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Perinatal And Developmental Epigenetics

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Perinatal and Developmental Epigenetics

Perinatal and Developmental Epigenetics Book
Author : Garima Singh
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2022-03-15
ISBN : 9780128217856
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Increasing evidence shows the perinatal periods see intense epigenetic activity, enabling the fine-tuning of developmental processes in response to changing environment conditions. Perinatal and Developmental Epigenetics, a new volume in the Translational Epigenetics series, provides a thorough overview of epigenetics in the early developmental and perinatal stages, illuminating pathways for drug discovery and clinical advances. Here, over 25 international researchers examine recent steps forward in our understanding of epigenetic programming during perinatal and early development, opening with an in-depth introduction to known and newly discovered epigenetic marks and how they regulate various cellular processes. Later sections examine various prenatal and perinatal environmental experiences and their ability to derail the normal developmental trajectory via epigenetic reprogramming. Insights and suggestions for future research illuminate approaches for identifying individual disease susceptibility, while concluding chapters highlight preventative and targeted therapeutic pathways to improve quality of life into adulthood. Examines disease onset stemming from epigenetic changes during the perinatal periods Features contributions from international experts in the field, across basic biology, disease research, and drug discovery Offers intervention strategies to mitigate adverse developmental programming to improve health outcomes

Prenatal Stress and Child Development

Prenatal Stress and Child Development Book
Author : Ashley Wazana,Eszter Székely,Tim F. Oberlander
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2021-04-20
ISBN : 9783030601584
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book examines the complex impact of prenatal stress and the mechanism of its transmission on children’s development and well-being, including prenatal programming, epigenetics, infl ammatory processes, and the brain-gut microbiome. It analyzes current findings on prenatal stressors affecting pregnancy, including preconception stress, prenatal maternal depression, anxiety, and pregnancy-specific anxieties. Chapters explore how prenatal stress affects cognitive, affective, behavioral, and neurobiological development in children while pinpointing core processes of adaptation, resilience, and interventions that may reduce negative behaviors and promote optimal outcomes in children. Th is complex perspective on mechanisms by which early environmental influences interact with prenatal programming of susceptibility aims to inform clinical strategies and future research targeting prenatal stress and its cyclical impact on subsequent generations. Key areas of coverage include: The developmental effects of prenatal maternal stress on children. Epigenetic effects of prenatal stress. Intergenerational transmission of parental early life stress. The microbiome-gut-brain axis and the effects of prenatal stress on early neurodevelopment. The effect of prenatal stress on parenting. Gestational stress and resilience. Prenatal stress and children’s sleeping behavior. Prenatal, perinatal, and population-based interventions to prevent psychopathology. Prenatal Stress and Child Development is an essential resource for researchers, professors and graduate students as well as clinicians, therapists, and related professionals in infancy and early childhood development, maternal and child health, developmental psychology, pediatrics, social work, child and adolescent psychiatry, developmental neuroscience, and related behavioral and social sciences and medical disciplines. Excerpt from the foreword: “I would make the plea that in addition to anyone with an interest in child development, this book should be essential reading for researchers pursuing “pre-clinical, basic science models of neurodevelopment and brain health”.... This book provides what in my mind is the most advanced compilation of existing knowledge and state-of-the-art science in the field of prenatal psychiatry/psychology (and perhaps in the entire field of prenatal medicine). This volume can brilliantly serve to focus future directions in our understanding of the perinatal determinants of brain health.” Michael J Meaney James McGill Professor of Medicine Translational Neuroscience Programme Adjunct Professor of Paediatrics

Epigenetics the Environment and Children s Health Across Lifespans

Epigenetics  the Environment  and Children   s Health Across Lifespans Book
Author : David Hollar
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2016-02-08
ISBN : 3319253255
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This stimulating volume addresses vital questions about gene/environment interactions as they affect cell health from the prenatal period through later life. Beginning with a tour of epigenetic processes in the human body, the book assembles current theoretical and empirical developments across the discipline, among them transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, the effects of maternal nutrition on epigenetic change, and possible links between epigenetics and childhood obesity. Public health and policy aspects of the field are discussed in depth, with the understanding that much can be done to improve our epigenetic health as a species. And in this vein, contributors consider future possibilities, such as the reprogramming of genes to reverse cancer and other diseases. Included in the coverage: The role of environmental epigenetics in perinatal and neonatal development The epigenetic biomarker γH2AX: from bench science to clinical trials What’s the risk? Dental amalgam, mercury exposure, and human health risks throughout the lifespan Post-traumatic stress disorder: neurological, genetic, and epigenetic bases Children’s exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and drugs: long-term outcomes Ethical implications of epigenetics Epigenetics, the Environment, and Children’s Health Across Lifespans brings real-world knowledge and applications of this increasingly important field to public health practitioners, maternal and child health researchers, and environmental health experts.

Effects of Prenatal Dietary Methyl Donor Deficiency on Development and Epigenetic Mechanisms in Offspring

Effects of Prenatal Dietary Methyl Donor Deficiency on Development and Epigenetic Mechanisms in Offspring Book
Author : Galina Konycheva
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2010
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Human epidemiological and animal studies suggest that unbalanced maternal diet during pregnancy leads to low birth weight and predisposes offspring to the development of a number of pathological conditions like metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. This effect is referred to as fetal or developmental programming, however the underlying mechanism is yet unknown. An epigenetic mechanism of gene regulation, DNA methylation, has been suggested as a strong candidate for the underling mechanism of developmental programming due to the fact that establishment of DNA methylation patterns begins during early development and requires a constant supply of methyl donors. The main purpose of the present study was to determine whether a deficiency of methyl donors in the maternal diet during prenatal development would result in phenotypic changes and abnormal epigenetic gene regulation in the offspring. The study was designed to help understand whether DNA methylation provides an epigenetic basis to developmental programming. A new rat model of prenatal dietary methyl donor deficiency was established, whereby female rats were fed a diet deficient in methyl donors choline, folate and methionine two weeks prior to mating and throughout pregnancy. The effect of prenatal exposure to methyl donor deficiency on developmental programming was investigated by measuring systolic blood pressure, glucose metabolism, endocrine pancreas structure and behavioral changes in the adult offspring. To investigate immediate and delayed effects of maternal methyl donor deficiency on molecular processes in the offspring, liver, pancreas, kidney, lung and hippocampus tissues were being used for specific DNA methylation measurements by means of Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Expression of target genes, suggested to be regulated by DNA methylation, was tested using a real time PCR-based technique. The offspring of methyl deficient mothers (MD) had low weight at birth. Young adult MD males had a transient increase in systolic blood pressure and altered pancreatic structure, but no changes in glucose metabolism. Aged female and male MD offspring demonstrated traits of anxiety-like behavior. MD females had improved learning abilities. At the molecular level, the offspring of MD mothers showed age, DNA region and tissue-specific changes in DNA methylation. The MD offspring also demonstrated differences in gene expression, which were not associated with changes in DNA methylation. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that maternal methyl donor deficiency had a mild selective effect on development of phenotypic changes associated with developmental programming in the adult offspring. This study indicated that prenatal deficiency in methyl donors programmed changes in DNA methylation in the adult offspring, but its' effect was rather complex and largely unrelated to the observed changes in gene expression.

Perinatal Programming of Neurodevelopment

Perinatal Programming of Neurodevelopment Book
Author : Marta C. Antonelli
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-10-06
ISBN : 1493913727
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The development of the brain and nervous system is shaped not just by a genetic program, but also by the effects of multiple environmental stimuli. There are currently no book-length treatments of perinatal neurodevelopment. The proposed book seeks to fill this gap by presenting a collection of chapters from leading experts in the field. It is intended to be comprehensive and will cover all aspects of neurodevelopmental programming in lab animals and in human subjects. The third section of the book will look at ways of translating insights we have garnered from animal studies to human and clinical studies. The primary audience for this work is basic researchers interested in the effects of perinatal imprinting on the development of the nervous system and associated diseases.

Handbook of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology

Handbook of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology Book
Author : Klaus Evertz,Ludwig Janus,Rupert Linder
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2020-10-27
ISBN : 3030417166
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The handbook synthesizes the comprehensive interdisciplinary research on the psychological and behavioral dimensions of life before, during, and immediately after birth. It examines how experiences during the prenatal period are associated with basic physiological and psychological imprints that last a lifetime and explores the ways in which brain networks reflect these experiences. Chapters offer findings on prenatal development, fetal programming, fetal stress, and epigenetics. In addition, chapters discuss psychotherapy for infants – before, during, and after birth – as well as prevention to promote positive health and well-being outcomes. Topics featured in this handbook include: Contemporary environmental stressors and adverse pregnancy outcomes The psychology of newborn intensive care. Art therapy and its use in treating prenatal trauma. The failures and successes of Cathartic Regression Therapy. Prenatal bonding and its positive effects on postnatal health and well-being. The role of family midwives and early prevention. The cultural meaning of prenatal psychology. The Handbook of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology is an essential resource for researchers, clinicians and related professionals, as well as graduate students in a wide range of interrelated disciplines, including developmental psychology, pediatric and obstetrical medicine, neuroscience, infancy and early child development, obstetrics and gynecology, nursing, social work, and early childhood education.

Handbook of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology

Handbook of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology Book
Author : Klaus Evertz,Ludwig Janus,Rupert Linder
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2020-11-12
ISBN : 9783030417154
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The handbook synthesizes the comprehensive interdisciplinary research on the psychological and behavioral dimensions of life before, during, and immediately after birth. It examines how experiences during the prenatal period are associated with basic physiological and psychological imprints that last a lifetime and explores the ways in which brain networks reflect these experiences. Chapters offer findings on prenatal development, fetal programming, fetal stress, and epigenetics. In addition, chapters discuss psychotherapy for infants – before, during, and after birth – as well as prevention to promote positive health and well-being outcomes. Topics featured in this handbook include: Contemporary environmental stressors and adverse pregnancy outcomes The psychology of newborn intensive care. Art therapy and its use in treating prenatal trauma. The failures and successes of Cathartic Regression Therapy. Prenatal bonding and its positive effects on postnatal health and well-being. The role of family midwives and early prevention. The cultural meaning of prenatal psychology. The Handbook of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology is an essential resource for researchers, clinicians and related professionals, as well as graduate students in a wide range of interrelated disciplines, including developmental psychology, pediatric and obstetrical medicine, neuroscience, infancy and early child development, obstetrics and gynecology, nursing, social work, and early childhood education.

Obesity Before Birth

Obesity Before Birth Book
Author : Robert H Lustig
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2010-09-23
ISBN : 9781441970343
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This volume will explore the epidemiology and the basic mechanisms of each of these prenatal phenomena, in an attempt to explain the role of the prenatal environment in promoting postnatal weight gain. This information will contribute to resolving the nature-nurture controversy. This information provides guidance to clinical practitioners involved in both prenatal and postnatal care. This volume further stimulates research into underlying mechanisms and prevention and treatment of this phenomenon.

Epigenetic Clocks

Epigenetic Clocks Book
Author : Megan McGill
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2020
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

"Maternal prenatal anxiety and depression are associated with adverse developmental outcomes that vary markedly at the level of the individual child. Epigenetic clocks, a tool used to calculate biological age estimates on the basis of DNA methylation information, have emerged as clinically relevant biomarkers for adverse health outcomes in adults. Error rates of epigenetic clocks currently in use (≥3.6 years) limits their utility in pediatric populations. Recently, a new epigenetic clock specifically designed for use in children, the Pediatric-Buccal-Epigenetic (PedBE) clock (error = 0.35 years), has been developed and shown to associate with child neurodevelopment. In this project, we used DNA methylation data from two independent cohorts of children to characterize the PedBE clock. Specifically, we sought to determine if perinatal maternal mood symptoms predict epigenetic aging in children and if accelerated epigenetic aging associates with child mental health symptoms. We also performed exploratory analyses on a measure of the early care environment to determine if the quality of early care-giving buffers the effects of maternal prenatal anxiety/depression on pediatric epigenetic age acceleration. Our analyses indicated a significant positive association between prenatal maternal anxiety and pediatric epigenetic aging over time. Accelerated epigenetic aging predicted child mental health symptoms. For the first time, we show an association between maternal prenatal mood and pediatric epigenetic age acceleration. These novel findings highlight the potential utility of the PedBE clock as a biological index of exposure to maternal prenatal anxiety and further our understanding of the biological embedding of our earliest experience"--

Epigenetic Programming of Cardiovascular Disease by Perinatal Hypoxia and Fetal Growth Restriction

Epigenetic Programming of Cardiovascular Disease by Perinatal Hypoxia and Fetal Growth Restriction Book
Author : Paola Casanello
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2017
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Most of the worldwide deaths in patients with non-communicable diseases are due to cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, which are determined by a mix of environmental, genetic and epigenetic factors, and by their interactions. The aetiology of most cardiovascular diseases has been partially linked with in utero adverse conditions that may increase the risk of developing diseases later in life, known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). Perinatal hypoxia can program the fetal and postnatal developmental patterns, resulting in permanent modifications of cells, organs and systems function. In spite of the vast evidence obtained from human and animal studies linking development under adverse intrauterine conditions with increased cardiovascular risk, still few is known about the specific effects of intrauterine oxygen deficiency and the related pathogenic mechanisms. Currently, the most accepted processes that program cellular function are epigenetic mechanisms which determine gene expression in a cell-specific fashion. In this chapter we will review the current literature regarding the perinatal exposure to chronic hypoxia and Fetal Growth Restriction (FGR) in humans and animals and how this impinges the cardiovascular physiology through epigenetic, biochemical, morphologic and pathophysiologic modifications that translate into diseases blasting at postnatal life.

Epigenetic Modifications Associated with Prenatal Environmental Risk Factors for Neurodevelopmental Psychiatric Disorders

Epigenetic Modifications Associated with Prenatal Environmental Risk Factors for Neurodevelopmental Psychiatric Disorders Book
Author : Paul Basil
Publisher : Open Dissertation Press
Release : 2017-01-26
ISBN : 9781361018491
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This dissertation, "Epigenetic Modifications Associated With Prenatal Environmental Risk Factors for Neurodevelopmental Psychiatric Disorders" by Paul, Basil, was obtained from The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong) and is being sold pursuant to Creative Commons: Attribution 3.0 Hong Kong License. The content of this dissertation has not been altered in any way. We have altered the formatting in order to facilitate the ease of printing and reading of the dissertation. All rights not granted by the above license are retained by the author. Abstract: Maternal Immune activation (MIA) has been highlighted to be a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders like schizophrenia and autism. Epidemiological studies have confirmed this association and studies on animal models from our group and others consistently support this relationship. The functions of genes implicated in the pathophysiology of neurodevelopmental disorders are known to be modulated by epigenetic changes such as DNA cytosine methylation. These epigenetic 'marks' can be modified by environmental exposures such as infection and diet. However, the possible link between MIA and epigenome has not been examined directly. In addition, whether the postulated epigenetic effects of MIA can be modified by omega-3 intervention warrants further investigation. In this study an MIA mouse model was used to investigate the postnatal epigenetic changes associated with exposure to the viral analogue PolyIC compared to saline control, on gestation day 9. Global genome methylation was estimated using LINE1 assay and a similar method was used to assay Mecp2 promoter methylation. An intervention to stabilise these changes was also attempted using diet supplemented with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Epigenetic differences were characterised using next generation sequencing and PCR based assays in the DNA samples obtained from the offspring brain. Widespread epigenetic changes, including LINE1 and Mecp2 promoter hypomethylation were observed following exposure to inflammation during prenatal life (Chapter 3). These findings were partially replicated in a bigger sample size (Chapter 4). Omega-3 PUFA intervention did not alter Mecp2 and LINE1 methylation. In a more detailed study, 204 genes were identified as differentially methylated as a result of MIA exposure (Chapter 5). These included, 40 genes previously reported to be associated with schizophrenia and 4 genes associated with autism. The 'top' functional network was genes responsible for 'nervous system development and function'. Omega-3 intervention modified the epigenetic profile, including a number of genes which were affected by MIA. Out of 204 differentially methylated genes, 165 were stabilised by omega-3 intervention. Thirty-one of these 165 had previously been implicated in schizophrenia. This series of experiments indicates that environmental and genetic risk factors may modulate similar biological pathways associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. This may enable early intervention and diagnosis of youth at risk. These experiments also provide some evidence for the potential to modify the epigenome, in this case using diet. This is important as further investigation may open new avenues for treatment. DOI: 10.5353/th_b5387948 Subjects: Epigenetics Neuropsychiatry

Perinatal Programming

Perinatal Programming Book
Author : Deborah Hodgson,Christopher Coe
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 2005-12-20
ISBN : 9781842142943
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Perinatal factors are critical in the 'programming' of behavioral, endocrine and immunologic outcomes of adult life. Exposure to many factors in utero can drive fetal development along specific trajectories. Perinatal factors can also affect many diverse systems that have significant implications for long-term health outcomes. The findings from basic research are so diverse and suggest implications in many different arenas. Bringing together these findings, this book explores the evidence linking the role of early life events to long-term physical and psychological health outcomes. It pulls the research together and communicates the findings to the wider scientific and clinical communities.

Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity

Examining a Developmental Approach to Childhood Obesity Book
Author : Institute of Medicine,Food and Nutrition Board
Publisher : National Academies Press
Release : 2015-09-08
ISBN : 030937698X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Recent scientific evidence points to the origins of childhood obesity as an outcome of the dynamic interplay of genetic, behavioral, and environmental factors throughout early development, with a compelling body of evidence suggesting that both maternal and paternal nutritional and other exposures affect a child's risk of later obesity. The burgeoning field of epigenetics has led researchers to speculate that many of the observed associations between early developmental exposures and later risk of childhood obesity are mediated, at least in part, through epigenetic mechanisms. To explore the body of evolving science that examines the nexus of biology, environment, and developmental stage on risk of childhood obesity, the Institute of Medicine and the National Research Council convened a workshop in February 2015. The workshop focused on the prenatal period, infancy, and early childhood and addressed evidence from both animal and human studies. Workshop objectives were to (1) identify epigenetic-mediated relationships between exposure to risk factors during sensitive periods of development (gestation through age 3) and subsequent obesity-related outcomes; (2) explore the science around periods of plasticity and potential reversibility of obesity risk in the context of early childhood development; and (3) examine the translation of epigenetic science to guide early childhood obesity prevention and intervention to reduce obesity risk. This report summarizes the information presented and discussed at the workshop.

Transgenerational Effects of Perinatal Iron Deficiency on Gene Expression in Rat Hippocampus

Transgenerational Effects of Perinatal Iron Deficiency on Gene Expression in Rat Hippocampus Book
Author : Mariah Blegen,Macalester College. Biology Department
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2013
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Background: Early-life iron deficiency (ID) induces suppression of key genew underlying learning and memory into adulthood in spite of neonatal iron replenishment. Epigenetic reprogramming of these genes, such as brain-derived neurotrpphic factor (BDNF), may account for this long-term repression. Given that early ID occurs during critical periods in both hippocampal and gonadal development, these epigenetic changes in the F1 generation could be transmitted to the following generation, as is seen in other models of early-life adveersity. Conclusions: OUr results show a se-specific reversal of adverse gene expression effects of early ID and epigenetic modifications in the male offspring of FID rats. These findings suggest that the adverse effects of early ID do not transmit to the subsequent male generation (unlike other models of early-life adversity including negligence). Thus, we propose that iron availability during development together with the status of epigenetic modifiers is key in mediating gene wxpression between generations of male rats.

Perinatal Programming

Perinatal Programming Book
Author : Andreas Plagemann
Publisher : Walter de Gruyter
Release : 2012-01-01
ISBN : 3110249456
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Perinatal Programming addresses the environment-dependent setting of fundamental life functions and dispositions for diseases in developmental periods during pregnancy and in early infancy. It provides a new view of the origins of health and diseases. To realize these associations may enable us to prevent diseases for the long term. This book reviews actual state-of-the-art knowledge in the perinatal programming field. The authors are internationally known scientists of this research area.

Pregnancy Disorders and Perinatal Outcomes

Pregnancy Disorders and Perinatal Outcomes Book
Author : Cathy Vaillancourt,Julie Lafond,Maria do Carmo Ferreira,José Teixeira Freire,Ana Maria da Silveira
Publisher : Bentham Science Publishers
Release : 2012-06-08
ISBN : 1608053725
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Pregnancy Disorders and Perinatal Outcomes offers readers insights into knowledge related to maternal habits or disorders that could affect fetal development and lead to disability later in childhood and adulthood. It contains chapters on the role of plac

Prenatal Stress and Child Development

Prenatal Stress and Child Development Book
Author : Ashley Wazana
Publisher : Springer Nature
Release : 2021-09-25
ISBN : 3030601595
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Prenatal Stress and Child Development book written by Ashley Wazana, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Immune maturation and modulation in childhood allergies

Immune maturation and modulation in childhood allergies Book
Author : Johanna Huoman
Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
Release : 2020-10-15
ISBN : 9179297870
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

The prevalence of allergic diseases has in the past century increased among children in affluent societies. Underlying causes are incompletely disentangled, but decreased diversity in environmental and microbial exposures could drive allergy development. Allergic individuals possess imbalanced immune responses, skewed in favour of Th2 cells along with lesser Th1 and Treg responses. As allergy development early in life increases the risk of developing further allergic manifestations later, early prevention is key. Thus, interventions in pregnancy, early life and childhood may modulate immunity towards tolerance, although underpinnings of immune maturation and modulation in allergy prevention throughout childhood are not entirely understood. In this thesis, these questions are addressed in children with a high propensity of developing allergic disease or who already have manifested allergies. Chemokines are crucial for immune cell recruitment to the allergic reaction site, and associate with allergy development in childhood. In Paper I, circulating levels of the allergy-related chemokines CCL17, CCL18, CCL22, CXCL10 and CXCL11 were studied in the natural course of allergic disease. Elevated levels of the Th2/Treg-regulated chemokine CCL18 in infancy and childhood associated with development of asthma and/or sensitisation. Moreover, this finding conferred higher odds of developing asthma and sensitisation from early school age until adolescence. Additionally, increased levels of the Th1-associated chemokines CXCL10 after birth, and decreased levels of CXCL11 at birth, preceded asthma development later in life. Hence, Paper I showed that circulating chemokine levels in different ways precede allergy development. Epigenetic modifications, such as DNA methylation, comprise a link between the genetic setup and environmental exposures, and regulate processes such as Th cell differentiation. Perinatal treatment with Lactobacillus reuteri and ?-3 fatty acids prevent development of some IgE-mediated manifestations. However, the drivers of the immunostimulating and pro-resolving effects of these treatments are sparsely examined. In Papers II and III, epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns in CD4+ cells upon pre-and postnatal L. reuteri supplementation alone or in combination with ?-3 fatty acids were studied. In Paper II, the greatest epigenome wide differential methylation was evident at birth, mainly directed towards hypomethylation, indicating transcriptional availability of affected genes. Network analyses revealed several immune related pathways, and a relationship of differentially methylated genes to allergy development. Thus, prenatal L. reuteri treatment seemingly poises Th cells towards immune activation at birth, possibly influencing immune maturation as well as allergy development in the child. In Paper III, epigenome-wide DNA methylation patterns were surveyed at birth. In this on-going trial, mothers are treated during the latter half of pregnancy with a combination of L. reuteri and ?-3 fatty acids. Four different treatment groups were studied, and the largest differential methylation was seen in the double active treatment group. In contrast to Paper II, most CpGs and genes were hypermethylated, indicating repressed gene transcription. In line with Paper II, network analyses showed that T cell and immune mediated pathways were affected by treatment, and synergistic effects of the double treatment were indicated. Taken together, prenatal treatment with L. reuteri and/or ?-3 fatty acids altered the epigenome to different extents at birth, mainly towards hypermethylation, and often affected immune related pathways. Immunomodulatory effects of sublingual immunotherapy in children and adolescents are scarcely investigated. In Paper IV, circulating and salivary immune mediators were investigated in timothy grass-pollen allergic children treated with sublingual immunotherapy. Actively treated children had elevated levels of timothy grass pollen-specific IgA antibodies in saliva, along with increased circulating levels of the Th1-associated chemokines CXCL10 and CXCL11, both after treatment ending and two years later. Taken together, sublingual immunotherapy modulates local and peripheral immune responses in children with timothy grass pollen-induced allergy, by augmenting Th1-responses, lessening Th2-responses and inducing immunomodulatory responses, suggesting induction of tolerance, also partly in the long-term. Altogether, the studies in this thesis have shown altered immune regulation in children developing allergies. Moreover, immunomodulatory effects of prenatal treatment with probiotics and ?-3 fatty acids, and sublingual immunotherapy in children with grass pollen-induced allergic disease, were revealed. DNA methylation patterns and immunologic mediators in blood and saliva could potentially serve as appropriate biomarkers for allergic disease. Long term health benefits can be reached by intervening early in life, and further knowledge about the mechanisms behind this could promote the prevention of allergic diseases and hence improve the quality of life for children and adolescents. Förekomsten av allergiska sjukdomar, som böjveckseksem, hösnuva och astma, har under det senaste århundradet ökat markant bland barn i industrialiserade samhällen. De bakomliggande orsakerna är inte helt klarlagda, men samhälleliga förändringar har minskat vår mångfaldiga exponering för bakterier, virus och parasiter. Detta skulle kunna ligga till grund för immunförsvarets felaktiga reaktion mot egentligen ofarliga ämnen som ses vid allergier. Hos allergiska individer är immunförsvaret obalanserat, med en relativ övervikt av det så kallade Thjälpar- 2 (Th2)-svaret gentemot Th1- och det regulatoriska T-cells (Treg)-svaret. Allergiska sjukdomar utvecklas ofta tidigt i livet, vilket ökar risken för att utveckla vidare allergier senare i livet. Därför är det viktigt att motverka den allergiska marschens framfart tidigt genom förebyggande behandlingar. Ett tillvägagångsätt är att påbörja behandling under graviditeten och tidiga barndomen hos barn med hög risk för att bli allergiska, då grunden för immunsystemet läggs redan under fosterlivet. För redan utvecklade allergier är det tänkbart att omforma dessa immunsvar med immunterapi, som kan minska symptom av befintliga allergier samtidigt som det är möjligt att motverka utvecklingen av senare allergier. Det är dock inte helt klarlagt hur immunutmognaden under barndomen är reglerad, eller hur dessa typer av behandlingar skulle kunna påverka allergiutveckling under den perioden. I denna avhandling undersöks immunutmognad vid allergiutveckling hos barn, och möjliga immunmodulerande förebyggande behandlingar hos barn med genetisk benägenhet att bli allergiska eller som redan utvecklat allergisk sjukdom. För att celler ska rekryteras till platsen för en allergisk reaktion krävs bland annat s.k. kemokiner. I det fö

Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease

Environmental Epigenomics in Health and Disease Book
Author : Randy L Jirtle,Frederick L. Tyson
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-05-16
ISBN : 3642233805
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

There are now compelling human epidemiological and animal experimental data that indicate the risk of developing adult-onset complex diseases and neurological disorders are influenced by persistent epigenetic adaptations in response to prenatal and early postnatal exposures to environmental factors. Epigenetics refers to heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the sequence of the DNA. The main components of the epigenetic code are DNA methylation, histone modifications, and non-coding RNAs. The epigenetic programs are established as stem cell differentiate during embryogenesis, and they are normally faithfully reproduced during mitosis. Moreover, they can also be maintained during meiosis, resulting in epigenetic transgenerational disease inheritance, and also potentially introducing phenotypic variation that is selected for in the evolution of new species. The objective of this book is to provide evidence that environmental exposures during early development can alter the risk of developing medical conditions, such as asthma, autism, cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and schizophrenia later in life by modifying the epigenome.

Epigenetic Modifications Associated with Prenatal Environmental Risk Factors for Neurodevelopmental Psychiatric Disorders

Epigenetic Modifications Associated with Prenatal Environmental Risk Factors for Neurodevelopmental Psychiatric Disorders Book
Author : Paul Basil,University of Hong Kong
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 2014
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Epigenetic Modifications Associated with Prenatal Environmental Risk Factors for Neurodevelopmental Psychiatric Disorders book written by Paul Basil,University of Hong Kong, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.