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Principles of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics

Principles of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Book
Author : Russ B. Altman,David Flockhart,David B. Goldstein
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2012-01-23
ISBN : 052188537X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"This book is intended to introduce the field of phamacogenetics and pharmacogenomics to health care professionals. It brings together the latest informaiton about how human genetics impacts drug response phenotypes. It is written to enable the reader to undestand the current knowledge and challenges to the field"--Provided by publisher.

Concepts in Pharmacogenomics

Concepts in Pharmacogenomics Book
Author : Martin M. Zdanowicz
Publisher : ASHP
Release : 2010
ISBN : 1585282340
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The new science of pharmacogenomics aims to understand how an individual's genetic composition affects his/her response to a specific drug or class of drugs. By studying such characteristics as drug metabolizing enzymes, drug transporter activity, and receptor sensitivity, a pharmacist is better able to prescribe the right drug the first time. If you are pharmacist, resident, or student curious about this new field, start with Concepts in Pharmacogenomics. In this practical guide, you will find an overview of the science behind pharmacogenomics, followed by detailed chapters related to its clinical application and implementation. Features include: case studies in each chapter clinical pearls illustrations of key concepts figures, diagrams, and flow charts for visual learners key points summarized.

Mastering Pharmacogenomics A Nurse s Handbook for Success

Mastering Pharmacogenomics  A Nurse s Handbook for Success Book
Author : Dale Halsey Lea,Dennis J. Cheek,Daniel Brazeau,Gayle Brazeau
Publisher : Sigma Theta Tau
Release : 2015-01-14
ISBN : 1938835700
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pharmacogenomics, the study of the role of genetics in drug response, has developed into a critical new area in battling disease and improving outcomes. As our knowledge of the human genome grows, and with the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies, the role of genetic research is evolving to guide therapy and prevent many diseases and mitigate side-effects of current treatments. As a pivotal member of the healthcare team, nurses must acquire competency in pharmacogenomics to deliver optimal patient care in the 21st century. Mastering Pharmacogenomics provides nursing professionals with a foundational knowledge of human genetics and genomics that can be applied in optimizing drug therapy and patient care delivery. Coverage includes: Essential pharmacogenomics competencies for registered nurses Genomics technologies and resources Critical properties of drug response and disposition Covered specialties include obstetrics and prenatal patients, pediatrics, older adult patients, and oncology Ethics and patient careFuture developments in technology and delivery

Pharmacogenomics

Pharmacogenomics Book
Author : Federico Innocenti,Ron H.N. van Schaik
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2016-08-23
ISBN : 9781493959358
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Understanding an individual's genetic makeup is the key to creating personalized drugs with greater efficacy and safety, and pharmacogenomics aims to study the complex genetic basis of inter-patient variability in response to drug therapy. Based upon the success of its first edition, the second edition of Pharmacogenomics: Methods And Protocols aims to continue providing readers with high-quality content on the most innovative and commonly adopted technologies in the field of pharmacogenomics as presented by experts in the field. Broken into several sections, this detailed volume examines techniques for interrogating variation in human genes and genomes, functional assessment of genetic variation, both in vitro and in vivo, as well as tools for translation and implementation of pharmacogenetic markers. Written in the highly successful Methods in Molecular BiologyTM series format, chapters include introductions to the respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible laboratory protocols, and key tips on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Comprehensive and thoroughly updated, Pharmacogenomics: Methods And Protocols, Second Edition serves as an essential reference and an invaluable source on the latest information in this field.

Pharmacogenomics

Pharmacogenomics Book
Author : Yui-Wing Francis Lam,Stuart R. Scott
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2018-11-27
ISBN : 0128126272
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pharmacogenomics: Challenges and Opportunities in Therapeutic Implementation, Second Edition, provides comprehensive coverage of the challenges and opportunities facing the therapeutic implications of pharmacogenomics from academic, regulatory, pharmaceutical, socio-ethical and economic perspectives. While emphasis is on the limitations in moving the science into drug development and direct therapeutic applications, this book also focuses on clinical areas with successful applications and important initiatives that have the ability to further advance the discipline. New chapters cover important topics such as pharmacogenomic data technologies, clinical testing strategies, cost-effectiveness, and pharmacogenomic education and practice guidelines. The importance of ethnicity is also discussed, which highlights phar,acogenomic diversity across Latin American populations. With chapters written by interdisciplinary experts and insights into the future direction of the field, this book is an indispensable resource for academic and industry scientists, graduate students and clinicians engaged in pharmacogenomics research and therapeutic implementation. Provides viewpoints that focus on the scientific and translational challenges and opportunities associated with advancing the field of pharmacogenomics Highlights progress in both the research and clinical areas of pharmacogenomics, as well as relevant implementation experience, challenges, and perspectives on direct-to-consumer genetic testing Includes, where applicable, discussion points, review questions, and cases for self-assessment purposes and to facilitate in-depth discussion

Handbook of Pharmacogenomics and Stratified Medicines

Handbook of Pharmacogenomics and Stratified Medicines Book
Author : Sandosh Padmanabhan
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2014-05-06
ISBN : 9780123868824
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Handbook of Pharmacogenomics and Stratified Medicine is a comprehensive resource to understand this rapidly advancing field aiming to deliver the right drug at the right dose to the right patient at the right time. It is designed to provide a detailed, but accessible review of the entire field from basic principles to applications in various diseases. The chapters are written by international experts to allow readers from a wide variety of backgrounds, clinical and non-clinical (basic geneticists, pharmacologists, clinicians, trialists, industry personnel, ethicists) to understand the principles underpinning the progress in this area, the successes, failures and the challenges ahead. To be accessible to the widest range of readers, the clinical application section introduces the disease process, existing therapies, followed by pharmacogenomics and stratified medicine details. Medicine is the cornerstone of modern therapeutics prescribed on the basis that its benefit should outweigh its risk. It is well known that people respond differently to medications and in many cases the risk-benefit ratio for a particular drug may be a gray area. The last decade has seen a revolution in genomics both in terms of technological innovation and discovering genetic markers associated with disease. In parallel there has been steady progress in trying to make medicines safer and tailored to the individual. This has occurred across the whole spectrum of medicine, some more than others. In addition there is burgeoning interest from the pharmaceutical industry to leverage pharmacogenomics for more effective and efficient clinical drug development. Provides clinical and non-clinical researchers with practical information normally beyond their usual areas of research or expertise Includes an basic principles section explaining concepts of basic genetics, genetic epidemiology, bioinformatics, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics Covers newer technologies- next generation sequencing, proteomics, metabolomics Provides information on animal models, lymphoblastoid cell lines, stem cells Provides detailed chapters on a wide range of disease conditions, implementation and regulatory issues Includes chapters on the global implications of pharmacogenomics

Pharmacogenomics An Introduction and Clinical Perspective

Pharmacogenomics An Introduction and Clinical Perspective Book
Author : Joseph S. Bertino,Angela Kashuba,Joseph D. Ma,Uwe Fuhr,C. Lindsay DeVane
Publisher : McGraw Hill Professional
Release : 2012-10-12
ISBN : 0071813713
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

A COMPLETE INTRODUCTORY TEXT TO THE FIELD OF PHARMACOGENOMICS The only pharmacogenomics resource to feature a global author team comprised of PharmDs, MDs, PhDs and social scientists, Pharmacogenomics offers an essential, highly accessible survey of this dynamic discipline. You will find thorough coverage of all need-to-know topics, from individual molecules to systemic diseases, plus an examination of the latest technologies that are constantly reshaping the field. Pharmacogenomics is cohesively organized into two sections, the first of which reviews basic aspects of pharmacogenomics, including ethics, regulatory, science, and drug metabolism, along with a "mini" course in molecular genetics and testing. The second section highlights the practical application of pharmacogenomics in cardiovascular medicine, immunology, neurology, and other specialties. FEATURES Important overview of general pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics concepts, including genetic variation in signal transduction and targets, plus a review of the genetic concepts of pharmacogenomics Discussion of regulatory considerations in pharmacogenomics Focus on the role of health care professionals along with a review of related privacy issues, as well as broader ethical, legal, and social considerations In-depth chapters on drug metabolism and transporters Practical, step-by-step guidance on public access to pharmacogenomic testing and patient counseling Up-to-date coverage of non-genetic influences on pharmacogenomics Emphasis on gene-drug interactions Numerous tables and figures Chapter-ending references Concise learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter Case studies to familiarize you with the clinical relevance of pharmacogenomics in each specialty

Pharmacogenomics

Pharmacogenomics Book
Author : Paul F. Kisak
Publisher : Createspace Independent Publishing Platform
Release : 2017-07
ISBN : 9781548521578
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pharmacogenomics may be one of the most important current discoveries in medicine and is the study of the role of the genome in drug response. The name reflects its combining of pharmacology and genomics. Pharmacogenomics analyzes how the genetic makeup of an individual affects their response to drugs. It deals with the influence of acquired and inherited genetic variation on drug response in patients by correlating gene expression or single-nucleotide polymorphisms with pharmacokinetics (drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and elimination) and pharmacodynamics (effects mediated through a drug's biological targets). The term pharmacogenomics is often used interchangeably with pharmacogenetics. Although both terms relate to drug response based on genetic influences, pharmacogenetics focuses on single drug-gene interactions, while pharmacogenomics encompasses a more genome-wide association approach, incorporating genomics and epigenetics while dealing with the effects of multiple genes on drug response. Pharmacogenomics aims to develop rational means to optimize drug therapy, with respect to the patients' genotype, to ensure maximum efficacy with minimal adverse effects. Through the utilization of pharmacogenomics, it is hoped that pharmaceutical drug treatments can deviate from what is dubbed as the "one-dose-fits-all" approach. Pharmacogenomics also attempts to eliminate the trial-and-error method of prescribing, allowing physicians to take into consideration their patient's genes, the functionality of these genes, and how this may affect the efficacy of the patient's current or future treatments. Such approaches promise the advent of precision medicine and even personalized medicine, in which drugs and drug combinations are optimized for narrow subsets of patients or even for each individual's unique genetic makeup. This book is designed to be a state of the art, superb academic reference work and provide an overview of the topic and give the reader a structured knowledge to familiarize yourself with the topic at the most affordable price possible. The accuracy and knowledge is of an international viewpoint as the edited articles represent the inputs of many knowledgeable individuals and some of the most current knowledge on the topic, based on the date of publication.

Pharmacogenomics

Pharmacogenomics Book
Author : Julio Licinio,Ma-Li Wong
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2009-07-30
ISBN : 3527616306
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This work represents the first comprehensive publication in the innovative field of pharmacogenomics, a field which is set to revolutionize pharmaceutical research. In addition to renowned editors, the list of contributors is a "who-is-who" in the field. Broad coverage of all aspects of pharmacogenomics with a full presentation of applications to disease conditions is featured. Anyone involved in pharmaceutical research and drug development needs this book to keep up with this new and revolutionary approach

Pharmacogenomics in Clinical Therapeutics

Pharmacogenomics in Clinical Therapeutics Book
Author : Loralie J. Langman,Amitava Dasgupta
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2012-01-09
ISBN : 1119959586
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pharmacogenomics is the basis of personalized medicine which will be the medicine of the future. Through both reducing the numbers of adverse drug reactions and improving the use of existing drugs in targeted populations, pharmacogenomics represents a real advance on traditional therapeutic drug monitoring. Pharmacogenomics in Clinical Therapeutics provides an introduction to the principles of pharmacogenomics before addressing the pharmacogenomic aspects of key therapeutic areas such as warfarin therapy, cancer chemotherapy, therapy with immunosuppressants, antiretroviral therapy, and psychoactive drugs. It also includes methods of pharmacogenomic testing and the pharmacogenomic aspects of drug–drug interactions. From a team of expert contributors, Pharmacogenomics in Clinical Therapeutics is a comprehensive overview of the current state of pharmacogenomics in pharmacotherapy for all clinicians, pharmacologists and clinical laboratory professionals. It is also a guide for practicing clinicians and health care professionals to the basic principles of pharmacogenomics, laboratory tests currently available to aid clinicians, and the future promise of this developing field.

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine Book
Author : Nadine Cohen
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2010-10-28
ISBN : 9781617379215
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

concerns within the pharmaceutical industry about generating data that might be difficult to interpret in a regulated environment. There is also a growing apprec- tion for the challenges in translating this new information into clinical utility, including scientific, commercial, ethical, and policy challenges. Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, which is part of the Methods in Pharmacology and Toxicology series, comprises chapters on selected aspects of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. Our overall intent is to assist both novice and experienced investigators in understanding the current scientific ch- lenges in applying PGx to discovery and clinical development and in making app- priate decisions to engage in and interpret PGx research. Designed to share the experiences of leading experts in the field, the book is a useful guide for conducting PGx research--from discovery to the market, but we also aim to present a realistic perspective on the challenges, practicalities, and obstacles in applying pharmac- enomics. Generally, the book avoids statements such as “Pharmacogenomics is going to revolutionize the practice of medicine,” which are neither realistic nor particularly useful to anyone. The book presents an industry perspective on the implementation of PGx in research and development, in drug discovery, and in clinical trials, including rec- mendations for a systematic approach for assessing the feasibility and added value of PGx studies in clinical trials.

Pharmacogenomics in Precision Medicine

Pharmacogenomics in Precision Medicine Book
Author : Weimin Cai,Zhaoqian Liu,Liyan Miao,Xiaoqiang Xiang
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-06-12
ISBN : 9811538956
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book provides an introduction to the principles of pharmacogenomics and precision medicine, followed by the pharmacogenomics aspects of major therapeutic areas such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, organ transplantation, psychiatry, infection, antithrombotic drugs. It also includes genotyping technology and therapeutic drug monitoring in Pharmacogenomics; ethical, Legal and Regulatory Issues; cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetics-guided treatment; application of pharmacogenomics in drug discovery and development and clinical Implementation of Pharmacogenomics for Personalized Precision Medicine. The contributors of Pharmacogenomics in Precision Medicine come from a team of experts, including professors from academic institutions and practitioner from hospital. It will give an in-depth overview of the current state of pharmacogenomics in drug therapy for all health care professionals and graduate students in the era of precision medicine.

Pharmacogenomics in Drug Discovery and Development

Pharmacogenomics in Drug Discovery and Development Book
Author : Qing Yan
Publisher : Humana Press
Release : 2014-08-23
ISBN : 9781493909551
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Covering topics from individual molecules to systemic diseases, from basic concepts to advanced technologies, Pharmacogenomics in Drug Discovery and Development , Second Edition provides a practical, state-of-the-art and integrative view of the application of pharmacogenomics in drug discovery and development. A wide range of theoretical and experimental approaches are introduced to meet the problem-solving objectives for understanding the complexity in health and diseases, from laboratory tests to computational analysis. The development of pharmacogenomics represents the evolution of biomedicine from treating the disease itself to treating the malfunction of an individual person, the “root” of diseases. With the change of focus from disease-centered to human-centric medicine, pharmacogenomics brings hope for the transformation from simple disease treatment to accurate prediction and effective prevention. Written in the successful Methods in Molecular Biology series format, chapters include introductions to their respective topics, lists of the necessary materials and reagents, step-by-step, readily reproducible protocols, and notes on troubleshooting and avoiding known pitfalls. Authoritative and easily accessible, Pharmacogenomics in Drug Discovery and Development, Second Edition seeks to serve both professionals and novices with comprehensive resources and a holistic view for the translation of pharmacogenomics into better preventive and personalized medical care.

10 Years of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics

10 Years of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics Book
Author : Jose Agundez
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2020-07-08
ISBN : 2889638286
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The Specialty Section “Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics” makes part of two different Journals: Frontiers in Pharmacology and Frontiers in Genetics. This Specialty Section focuses on the mechanisms by which genetic variations influence drug effects and adverse drug events, and cover basic research, clinical translation, applications in drug development and regulatory issues related to this field. Also, studies addressing the role of other factors such as epigenetics, phenotypic factors or drug-drug interactions on drug pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics are welcome. The editorial board is composed of 34 Associate Editors which, together with the Guest Associate Editors and the Reviewer Editors, constitute a team of nearly 340 leading experts in the field of Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacogenomics. This guarantees high quality in the reviewing process as well as short review times. A look back: 10 years of Frontiers in Pharmacogenetics & Pharmacogenomics (Continued in eBook)

Pharmacogenomics

Pharmacogenomics Book
Author : Mark A. Rothstein
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2003-04-09
ISBN : 0471461202
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Through analyses of the complex underlying issues, thisinterdisciplinary volume frames the agenda for dealing with geneticvariation and incorporating pharmacogenomics into health care. Thethree sections of this book, Research Issues, Clinical Issues, andSocial Perspectives address key elements integral to acomprehensive discussion of this emerging field. This groundbreaking text… Examines new research strategies, methodologies, and ethicaland social considerations of pharmacogenomics Addresses practical considerations of anticipated changes ineducation, training, oversight, guidelines and protocols, andcontinuing education requirements Provides analyses of the potential enormous impact ofpharmacogenomics, such as in the standard of care and treatment,including perspectives from the fields of anthropology, law,ethics, and economics

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine

Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine Book
Author : Erika Cecchin,Gabriele Stocco
Publisher : MDPI
Release : 2021-01-20
ISBN : 3039367307
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pharmacogenomics is one of the emerging approaches to precision medicine, tailoring drug selection and dosing to the patient’s genetic features. In recent years, several pharmacogenetic guidelines have been published by international scientific consortia, but the uptake in clinical practice is still poor. Many coordinated international efforts are ongoing in order to overcome the existing barriers to pharmacogenomic implementation. On the other hand, existing validated pharmacogenomic markers can explain only a minor part of the observed clinical variability in the therapeutic outcome. New investigational approaches are warranted, including a study of the pharmacogenomic role of the immune system genetics and of previously neglected rare genetic variants, reported to account for a large part of inter-individual variability in drug metabolism. In this book, we have collected a series of articles covering many aspects of pharmacogenomics. These include clinical implementation of pharmacogenomics in clinical practice, development of tools or infrastructures to support this process, research of new pharmacogenomics markers to increase drug efficacy and safety, and the impact of rare genetic variants in pharmacogenomics.

Pharmacogenomics

Pharmacogenomics Book
Author : Werner Kalow,Urs B. Meyer,Rachel F. Tyndale
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2001-05-08
ISBN : 9781420002461
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Summarizes the history of, and available applications, techniques, and approaches to, pharmacogenomics--improving efficacy and tolerance to pharmaceutical compounds, evaluating pharmacogenomics on clinical trial design, and increasing the chances of successful clinical trials and patient outcomes. Compares pharmacogenomics to pharmacogenetics, focusing on the essential components that incorporate individual genetic variations to drug regimens resulting in different responses to therapeutics."

Genomics and Pharmacogenomics in Anticancer Drug Development and Clinical Response

Genomics and Pharmacogenomics in Anticancer Drug Development and Clinical Response Book
Author : Federico Innocenti
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2008-10-30
ISBN : 9781603270885
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Genomics and Pharmacogenomics in Anticancer Drug Development and Clinical Response provides the most comprehensive body of knowledge available on the role of genetic and genomic variation in the individualization of drug therapies in cancer patients. As a consequence of the intrinsic chromosomal and genetic instability of the tumor genome, it is generally believed that tailoring of chemotherapy in cancer - tients might be achieved by molecular analysis of patient tumor DNA. In addition, to reduce the toxicity risk of patients, the tumor DNA information should be in- grated with the available data on polymorphic drug-metabolizing enzyme and tra- porter genes mediating the exposure of patients to active drugs and/or their active metabolites. The chapters of this book clearly show how DNA information from both the host (germline) and the tumor should be taken into account for rational selection of drug therapies in cancer patients, an aspect that received little attention, despite its importance. The availability of new molecular approaches to the selection of drug therapy is an emerging need, because the traditional approach based on the evaluation of patient and tumor characteristics is clearly far from optimal. Many treated patients do not experience signi?cant bene?ts from the treatment, while they often experience moderate to severe toxicities. In addition, the development and clinical use of novel molecularly targeted agents (alone or in combination with classical cytotoxic therapy) requires the und- standing of the molecular features of the tumors and the identi?cation of tumor markers of response.

Applying Pharmacogenomics in Therapeutics

Applying Pharmacogenomics in Therapeutics Book
Author : Xiaodong Feng,Hong-Guang Xie
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2016-02-24
ISBN : 1498782450
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent advances in high-throughput gene sequencing and other omics biotechnologies have served as a springboard for the field of pharmacogenomics. Pharmacogenomics is now generally accepted as the major determinant of variable drug safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness. Therefore, widespread use of pharmacogenomics for patient care has become a critical requirement. There is an unprecedented urgency for aspiring and practicing clinicians to become trained on how to interpret data from pharmacogenomic testing in preparation for the future of healthcare—i.e., personalized medicine. Applying Pharmacogenomics in Therapeutics provides timely coverage of the principles, practice, and potential of pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. Comprised of chapters contributed by well-established pharmacologists and scientists from US and Chinese academia and industry, this authoritative text: Demonstrates how to apply the principles of pharmacogenomics and its biotechnologies in patient care Depicts the use of genetic biomarkers in drug discovery and development, laboratory medicine, and clinical services Describes the practice of pharmacogenomics in the treatment of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, neurologic and psychiatric disorders, and pulmonary diseases Discusses the merging of pharmacogenomics and alternative medicine, as well as the integration of pharmacogenomics into pharmacoeconomics Each chapter begins with the key concepts, followed by in-depth explorations of case reports or critical evaluations of genetic variants/biomarkers, and concludes with questions for self-examination.

Pharmacogenomics in Psychiatry

Pharmacogenomics in Psychiatry Book
Author : M. Schwab,W.P. Kaschka,E. Spina
Publisher : Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers
Release : 2010-06-25
ISBN : 3805594992
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In recent years, there have been major developments in the fields of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, with the potential to make drug treatments in psychiatric medicine more effective. However, improvements in drug efficacy and tolerability, as well as finding the optimal dosage, can only be realized if in vivo mechanisms of drug action and ADME (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) processes (pharmacokinetics) of psychopharmacological agents are better understood. In this volume, current progress and perspectives in pharmacogenetic testing of drug-metabolizing enzymes, drug transporters and other drug targets involved in the response to psychotropic agents are described extensively. This provides a timely overview of what has been achieved in the area of psychiatric pharmacogenomics alongside some promising directions and perspectives for future research.Psychiatrists, general medical doctors as well as pharmacologists and clinical pharmacologists will find new insights into the development and applications of pharmacogenomics in psychiatry.