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Parkinsons Disease Therapeutics

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Clinical Studies and Therapies in Parkinson s Disease

Clinical Studies and Therapies in Parkinson s Disease Book
Author : Juan Segura-Aguilar
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2021-06-12
ISBN : 0128221585
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

More than 50 years have passed since the use of L-dopa in the palliative treatment of Parkinson’s disease, but it remains the most common treatment despite inducing severe side effects such as dyskinesia after 4–6 years of use. Numerous preclinical investigations based on endogenous neurotoxin models have promised various therapies for Parkinson’s disease, but these efforts have failed when attempting to transfer these successful results to preclinical studies. Although several publications have warned of these failures, the scientific community remains mostly unaware, and there is a need to focus their efforts on potential therapeutics that can slow or halt development of the disease. Clinical Studies and Therapies in Parkinson’s Disease: Translations from Preclinical Models analyzes preclinical models based on exogenous neurotoxins and why they have failed. Neuroscientists, neurologists, and neuropharmacologists will benefit greatly from the book’s discussion of these newer models, their benefits, and the need for their implementation. This book also provides the basic concepts of dopamine metabolism for students taking courses in neurochemistry, neuroscience, neuropharmacology, biochemistry, and medicine. Reviews Parkinson's disease classification, pharmacological therapies, and nonmotor and motor symptoms Analyzes preclinical models of Parkinson’s disease therapies based on exogenous neurotoxins and why they have failed Reviews genetic preclinical models based on genetic mutations and endogenous neurotoxins Proposes a more physiological model directly related to the metabolism of dopaminergic neurons Provides the basic concepts and mechanisms of dopamine metabolism

Towards New Therapies for Parkinson s Disease

Towards New Therapies for Parkinson s Disease Book
Author : David Finkelstein
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2011-11-02
ISBN : 9533074639
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterised clinically by various non-motor and progressive motor symptoms, pathologically by loss of dopamine producing cells and intraneuronal cytoplasmic inclusions composed primarily of ?-synuclein. By the time a patient first presents with symptoms of Parkinson's disease at the clinic, a significant proportion of the cells in the substantia nigra have already been destroyed. This degeneration progresses despite the current therapies until the cell loss is so great that the quality of normal life is compromised. The dopamine precursor levodopa is the most valuable drug currently available for the treatment of PD. However for most PD patients, the optimal clinical benefit from levodopa decreases around five to six years of treatment. The aim of the chapters of this book is to work towards an understanding in the mechanisms of degeneration and to develop disease modifying therapies.

Emerging Drugs and Targets for Parkinson s Disease

Emerging Drugs and Targets for Parkinson s Disease Book
Author : Ana Martinez,Carmen Gil
Publisher : Royal Society of Chemistry
Release : 2013-07-18
ISBN : 1849737355
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Affecting over 1.5 million people across the world, Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurological condition characterized, in part, by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. It affects 1.5% of the global population over 65 years of age. As life expectancy is increasing, over the next few years the number of patients with Parkinson ́s disease will grow exponentially. To date, there are no available treatments that are capable of curing Parkinson ́s disease, and the current goal of therapy, dopamine replacement strategies, is to reduce symptoms. After several years of disease progression, treatment is complicated by the onset of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. This information reveals the great importance and social need of finding an effective therapeutic intervention for Parkinson ́s disease. This exemplary new book reviews some of the most outstanding examples of new drugs currently in pharmaceutical development or new targets currently undergoing the validation process to try to reach the Parkinson ́s drug market in the next few years as potential disease modifying drugs. Providing up to date and comprehensive coverage, this book is essential reading for researchers working in academia and industry in any aspect of medicinal chemistry or drug discovery.

Therapeutics of Parkinson s Disease and Other Movement Disorders

Therapeutics of Parkinson s Disease and Other Movement Disorders Book
Author : Mark Hallett,Werner Poewe
Publisher : John Wiley & Sons
Release : 2008-10-13
ISBN : 047071400X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Provides a comprehensive update on therapies for Parkinson’s disease and other movement disorders Describes the basic mechanisms of neurodegeneration, pharmacologic interventions for motor and non-motor symptoms, and surgical management Features summary tables and algorithms that serve as a quick reference guide for practical treatment decisions The expert guidance of recognised authorities will enable readers of this book to plan their patients’ care with greater confidence

Non Motor Symptoms of Parkinson s Disease

Non Motor Symptoms of Parkinson s Disease Book
Author : K. Ray Chaudhuri,Eduardo Tolosa,Anthony H. V. Schapira,Werner Poewe
Publisher : Oxford University Press, USA
Release : 2014-10
ISBN : 0199684243
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) are known to suffer from motor symptoms of the disease, but they also experience non-motor symptoms (NMS) that are often present before diagnosis or that inevitably emerge with disease progression. The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease have been extensively researched, and effective clinical tools for their assessment and treatment have been developed and are readily available. In contrast, researchers have only recently begun to focus on the NMS of Parkinson's Disease, which are poorly recognized and inadequately treated by clinicians. The NMS of PD have a significant impact on patient quality of life and mortality and include neuropsychiatric, sleep-related, autonomic, gastrointestinal, and sensory symptoms. While some NMS can be improved with currently available treatments, others may be more refractory and will require research into novel (non-dopaminergic) drug therapies for the future. Edited by members of the UK Parkinson's Disease Non-Motor Group (PD-NMG) and with contributions from international experts, this new edition summarizes the current understanding of NMS symptoms in Parkinson's disease and points the way towards future research.

Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2 LRRK2

Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase 2  LRRK2  Book
Author : Hardy J. Rideout
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2017-03-28
ISBN : 3319499696
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This is the first book to assemble the leading researchers in the field of LRRK2 biology and neurology and provide a snapshot of the current state of knowledge, encompassing all major aspects of its function and dysfunction. The contributors are experts in cell biology and physiology, neurobiology, and medicinal chemistry, bringing a multidisciplinary perspective on the gene and its role in disease. The book covers the identification of LRRK2 as a major contributor to the pathogenesis of Parkinson's Disease. It also discusses the current state of the field after a decade of research, putative normal physiological roles of LRRK2, and the various pathways that have been identified in the search for the mechanism(s) of its induction of neurodegeneration.

Levodopa Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson s Disease

Levodopa Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson s Disease Book
Author : Susan H. Fox,Jonathan M. Brotchie
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2014-10-08
ISBN : 1447165039
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This book aims to provide a single reference source on levodopa-induced dyskinesias (LID) from ‘bench to bedside’. Initial chapters review the clinical features and phenomenology of LID with video examples; epidemiology and genetic risk factors for LID are covered as a background to understanding risk factors for developing LID. The following chapters cover the latest preclinical studies aiming to understand the pathophysiology of LID at the cellular, neurochemical, neurophysiological and circuitry level with detailed discussion of mechanisms and future directions to take the field forward; clinical studies from phase II to phase IV; on going RCTs in LID and evidence-based medicine reviews of treatment options. Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia in Parkinson’s Disease is aimed at an international audience of movement disorder neurologists; neuroscientists; trainees and graduate and post-graduate students.

Parkinson s Disease

Parkinson s Disease Book
Author : Néstor Gálvez-Jiménez,Hubert H. Fernandez,Alberto J. Espay,Susan H. Fox
Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release : 2016-03-24
ISBN : 1316688097
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Parkinson's disease is no longer considered only a motor disorder. It has become evident that the pathological changes are broad, the progression seems to follow a pattern suggesting transynaptic transmission via templation of proteins in a prion-like fashion, and that these pathological changes usually antedate the motor symptoms by decades. This book emphasizes treatment options for Parkinson's disease, critically assessing pharmacologic and surgical interventions for all aspects of the disease. Evidence from randomized controlled clinical trials is highlighted to develop practical recommendations for clinical practice. Lessons learnt from clinical trials – and controversies and future challenges – are all addressed. Readers will find the necessary clinical and scientific foundations for the understanding of the disease, the underpinnings of the pathological processes, the identification of disease biomarkers, and the basis for solid therapeutics. Chapters are authored by an international team of specialists who bring their expertise to improving the management of this disease.

Surgery for Parkinson s Disease

Surgery for Parkinson s Disease Book
Author : Robert R. Goodman
Publisher : Springer
Release : 2018-12-28
ISBN : 3319236938
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Deep brain stimulation for the treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease was introduced in the 1990s. Initially performed only at academic centers, over the past decade it has become a widespread surgical procedure. A variety of surgical techniques are employed and innovations are introduced frequently. This book is an ideal source of information for the many practicing neurosurgeons who did not learn this surgery during their training but would now like to add it to their practice, as well as an excellent update on exciting new developments in surgery for Parkinson’s disease. This book is designed to provide practicing neurosurgeons with current knowledge on the practical aspects of surgical treatment of patients with Parkinson’s disease. It explains how to identify surgical candidates and determine the optimal surgery, describes the various surgical techniques that are currently employed, and offers insights into how to optimize deep brain stimulation therapy after implantation. The keys to avoidance of surgical complications are carefully elucidated. In addition, an overview is provided of potential advances on the near-term horizon, including closed-loop deep brain stimulation, gene therapy, and optogenetics. All topics are covered by experienced Parkinson’s disease surgeons, in a concise and digestable format. The book will be an ideal source of information for the many practicing neurosurgeons who would like to add deep brain stimulation to their practice, as well as an excellent update on new developments in surgery for Parkinson’s disease.

A History of Therapeutics in Parkinson s Disease

A History of Therapeutics in Parkinson s Disease Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1994
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download A History of Therapeutics in Parkinson s Disease book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Parkinson s Disease

Parkinson s Disease Book
Author : Sarat Chandra Yenisetti
Publisher : BoD – Books on Demand
Release : 2018-05-30
ISBN : 1789231523
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder results due to loss of dopamine producing brain cells. Knowledge relating to PD condition has been known since 5000BC, however no effective therapeutic strategies are available till today. Therefore it is important for neurobiologists to work further by taking advantage of modern scientific methods and develop appropriate therapeutic strategies. Efforts in this direction are worthy as they will reduce the burden of PD among elderly, who are already burdened with age related systemic degenerative processes. This book is a humble effort in that progressive direction. It has chapters covering multiple aspects relating to etiology, pathophysiology of PD, available and futuristic therapeutics strategies. Therefore it will be of interest to common man, biomedical researchers and clinicians. This is one small step in a direction "to reduce the burden of neurological disease."

Levodopa pharmacokinetics from stomach to brain

Levodopa pharmacokinetics  from stomach to brain Book
Author : Maria Nord
Publisher : Linköping University Electronic Press
Release : 2019-01-07
ISBN : 9176855570
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and it is caused by a loss of dopamine (DA) producing neurons in the basal ganglia in the brain. The PD patient suffers from motor symptoms such as tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity and treatment with levodopa (LD), the precursor of DA, has positive effects on these symptoms. Several factors affect the availability of orally given LD. Gastric emptying (GE) is one factor and it has been shown to be delayed in PD patients resulting in impaired levodopa uptake. Different enzymes metabolize LD on its way from the gut to the brain resulting in less LD available in the brain and more side effects from the metabolites. By adding dopa decarboxylase inhibitors (carbidopa or benserazide) or COMT-inhibitors (e.g. entacapone) the bioavailability of LD increases significantly and more LD can pass the blood-brain-barrier and be converted to DA in the brain. It has been considered of importance to avoid high levodopa peaks in the brain because this seems to induce changes in postsynaptic dopaminergic neurons causing disabling motor complications in PD patients. More continuously given LD, e.g. duodenal or intravenous (IV) infusions, has been shown to improve these motor complications. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN DBS) has also been proven to improve motor complications and to make it possible to reduce the LD dosage in PD patients. In this doctoral thesis the main purpose is to study the pharmacokinetics of LD in patients with PD and motor complications; in blood and subcutaneous tissue and study the effect of GE and PD stage on LD uptake and the effect of continuously given LD (CDS) on LD uptake and GE; in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) when adding the peripheral enzyme inhibitors entacapone and carbidopa to LD infusion IV; in brain during STN DBSand during oral or IV LD treatment. To conclude, LD uptake is more favorable in PD patients with less severe disease and GE is delayed in PD patients. No obvious relation between LD uptake and GE or between GE and PD stage is seen and CDS decreases the LD levels. Entacapone increases the maximal concentration of LD in blood and CSF. This is more evident with additional carbidopa and important to consider in avoiding high LD peaks in brain during PD treatment. LD in brain increases during both oral and IV LD treatment and the DA levels follows LD well indicating that PD patients still have capacity to metabolize LD to DA despite probable pronounced nigral degeneration. STN DBS seems to increase putaminal DA levels and together with IV LD treatment also increases LD in brain possibly explaining why it is possible to decrease LD medication after STN DBS surgery. Parkinsons sjukdom (PS) är en av de vanligaste s.k. neurodegenerativasjukdomarna och orsakas av förlust av dopamin(DA)producerande nervceller i hjärnan. Detta orsakar motoriska symptom såsom skakningar, stelhet och förlångsammade rörelser. Levodopa (LD) är ett ämne, som kan omvandlas till DA i hjärnan och ge symptomlindring och det är oftast förstahandsval vid behandling av patienter med PS. Flera faktorer påverkar tillgängligheten av LD, bl.a. den hastighet som magsäcken tömmer sig med och denna verkar förlångsammad hos personer med PS vilket ger sämre tillgänglighet av LD i blodet och därmed i hjärnan. LD bryts även ner i hög grad av olika enzym ute i kroppen vilket leder till mindre mängd LD som hamnar i hjärnan och till fler nedbrytningsprodukter som orsakar biverkningar. Tillägg av enzymhämmare leder till ökad mängd LD som kan nå hjärnan och omvandlas till DA. Det anses viktigt att undvika höga toppar av LD i hjärnan då dessa verkar bidra till utvecklandet av besvärliga motoriska komplikationer hos patienter med PS. Om LD ges mer kontinuerligt, exempelvis som en kontinuerlig infusion in i tarmen eller i blodet, så minskar dessa motoriska komplikationer. Inopererande av stimulatorer i vissa delar av hjärnan (DBS) har också visat sig minska dessa motoriska komplikationer och även resultera i att man kan minska LD-dosen. Huvudsyftet med den här avhandlingen är att studera LD hos patienter med PS; i blod och fettvävnad då LD ges i tablettform och se om det finns något samband med LD-upptag och hastigheten på magsäckstömningen (MT) och om kontinuerligt given LD påverkar LD-upptaget eller MT; i blod och i ryggmärgsvätska då enzymhämmarna entakapon och karbidopa tillsätts LD; i hjärna vid behandling med DBS och då LD ges både som tablett och som infusion i blodet. Sammanfattningsvis kan vi se att LD-upptaget är mer gynnsamt hos patienter med PS i tidigare skede av sjukdomens komplikationsfas. MT är förlångsammad hos patienter med PS och det är inget tydligt samband mellan LD-upptag och MT eller mellan MT och sjukdomsgrad. Kontinuerligt given LD minskar LDnivåerna. Enzymhämmaren entakapon ökar den maximala koncentrationen av LD i blod och ryggmärgsvätska och effekten är mer tydlig vid tillägg av karbidopa vilket är viktigt att ta i beaktande vid behandling av PS för att undvika höga toppar av LD i hjärnan. LD ökar i hjärnan då man behandlar med LD i tablettform och som infusion i blodet och DA-nivåerna i hjärnan följer LD väl vilket visar på att patienter med PS fortfarande kan omvandla LD till DA trots trolig uttalad brist av de DA-producerande nervcellerna i hjärnan. DBS verkar öka DA i vissa områden i hjärnan och tillsammans med LD-infusion i blodet verkar det även öka LD i hjärnan och det kan förklara varför man kan sänka LDdosen efter DBS-operation.

Etiology of Parkinson s Disease

Etiology of Parkinson s Disease Book
Author : Jonas H. Ellenberg,William C. Koller,James William Langston
Publisher : CRC Press
Release : 1995-03-01
ISBN : 9780824788230
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

This comprehensive reference provides a detailed overview of current concepts regarding the cause of Parkinson's disease-emphasizing the issues involved in the design, implementation, and analysis of epidemiological studies of parkinsonism.

An Essay on the Shaking Palsy

An Essay on the Shaking Palsy Book
Author : James Parkinson
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1817
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download An Essay on the Shaking Palsy book written by James Parkinson, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Parkinson s Disease

Parkinson s Disease Book
Author : Richard Nass,Serge Przedborski
Publisher : Elsevier
Release : 2011-04-28
ISBN : 9780080559582
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Parkinson’s disease is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and is characterized by the irreversible loss of dopamine neurons. Despite its high prevalence in society and many decades of research, the origin of the pathogenesis and the molecular determinants involved in the disorder has remained elusive. Confounding this issue is the lack of experimental models that completely recapitulate the disease state. The identification of a number of genes thought to play a role in the cell death, and development of both toxin and genetic models to explore the function of the genes both in unaffected and diseased cells are now providing new insights into the molecular basis of the neurodegeneration, as well as therapeutic approaches. In this reference, we will describe the advances and the advantages that various invertebrates, cell culture, rodents, and mammals provide in the identification of the molecular components and mechanisms involved in the cell death, and outline the opportunities that these systems provide in drug discovery. Comprehensive and critical assessment of the utility of various model systems to identify the molecular components and pathways involved in Parkinson’s disease Describes the power of toxin and genetic models to identify novel therapeutic targets and compounds that can be used in PD Current overviews of current status of PD research and discovery from bench-to-bedside Provides novel insights and views on where the future of PD research may lead Provides a powerful teaching tool and template to explore the utility of model systems to identify molecular pathways, molecular targets, and therapeutics that are applicable to a variety of neurological diseases

Parkinson s Disease Therapeutics

Parkinson   s Disease Therapeutics Book
Author : Magisetty Obulesu
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2020-01-30
ISBN : 0128198834
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Parkinson’s Disease Therapeutics: Emphasis on Nanotechnological Advances presents the latest information on the second most common neurodegenerative disorder in the elderly. Despite remarkable progress in various PD therapeutics, such as microRNAs and brain drug delivery systems, a few limitations impede their success. This book sheds light on the pros and cons of recently developed novel therapeutics. Very few books have highlighted the protective efficacy of natural products, antioxidants, and biomaterial design for other diseases. Emphasizes novel therapeutics for Parkinson’s disease, including nanotechnology, natural products and antioxidants Discusses the pros and cons of recently developed therapy options for Parkinson's Focuses on the efficacy of nanotechnology in overcoming the blood-brain barrier and biomaterial design

Disease Modifying Targets in Neurodegenerative Disorders

Disease Modifying Targets in Neurodegenerative Disorders Book
Author : Veerle Baekelandt,Evy Lobbestael
Publisher : Academic Press
Release : 2017-03-31
ISBN : 012805266X
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Disease-Modifying Targets in Neurodegenerative Disorders: Paving the Way for Disease-Modifying Therapies examines specific neurodegenerative disorders in comprehensive chapters written by experts in the respective fields. Each chapter contains a summary of the disease management field, subsequently elaborating on the molecular mechanisms and promising new targets for disease-modifying therapies. This overview is ideal for neuroscientists, biomedical researchers, medical doctors, and caregivers, not only providing readers with a summary of the way patients are treated today, but also offering a glance at the future of neurodegenerative disorder treatment. Provides a comprehensive overview of how key proteins in neurodegenerative disorders can be used as targets to modify disease progress Summarizes how patients are treated today, providing a glance at future disease management Includes intelligible and informative information that is perfect for non-specialists, medical practitioners, and scientists Written and peer reviewed by outstanding scientists in their respective fields

Prodromal Parkinson s Disease

Prodromal Parkinson   s Disease Book
Author : David Crosiers,Patrick Santens,K. Ray Chaudhuri
Publisher : Frontiers Media SA
Release : 2021-02-17
ISBN : 2889664899
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Prodromal Parkinson s Disease book written by David Crosiers,Patrick Santens,K. Ray Chaudhuri, available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Parkinson s Disease

Parkinson s Disease Book
Author : Anonim
Publisher : Unknown
Release : 1994
ISBN : 0987650XXX
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Download Parkinson s Disease book written by , available in PDF, EPUB, and Kindle, or read full book online anywhere and anytime. Compatible with any devices.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Parkinson s Disease State of the Art

Diagnosis and Treatment of Parkinson   s Disease     State of the Art Book
Author : Horst Przuntek,Thomas Müller
Publisher : Springer Science & Business Media
Release : 2013-12-01
ISBN : 3709163609
Language : En, Es, Fr & De

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Book Description :

Expert clinicians and basic scientists with a special interest in Parkinson’s disease review the current state of science and clinical therapeutics of the disease. Therefore these articles represent an authorative review of the current state of knowledge regarding preclinical course and symptomatology, subtypes with their impact on the pathology, genetic alterations, novel mechanisms of neuronal cell death, diagnostic tools and old and novel therapeutic approaches with respect to neuroprotection and neuroregeneration in Parkinson’s disease. Particular emphasis has been placed on a novel antiparkinsonian drug called budipine with various modes of action also influencing altered non dopaminergic systems in Parkinson’s disease. It is evident, that many questions on the cause, course and treatment of Parkinson’s disease are still unanswered and therefore the ideal way to treat a parkinsonian patient remains to be defined.