Joint Meeting on Multicomponent Polymers and Polyelectrolytes Book
Author : E. Amis
Publisher : DIANE Publishing
Release : 1997-06-01
ISBN : 9780788171833
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Proceedings of a conference organized by Polymer Blends & Processing Group, National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST), Hashimoto Polymer Phasing Project, Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO), & Japan Science & Technology Corporation (JST). Includes plenary lectures on phase transitions & ordering processes & polymer blends processing; & lectures in the areas of structure & morphology, phase separation, polyelectrolytes, & surfaces & interfaces.

Ferroelectric Polymers

Ferroelectric Polymers Book
Author : E. Fukada
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1989
ISBN : 9780677258805
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume contains four papers commencing with an introduction to early studies in piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and ferroelectricity in polymers. Other topics discussed include - ferroelectric properties of fluoride copolymers; structural phase transition in ferroelectric fluorine polymers; and pressure effect on phase transition in ferroelectric polymers .