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Personalized Health Systems For Cardiovascular Disease

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Intelligent IoT Systems in Personalized Health Care

Intelligent IoT Systems in Personalized Health Care Book
Author : Arun Kumar Sangaiah,Subhas Chandra Mukhopadhyay
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-12-01
ISBN : 0128232048
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Intelligent IoT Systems in Personalized Health Care delivers a significant forum for the technical advancement of IoMT learning in parallel computing environments across biomedical engineering diversified domains and its applications. Pursuing an interdisciplinary approach, the book focuses on methods used to identify and acquire valid, potentially useful knowledge sources. The book presents novel, in-depth, fundamental research contributions from a methodological/application perspective to help readers understand the fusion of AI with IoT and its capabilities in solving a diverse range of problems for biomedical engineering and its real-world personalized health care applications. The book is well suited for researchers exploring the significance of IoT based architecture to perform predictive analytics of user activities in sustainable health. Presents novel, in-depth, fundamental research contributions from a methodological/application perspective to help readers understand the fusion of AI with IoT Illustrates state-of-the-art developments in new theories and applications of IoMT techniques as applied to parallel computing environments in biomedical engineering systems Presents concepts and technologies successfully used in the implementation of today's intelligent data-centric IoT systems and Edge-Cloud-Big data

Handbook of Medical and Healthcare Technologies

Handbook of Medical and Healthcare Technologies Book
Author : Borko Furht,Ankur Agarwal
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-11-20
ISBN : 1461484952
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book equips readers to understand a complex range of healthcare products that are used to diagnose, monitor, and treat diseases or medical conditions affecting humans. The first part of the book presents medical technologies such as medical information retrieval, tissue engineering techniques, 3D medical imaging, nanotechnology innovations in medicine, medical wireless sensor networks, and knowledge mining techniques in medicine. The second half of the book focuses on healthcare technologies including prediction hospital readmission risk, modeling e-health framework, personal Web in healthcare, security issues for medical records, and personalized services in healthcare. The contributors are leading world researchers who share their innovations, making this handbook the definitive resource on these topics. Handbook of Medical and Healthcare Technologies is intended for a wide audience including academicians, designers, developers, researchers and advanced-level students. It is also valuable for business managers, entrepreneurs, and investors within the medical and healthcare industries.

Digital Personalized Health and Medicine

Digital Personalized Health and Medicine Book
Author : L.B. Pape-Haugaard,C. Lovis,I. Cort Madsen
Publisher : IOS Press
Release : 2020-06-17
ISBN : 1643680838
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Digital health and medical informatics have grown in importance in recent years, and have now become central to the provision of effective healthcare around the world. This book presents the proceedings of the 30th Medical Informatics Europe conference (MIE). This edition of the conference, hosted by the European Federation for Medical Informatics (EFMI) since the 1970s, was due to be held in Geneva, Switzerland in April 2020, but as a result of measures to prevent the spread of the Covid19 pandemic, the conference itself had to be cancelled. Nevertheless, because this collection of papers offers a wealth of knowledge and experience across the full spectrum of digital health and medicine, it was decided to publish the submissions accepted in the review process and confirmed by the Scientific Program Committee for publication, and these are published here as planned. The 232 papers are themed under 6 section headings: biomedical data, tools and methods; supporting care delivery; health and prevention; precision medicine and public health; human factors and citizen centered digital health; and ethics, legal and societal aspects. A 7th section deals with the Swiss personalized health network, and section 8 includes the 125 posters accepted for the conference. Offering an overview of current trends and developments in digital health and medical informatics, the book provides a valuable information resource for researchers and health practitioners alike.

Genome Based Therapeutics

Genome Based Therapeutics Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2012-11-21
ISBN : 0309260272
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The number of new drug approvals has remained reasonably steady for the past 50 years at around 20 to 30 per year, while at the same time the total spending on health-related research and development has tripled since 1990. There are many suspected causes for this trend, including increases in regulatory barriers, the rising costs of scientific inquiry, a decrease in research and development efficiency, the downstream effects of patient expirations on investment, and the lack of production models that have successfully incorporated new technology. Regardless, this trajectory is not economically sustainable for the businesses involved, and, in response, many companies are turning toward collaborative models of drug development, whether with other industrial firms, academia, or government. Introducing greater efficiency and knowledge into these new models and aligning incentives among participants may help to reverse the trends highlighted above, while producing more effective drugs in the process. Genome-Based Therapeutics explains that new technologies have the potential to open up avenues of development and to identify new drug targets to pursue. Specifically, improved validation of gene-disease associations through genomics research has the potential to revolutionize drug production and lower development costs. Genetic information has helped developers by increasing their understanding of the mechanisms of disease as well as individual patients' reactions to their medications. There is a need to identify the success factors for the various models that are being developed, whether they are industry-led, academia-led, or collaborations between the two. Genome-Based Therapeutics summarizes a workshop that was held on March 21, 2012, titled New Paradigms in Drug Discovery: How Genomic Data Are Being Used to Revolutionize the Drug Discovery and Development Process. At this workshop the goal was to examine the general approaches being used to apply successes achieved so far, and the challenges ahead.

Recent Advances in Ambient Assisted Living Bridging Assistive Technologies E Health and Personalized Health Care

Recent Advances in Ambient Assisted Living   Bridging Assistive Technologies  E Health and Personalized Health Care Book
Author : W. Chen,J.C. Augusto,F. Seoane
Publisher : IOS Press
Release : 2015-12-10
ISBN : 1614995974
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent advances in the field of ambient assistive living have addressed the integration of assistive technologies, e-health and personalized healthcare with the aim of enabling improved social experience as well as achieving better health outcomes. This book focuses on ambient assisted living systems and services for healthcare, a multi-disciplinary field encompassing areas such as electrical engineering, computer science, user-centered design and medicine. The book is divided into three parts: personalized healthcare monitoring technologies; ICT for ambient assistive living; and healing environments. The topics covered include sensor systems, wearable technologies, patient monitoring, home monitoring, personalized healthcare, user-centered design, ethical challenges and clinical evaluation. Providing an overview of new developments in e-health and personalized healthcare, the book will be of interest to engineers, designers and others working in the healthcare industry, and to medical practitioners.

Assessing Genomic Sequencing Information for Health Care Decision Making

Assessing Genomic Sequencing Information for Health Care Decision Making Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Board on Health Sciences Policy,Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2014-08-19
ISBN : 0309304970
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Rapid advances in technology have lowered the cost of sequencing an individual's genome from the several billion dollars that it cost a decade ago to just a few thousand dollars today and have correspondingly greatly expanded the use of genomic information in medicine. Because of the lack of evidence available for assessing variants, evaluation bodies have made only a few recommendations for the use of genetic tests in health care. For example, organizations, such as the Evaluation of Genomic Applications in Practice and Prevention working group, have sought to set standards for the kinds of evaluations needed to make population-level health decisions. However, due to insufficient evidence, it has been challenging to recommend the use of a genetic test. An additional challenge to using large-scale sequencing in the clinic is that it may uncover "secondary," or "incidental," findings - genetic variants that have been associated with a disease but that are not necessarily related to the conditions that led to the decision to use genomic testing. Furthermore, as more genetic variants are associated with diseases, new information becomes available about genomic tests performed previously, which raises issues about how and whether to return this information to physicians and patients and also about who is responsible for the information. To help develop a better understanding of how genomic information is used for healthcare decision making, the Roundtable on Translating Genomic-Based Research for Health of the Institute of Medicine held a workshop in Washington,DC in February 2014. Stakeholders, including clinicians, researchers, patients, and government officials, discussed the issues related to the use of genomic information in medical practice. Assessing Genomic Sequencing Information for Health Care Decision Making is the summary of that workshop. This report compares and contrasts evidence evaluation processes for different clinical indications and discusses key challenges in the evidence evaluation process.

Ubiquitous Cardiology Emerging Wireless Telemedical Applications

Ubiquitous Cardiology  Emerging Wireless Telemedical Applications Book
Author : Augustyniak, Piotr,Tadeusiewicz, Ryszard
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2009-03-31
ISBN : 1605660817
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides developmental solutions and explanations for cardiovascular diagnostics. Presents a collection of studies on medical data redundancy, priority, and validity.

Essentials of Genomic and Personalized Medicine

Essentials of Genomic and Personalized Medicine Book
Author : Geoffrey S. Ginsburg,Huntington F Willard
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2009-10-02
ISBN : 9780080958118
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Derived from the comprehensive two-volume set, Genomic and Personalized Medicine also edited by Drs. Willard and Ginsburg, this work serves the needs of the evolving population of scientists, researchers, practitioners and students that are embracing one of the most promising avenues for advances in diagnosis, prevention and treatment of human disease. From principles, methodology and translational approaches to genome discoveries and clinical applications, Essentials of Genomic and Personalized Medicine will be a valuable resource for various professionals and students across medical disciplines, including human genetics and genomics, oncology, neuroscience, gene therapy, molecular medicine, pharmacology, and biomedical sciences. Updates with regard to diagnostic testing, pharmacogenetics, predicting disease susceptibility, and other important research components as well as chapters dedicated to cardiovascular disease, oncology, inflammatory disease, metabolic disease, neuropsychiatric disease, and infectious disease, present this book as an essential tool for a variety of professionals and students who are endeavouring into the developing the diverse and practical field of genomic and personalized medicine. * Full color throughout * Includes contributions on genetic counselling, ethical, legal/regulatory, and social issues related to the practice of genomic medicine from leaders in the field * Introductory chapter highlights differences between personalized and traditional medicine, promising areas of current research, and challenges to incorporate the latest research discoveries and practice * Ancillary material includes case studies and lab questions which highlight the collaborative approach to the science

Patient Specific Modeling of the Cardiovascular System

Patient Specific Modeling of the Cardiovascular System Book
Author : Roy C.P. Kerckhoffs
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-09-03
ISBN : 9781441966919
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Peter Hunter Computational physiology for the cardiovascular system is entering a new and exciting phase of clinical application. Biophysically based models of the human heart and circulation, based on patient-specific anatomy but also informed by po- lation atlases and incorporating a great deal of mechanistic understanding at the cell, tissue, and organ levels, offer the prospect of evidence-based diagnosis and treatment of cardiovascular disease. The clinical value of patient-specific modeling is well illustrated in application areas where model-based interpretation of clinical images allows a more precise analysis of disease processes than can otherwise be achieved. For example, Chap. 6 in this volume, by Speelman et al. , deals with the very difficult problem of trying to predict whether and when an abdominal aortic aneurysm might burst. This requires automated segmentation of the vascular geometry from magnetic re- nance images and finite element analysis of wall stress using large deformation elasticity theory applied to the geometric model created from the segmentation. The time-varying normal and shear stress acting on the arterial wall is estimated from the arterial pressure and flow distributions. Thrombus formation is identified as a potentially important contributor to changed material properties of the arterial wall. Understanding how the wall adapts and remodels its material properties in the face of changes in both the stress loading and blood constituents associated with infl- matory processes (IL6, CRP, MMPs, etc.

The Busy Physician s Guide To Genetics Genomics and Personalized Medicine

The Busy Physician   s Guide To Genetics  Genomics and Personalized Medicine Book
Author : Kevin M. Sweet,Ron C. Michaelis
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2011-04-23
ISBN : 9789400711471
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

In the coming decade, the focus of medicine will shift from a disease-oriented approach, where the physician prescribes according to the disease the patient has, to a personalized approach, in which the physician first considers the patient’s individual biochemistry before prescribing a treatment. Personalized medicine has the potential to improve efficacy and safety in virtually all fields of medicine. Unfortunately, few physicians feel confident in their ability to apply the principles of genetics and genomics upon which personalized medicine is based to their practice. This book is intended to help the practicing physician understand and apply the principles of genetic and genomic medicine, regardless of his/her level of background in the field. It provides a thorough foundation/review of classical genetic principles, with an emphasis on how these principles apply to personalized medicine and common complex diseases. In addition, it provides a wide-ranging review of the inroads that personalized medicine has made into several fields, including cancer, psychiatric disorders, cardiovascular disease, substance abuse, Alzheimer disease, respiratory diseases, type 2 diabetes and macular degeneration. Most importantly, this book is intended to enable the practicing physician, physician assistants and their entire healthcare team to anticipate the developments that will emerge in the near future, and stay current with the field as it expands.

Drug Delivery Systems Advanced Technologies Potentially Applicable in Personalised Treatment

Drug Delivery Systems  Advanced Technologies Potentially Applicable in Personalised Treatment Book
Author : Jorge Coelho
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-03-15
ISBN : 9400760108
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book is part of a series dedicated to recent advances on preventive, predictive and personalised medicine (PPPM). It focuses on the theme of “Drug delivery systems: advanced technologies potentially applicable in personalised treatments”. The critical topics involving the development and preparation of effective drug delivery systems, such as: polymers available, self-assembly, nanotechnology, pharmaceutical formulations, three dimensional structures, molecular modeling, tailor-made solutions and technological tendencies, are carefully discussed. The understanding of these areas constitutes a paramount route to establish personalised and effective solutions for specific diseases and individuals.

Quality Assurance in Healthcare Service Delivery Nursing and Personalized Medicine Technologies and Processes

Quality Assurance in Healthcare Service Delivery  Nursing and Personalized Medicine  Technologies and Processes Book
Author : Lazakidou, Athina
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2011-09-30
ISBN : 1613501218
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Quality of life is difficult to define and even more difficult to measure; as such, outcomes from nursing in continuing care are not easily articulated. Quality Assurance in Healthcare Service Delivery, Nursing and Personalized Medicine: Technologies and Processes offers a framework for measuring quality of service in the healthcare industry as it pertains to nursing, with insight into how new technologies and the design of personalized medicine have improved quality of care and quality of life. Assessment and feedback are a vital part of developing and designing personalized medicine, and this book details case studies and the latest research in the field of healthcare service delivery assessment. In addition to describing assessment methodology, the book is also a compendium of the latest research into new medical technologies.

Intelligent User Interfaces Adaptation and Personalization Systems and Technologies

Intelligent User Interfaces  Adaptation and Personalization Systems and Technologies Book
Author : Mourlas, Constantinos,Germanakos, Panagiotis
Publisher : IGI Global
Release : 2008-09-30
ISBN : 1605660337
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"This book identifies solutions and suggestions for the design and development of adaptive applications and systems that provides more usable and qualitative content and services adjusted to the needs and requirements of the various users"--Provided by publisher.

Patient specific Hemodynamic Computations Application to Personalized Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Pathologies

Patient specific Hemodynamic Computations  Application to Personalized Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Pathologies Book
Author : Lucian Mihai Itu,Puneet Sharma,Constantin Suciu
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-05-31
ISBN : 3319568531
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Hemodynamic computations represent a state-of-the-art approach for patient-specific assessment of cardiovascular pathologies. The book presents the development of reduced-order multiscale hemodynamic models for coronary artery disease, aortic coarctation and whole body circulation, which can be applied in routine clinical settings for personalized diagnosis. Specific parameter estimation frameworks are introduced for calibrating the parameters of the models and high performance computing solutions are employed to reduce their execution time. The personalized computational models are validated against patient-specific measurements. The book is written for scientists in the field of biomedical engineering focusing on the cardiovascular system, as well as for research-oriented physicians in cardiology and industrial players in the field of healthcare technologies.

Personalized Nutrition

Personalized Nutrition Book
Author : Frans Kok,Laura Bouwman,Frank Desiere
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2007-08-24
ISBN : 9781420009170
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

From one person to the next, optimal health is governed by a huge array of minor genetic differences. When modulated by a variety of food bioiactives, these differences result in changes in gene expression and subsequent phenotypic expression. Combining biomedical and social science with contributions from leaders in both fields, Personalized Nutrition: Principles and Applications illustrates molecular, physiological, epidemiological, and public health aspects with examples from major diseases and discusses the behavioral, ethical, and consumer perspectives that will influence a successful introduction of personalized nutrition. Divided into three sections, the book answers pertinent questions crucial to the mainstream acceptance of personalized nutrition: to what extent is this personal diet-and-health relationship practically valid? how can nutrition science demonstrate this? And what is the proposition of stakeholders in society, including the consumer? The book begins with an overview of the state-of-the-science in nutrigenomic technologies including transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics. It covers the use of genomics technology for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in major diet-related chronic disorders such as chronic inflammation, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, and obesity. Section two compares the practices and opinions of scientists, food companies, consumers, competitive athletes, and health care providers on the subject of personalized nutrition. It reviews marketing potential, consumer attitudes, and the ethical issues surrounding personalized advice. The final section focuses on humanitarian concerns related to developing countries and calls for international efforts to develop best practices, collaboration, and dataset sharing. The authors also consider ongoing innovations in food technology, nutrigenomics, and food delivery systems.

Genomic and Personalized Medicine

Genomic and Personalized Medicine Book
Author : N.A
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2008-11-11
ISBN : 9780080919034
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This two-volume set — winner of a 2013 Highly Commended BMA Medical Book Award for Medicine — provides an in-depth look at one of the most promising avenues for advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of human disease. The inclusion of the latest information on diagnostic testing, population screening, predicting disease susceptibility, pharmacogenomics and more presents this book as an essential tool for both students and specialists across many biological and medical disciplines, including human genetics and genomics, oncology, neuroscience, cardiology, infectious disease, molecular medicine, and biomedical science, as well as health policy disciplines focusing on ethical, legal, regulatory and economic aspects of genomics and medicine. Volume One Includes: Principles, Methodology and Translational Approaches, takes readers on the journey from principles of human genomics to technology, informatic and computational platforms for genomic medicine, as well as strategies for translating genomic discoveries into advances in personalized clinical care. Volume Two Includes: Genome Discoveries and Clinical Applications presents the latest developments in disease-based genomic and personalized medicine. With chapters dedicated to cardiovascular disease, oncology, inflammatory disease, metabolic disease, neuropsychiatric disease, and infectious disease, this work provides the most comprehensive guide to the principles and practice of genomic and personalized medicine. Highly Commended 2013 BMA Medical Book Award for Medicine Contributions from leaders in the field provide unparalleled insight into current technologies and applications in clinical medicine. Full colour throughout enhances the utility of this work as the only available comprehensive reference for genomic and personalized medicine. Discusses scientific foundations and practical applications of new discoveries, as well as ethical, legal/regulatory, and social issues related to the practice of genomic medicine.

Genomic and Personalized Medicine

Genomic and Personalized Medicine Book
Author : Geoffrey S. Ginsburg,Huntington F. Willard
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2012-11-15
ISBN : 0123822270
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This two-volume set provides an in-depth look at one of the most promising avenues for advances in the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of human disease. The inclusion of the latest information on diagnostic testing, population screening, predicting disease susceptibility, pharmacogenomics and more presents this book as an essential tool for both students and specialists across many biological and medical disciplines, including human genetics and genomics, oncology, neuroscience, cardiology, infectious disease, molecular medicine, and biomedical science, as well as health policy disciplines focusing on ethical, legal, regulatory and economic aspects of genomics and medicine. Volume One Includes: Principles, Methodology and Translational Approaches, takes readers on the journey from principles of human genomics to technology, informatic and computational platforms for genomic medicine, as well as strategies for translating genomic discoveries into advances in personalized clinical care. Volume Two Includes: Genome Discoveries and Clinical Applications presents the latest developments in disease-based genomic and personalized medicine. With chapters dedicated to cardiovascular disease, oncology, inflammatory disease, metabolic disease, neuropsychiatric disease, and infectious disease, this work provides the most comprehensive guide to the principles and practice of genomic and personalized medicine. * Contributions from leaders in the field provide unparalleled insight into current technologies and applications in clinical medicine. * Full colour throughout enhances the utility of this work as the only available comprehensive reference for genomic and personalized medicine. * Discusses scientific foundations and practical applications of new discoveries, as well as ethical, legal/regulatory, and social issues related to the practice of genomic medicine.

Health Services Directory

Health Services Directory Book
Author : Anthony Thomas Kruzas
Publisher : Gale Cengage
Release : 1981
ISBN :
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Health services arranged topically in 34 chapters, e.g., Hospices, Pain centers and clinics, and Runaway youth programs. Each entry gives address, telephone number, and brief descriptive note. Index.

Exercise and Rehabilitation in Heart Failure An Issue of Heart Failure Clinics

Exercise and Rehabilitation in Heart Failure  An Issue of Heart Failure Clinics  Book
Author : Ross Arena
Publisher : Elsevier Health Sciences
Release : 2014-12-26
ISBN : 0323341934
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This multidisciplinary issue of Heart Failure Clinics examines a critical element in the management and treatment of heart failure (HF)—exercise and rehabilitation. Topics include the reversal of HF-associated pathophysiology with exercise; quantifying function; prognosis; rehabilitation practice patterns in the United States, Canada, South America, Asia, and Europe; special considerations such as obesity, high-intensity interval training, inspiratory muscle training, and technology to promote and increase physical activity.

Towards Personalized Models of the Cardiovascular System Using 4D Flow MRI

Towards Personalized Models of the Cardiovascular System Using 4D Flow MRI Book
Author : Belén Casas Garcia
Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
Release : 2019-02-15
ISBN : 9176852172
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Current diagnostic tools for assessing cardiovascular disease mostly focus on measuring a given biomarker at a specific spatial location where an abnormality is suspected. However, as a result of the dynamic and complex nature of the cardiovascular system, the analysis of isolated biomarkers is generally not sufficient to characterize the pathological mechanisms behind a disease. Model-based approaches that integrate the mechanisms through which different components interact, and present possibilities for system-level analyses, give us a better picture of a patient’s overall health status. One of the main goals of cardiovascular modelling is the development of personalized models based on clinical measurements. Recent years have seen remarkable advances in medical imaging and the use of personalized models is slowly becoming a reality. Modern imaging techniques can provide an unprecedented amount of anatomical and functional information about the heart and vessels. In this context, three-dimensional, three-directional, cine phase-contrast (PC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), commonly referred to as 4D Flow MRI, arises as a powerful tool for creating personalized models. 4D Flow MRI enables the measurement of time-resolved velocity information with volumetric coverage. Besides providing a rich dataset within a single acquisition, the technique permits retrospective analysis of the data at any location within the acquired volume. This thesis focuses on improving subject-specific assessment of cardiovascular function through model-based analysis of 4D Flow MRI data. By using computational models, we aimed to provide mechanistic explanations of the underlying physiological processes, derive novel or improved hemodynamic markers, and estimate quantities that typically require invasive measurements. Paper I presents an evaluation of current markers of stenosis severity using advanced models to simulate flow through a stenosis. Paper II presents a framework to personalize a reduced-order, mechanistic model of the cardiovascular system using exclusively non-invasive measurements, including 4D Flow MRI data. The modelling approach can unravel a number of clinically relevant parameters from the input data, including those representing the contraction and relaxation patterns of the left ventricle, and provide estimations of the pressure-volume loop. In Paper III, this framework is applied to study cardiovascular function at rest and during stress conditions, and the capability of the model to infer load-independent measures of heart function based on the imaging data is demonstrated. Paper IV focuses on evaluating the reliability of the model parameters as a step towards translation of the model to the clinic.